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NIACINAMIDE

Synonyms:
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Nicotinamide (Niacinamide)

 

Consumer Drug Information
License data US DailyMed: Niacinamide
Pregnancy category US: C (Risk not ruled out) [1]
Routes of administration by mouth, topical
ATC code A11HA01 (WHO)

 

Identifiers Niacinamide

 

CAS Number 98-92-0 ☑
PubChem CID 936
DrugBank DB02701
ChemSpider 911
UNII 25X51I8RD4
KEGG D00036
CHEBI 17154
ChEMBL ChEMBL1140

 

 

Chemical and physical data Niacinamide
Formula C6H6N2O
Molar mass 122.127 g·mol-1
Density 1.40 g/cm3[2] g/cm3
Melting point 129.5 °C (265.1 °F)
Boiling point 334 °C (633 °F)

 

 

Nicotinamide (Niacinamide)
Nicotinamide (NAM), also known as niacinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication.[3][4][5] As a supplement, it is used by mouth to prevent and treat pellagra (niacin deficiency).[4] While nicotinic acid (niacin) may be used for this purpose, nicotinamide has the benefit of not causing skin flushing.[4] As a cream, it is used to treat acne.[5]
Side effects are minimal.[6][7] At high doses liver problems may occur.[6] Normal amounts are safe for use during pregnancy.[1] Nicotinamide is in the vitamin B family of medications, specifically the vitamin B3 complex.[8][9] It is an amide of nicotinic acid.[6] Foods that contain nicotinamide include yeast, meat, milk, and green vegetables.[10]
Nicotinamide was discovered between 1935 and 1937.[11][12] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[13] Nicotinamide is available as a generic medication and over the counter.[8] In the United Kingdom a 60 g tube costs the NHS about £7.10.[5] Commercially, nicotinamide is made from either nicotinic acid or nicotinonitrile.[12][14] In a number of countries grains have nicotinamide added to them.
Niacinamide is the active form of vitamin B3 and a component of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Niacinamide acts as a chemo- and radio-sensitizing agent by enhancing tumor blood flow, thereby reducing tumor hypoxia. This agent also inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, enzymes involved in the rejoining of DNA strand breaks induced by radiation or chemotherapy.

 

Nicotinamide- Niacinamide is a pyridinecarboxamide that is pyridine in which the hydrogen at position 3 is replaced by a carboxamide group. It has a role as an EC 2.4.2.30 (NAD(+) ADP-ribosyltransferase) inhibitor, a metabolite, a cofactor, an antioxidant, a neuroprotective agent, an EC 3.5.1.98 (histone deacetylase) inhibitor, an anti-inflammatory agent, a Sir2 inhibitor, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite, an Escherichia coli metabolite and a mouse metabolite. It is a pyridinecarboxamide and a pyridine alkaloid. It derives from a nicotinic acid.

Niacin and niacinamide are used to prevent niacin deficiency and to treat pellagra. Some clinicians prefer niacinamide for the treatment of pellagra because it lacks vasodilating effects. Pellagra may result from dietary deficiency, isoniazid therapy, or from decreased conversion of tryptophan to niacin in Hartnup disease or carcinoid tumors. /Included in US product label/

 

Although niacin and niacinamide have not been shown by well-controlled trials to have therapeutic value, the drugs have been used for the management of schizophrenic disorder, drug-induced hallucinations, chronic brain syndrome, hyperkinesis, unipolar depression, motion sickness, alcohol dependence, livedoid vasculitis, acne, and leprosy. /NOT included in US product label/
Medical uses
Niacin deficiency
Nicotinamide-Niacinamide is the preferred treatment for pellagra, caused by niacin deficiency.[4] While niacin may be used, nicotinamide has the benefit of not causing skin flushing.[4]

 

 

Acne
Nicotinamide-Niacinamide cream is used as a treatment for acne.[5] It has anti-inflammatory actions, which may benefit people with inflammatory skin conditions.[15]

 

Nicotinamide-Niacinamide increases the biosynthesis of ceramides in human keratinocytes in vitro and improves the epidermal permeability barrier in vivo.[16] The application of 2% topical nicotinamide for 2 and 4 weeks has been found to be effective in lowering the sebum excretion rate.[17] Nicotinamide has been shown to prevent Cutibacterium acnes-induced activation of toll-like receptor 2, which ultimately results in the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 production.[18]

 

Skin cancer Niacinamide
Nicotinamide-Niacinamide at doses of 500 to 1000mg a day decreases the risk of skin cancers, other than melanoma, in those at high risk.[19]

 

 

Side effects Niacinamide
Nicotinamide has minimal side effects.[6][7] At high doses liver problems may occur.[6] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.[1]

 

 

Chemistry-Niacinamide
The structure of nicotinamide consists of a pyridine ring to which a primary amide group is attached in the meta position. It is an amide of nicotinic acid.[6] As an aromatic compound, it undergoes electrophilic substitution reactions and transformations of its two functional groups. Examples of these reactions reported in Organic Syntheses include the preparation of 2-chloronicotinonitrile by a two-step process via the N-oxide from nicotinonitrile by reaction with phosphorus pentoxide,[22] and from 3-aminopyridine by reaction with a solution of sodium hypobromite, prepared in situ from bromine and sodium hydroxide

 

 

Industrial production of Niacinamide
The hydrolysis of nicotinonitrile is catalysed by the enzyme nitrile hydratase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1,[24][25][14] producing 3500 tons per annum of nicotinamide for use in animal feed.[26] The enzyme allows for a more selective synthesis as further hydrolysis of the amide to nicotinic acid is avoided.[27][28] Nicotinamide can also be made from nicotinic acid. According to Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, worldwide 31,000 tons of nicotinamide were sold in 2014.[12]

 

Biochemistry Nicotinamide

 

The active Nicotinamide group on the molecule NAD+ undergoes oxidation in many metabolic pathways.
Nicotinamide, as a part of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH / NAD+) is crucial to life. In cells, nicotinamide is incorporated into NAD+ and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+). NAD+ and NADP+ are coenzymes in a wide variety of enzymatic oxidation-reduction reactions, most notably glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.[29] If humans ingest nicotinamide, it will likely undergo a series of reactions that transform it into NAD, which can then undergo a transformation to form NADP+. This method of creation of NAD+ is called a salvage pathway. However, the human body can produce NAD+ from the amino acid tryptophan and niacin without our ingestion of nicotinamide.[30]

 

NAD+ acts as an electron carrier that helps with the interconversion of Niacinamide energy between nutrients and the cell's energy currency, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In oxidation-reduction reactions, the active part of the coenzyme is the nicotinamide. In NAD+, the nitrogen in the aromatic nicotinamide ring is covalently bonded to adenine dinucleotide. The formal charge on the nitrogen is stabilized by the shared electrons of the other carbon atoms in the aromatic ring. When a hydride atom is added onto NAD+ to form NADH, the molecule loses its aromaticity, and therefore a good amount of stability. This higher energy product later releases its energy with the release of a hydride, and in the case of the electron transport chain, it assists in forming adenosine triphosphate.[31]

When one mole of NADH is oxidized, 158.2 kJ of energy will be released.[31]

 

Biological role
Nicotinamide occurs as a component of a variety of biological systems, including within the vitamin B family and specifically the vitamin B3 complex.[8][9] It is also a critically important part of the structures of NADH and NAD+, where the N-substituted aromatic ring in the oxidised NAD+ form undergoes reduction with hydride attack to form NADH.[29] The NADPH/NADP+ structures have the same ring, and are involved in similar biochemical reactions.

 

 

Food sources Nicotinamide-Niacinamide
Nicotinamide occurs in trace amounts mainly in meat, fish, nuts, and mushrooms, as well as to a lesser extent in some vegetables.[32] It is commonly added to cereals and other foods. Many multivitamins contain 20-30 mg of vitamin B3 and it is also available in higher doses.[33]

 

 

Compendial status Niacinamide- Nicotinamide
British Pharmacopoeia[34]
Japanese Pharmacopoeia[35]

 

 

Research-Niacinamide 
A 2015 trial found nicotinamide to reduce the rate of new nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses in a group of people at high risk for the conditions.[36]
Nicotinamide has been investigated for many additional disorders, including treatment of bullous pemphigoid nonmelanoma skin cancers.[37]
Niacinamide may be beneficial in treating psoriasis.[38]
There is tentative evidence for a potential role of nicotinamide in treating acne, rosacea, autoimmune blistering disorders, ageing skin, and atopic dermatitis.[37] Niacinamide also inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP-1), enzymes involved in the rejoining of DNA strand breaks induced by radiation or chemotherapy.[39] ARCON (accelerated radiotherapy plus carbogen inhalation and nicotinamide) has been studied in cancer.[40]

 

 


What is niacinamide?
Niacinamide, also called nicotinamide, is a form of vitamin B-3, an essential nutrient. A B-3 deficiency can lead to disorders of the skin, kidneys, and brain. Taking niacinamide can help prevent B-3 deficiency.

 

And there's much more to this nutrient, especially when it comes to general skin health. Although more research is needed, topical niacinamide may help treat certain skin conditions, including acne and eczema.

Read on to learn more about its benefits, what to look for in products, and more.

 

Is this the same thing as niacin?
Despite the similarities in names, niacinamide isn't the same thing as niacin. They're two different types of vitamin B-3.

 

However, your body can make niacinamide from niacin supplements you've taken. This happens when there's an excessive amount of niacin in the body. Tryptophan in the body can also be converted into niacinamide.

You should always talk to a doctor before taking vitamin B-3 or other supplements.

 

What benefits does niacinamide offer?
Overall, niacinamide can help build proteins in the skin and lock in moisture to prevent environmental damage.

 

Individual benefits include:

 

Immunity. Niacinamide helps build keratinTrusted Source, a type of protein that keeps your skin firm and healthy.
Lipid barrier. Niacinamide can help your skin grow a ceramide (lipid) barrierTrusted Source, which can, in turn, helps retain moisture. This is beneficial for all skin types, especially if you have eczema or mature skin.
Minimizes redness and blotchiness. Niacinamide reduces inflammationTrusted Source, which may help ease redness from eczema, acne, and other inflammatory skin conditions.
Minimizes pore appearance. Keeping skin smooth and moisturizedTrusted Source may have a secondary benefit - a natural reduction in pore size over time.
Regulates oil. The benefits of moisture retention aren't just for those with dry skin types. Niacinimide can also help regulate the amount of oil the sebaceous glands produce and prevent your glands from going into overdrive.
Protects against sun damage. Niacinamide can concurrently rebuild healthy skin cells while also protecting them from damage caused by ultraviolet rays.
Treats hyperpigmentation. Some research has found 5 percent niacinamide concentrations can be helpful in lightening dark spots.

 

 

Benefits were seen after four weeks, but not beyond two months. This benefit may be due to increased collagen production.
Minimizes fine lines and wrinkles. Research has also found that the same concentration was helpful in reducing some signs of sun damage that come with aging. This includes fine lines and wrinkles.
Protects against oxidative stress. Niacinamide helps build cells in the skin while also protecting them from environmental stresses, such as sunlight, pollution, and toxins.

 

Eating a balanced diet is the best way to get micronutrients like vitamin B-3. You should only take supplements under medical supervision to treat deficiency.

When it comes to general skin health, you may obtain some of the benefits of niacinamide from the foods that you eat.

Vitamin B-3 is found in Niacinamide:

 

eggs
cereals
green veggies
beans
fish
milk
However, there's no way to guarantee that the nutrients in your diet are impacting your overall skin health. The only way to ensure that niacinamide is targeting your skin care concerns is to use it topically.

 

 

Does the type of skin care product matter or when it's used in your routine?
Many topical niacinamide products come in the form of serums. Think of serums as extra treatments that address individual skin concerns outside of regular cleansing, toning, and moisturizing.

 

Your niacinamide serum should be applied after toning but before moisturizing.

Some cleansers and creams also contain niacinamide. This ingredient is also found in some face masks, which are rinsed off after each use.

Read each product label carefully and follow all instructions for use.

 

Can niacinamide be combined with other skin care ingredients for maximum effect?
Niacinamide may be used alongside other active ingredients for optimal results.

 

For example,Niacinamide some reports suggest that supplemental niacinamide may work well alongside copper, folic acid, and zinc to treat acne.

You may be able to get more out of your niacinamide serum by using it alongside hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is said to increase product absorption.

 

Is there any risk of side effects Niacinamide ?
Topical niacinamide is generally considered safe to use.

 

People who have preexisting allergies may be more likely to experience an allergic reaction. This is because niacinamide can cause your body to release histamine.

You can avoid widespread allergic reactions and product sensitivities by doing a patch test:

 

Apply a dime-sized amount of product on your forearm.
Wait 24 hours.
If you begin to experience redness, itching, or swelling, wash the area and discontinue use.
If you don't experience any side effects, it should be safe to apply elsewhere.
What results can you expect?
As with any new skin care product, you probably won't see any significant results for several weeks.

 

Although Niacinamide most of the available research describes noticeable improvements after four weeks of use, there's no exact timeline.

You may see even more changes to your skin after eight weeks. This includes smoother, toned, and hydrated skin.

If you don't see any changes within a couple of months, it may be time to consult with a dermatologist. They can assess your skin care routine and advise you on which products to use, dietary changes that may improve your skin health, and more.

 

The bottom line Niacinamide
When used topically every day, niacinamide may have a positive impact on your overall skin health. The ingredient can help reduce inflammation and hyperpigmentation, smooth your overall skin texture, and brighten your skin.

 

It can take several weeks to see noticeable improvement, so it's important to be patient and to stick with your routine.

You should not take niacinamide supplements unless your doctor or other healthcare provider prescribes them to treat a B-3 deficiency or other underlying condition.

 

HEALTHLINE RESOURCE Niacinamide
Get the vitamins you need through food
Find out how much A, B, C, D, E, and K you need each day - and where to get them. Download our free guide to reference when you're grocery shopping or preparing meals.

 

 


Treats acne. Niacinamide may be helpful for severe acne, especially inflammatory forms like papules and pustules. Over time, you may see fewer lesions and improved skin texture.

 

Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) is indicated to reduce the appearance of skin blemishes and congestion. A high 10% concentration of this vitamin is supported in the formula by zinc salt of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid to balance visible aspects of sebum activity.

Contraindications: If topical Vitamin C (L-Ascorbic Acid and/or Ethylated L-Ascorbic Acid) is used as part of skincare, it should be applied at alternate times with this formula (ideally Vitamin C in the PM and this formula in the AM). Otherwise, Niacinamide can affect integrity of the Vitamin C.

 

Notes: While Niacinamide and Zinc PCA reduce the look of blemishes and balance visible sebum activity, neither is a treatment for acne. For persistent acne-related conditions, we recommend the use of Benzoyl Peroxide and/or Retinoic Acid. DECIEM doesn't recommend ongoing use of BHA such as Salicylic Acid for persistent blemishes. For temporary improvement in appearance of blemishes, Salicylic Acid would help. This formulation can be used alongside acne treatments if desired for added visible skin benefits.
Independent studies suggest Niacinamide is also an effective ingredient for brightening skin tone.

 

 

Niacinamide Directions
Apply to entire face morning and evening before heavier creams. If irritation occurs, cease use and consult a physician. Use only as directed on unbroken skin. Patch testing prior to use is advised. Refer to our in-depth guide to patch testing. Keep out of reach of children.

 

 

Niacinamide Ingredients
Aqua (Water), Niacinamide, Pentylene Glycol, Zinc PCA, Dimethyl Isosorbide, Tamarindus Indica Seed Gum, Xanthan gum, Isoceteth-20, Ethoxydiglycol, Phenoxyethanol, Chlorphenesin.

 

 

Our formulations are updated from time to time as part of our commitment to innovation. As such, the ingredient list shown here may vary from the box of the product depending on time and region of purchase
ou may not have heard of the ingredient niacinamide-a form of vitamin B3-by name, but chances are you've already used it on your face. The ingredient has been a staple in skin-care products for literally years, but has recently come into the spotlight as a shining star, particularly for those prone to breakouts, or for sensitive skin types. Niacinamide is also water-soluble, which makes it an easy ingredient to be added into cleansers, serums, creams or sunscreen, Shasa Hu, M.D., F.A.A.D, co-founder of BIA Life, and associate professor of dermatology at Miami University tells SELF.

 

Niacinamide has anti-inflammatory properties which, when applied topically, help minimize the impact of acne, and moderate rosacea. If that wasn't impressive enough, the ingredient can also neutralize free radical damage, helping to prevent skin cancer as well as fine lines and wrinkles in the process. "The amount of niacinamide in products varies in formulations, and depends on what other ingredients are in the product," says Marnie B. Nussbaum, M.D., Clinical Instructor of Dermatology at Weill Cornell Medical College. "There are topical formulations ranging from two percent to 10 percent."

If you're considering trying Niacinamide out at home but unsure where to start, check out some of these over-the-counter niacinamide products dermatologists swear by.

 

All products featured on SELF are independently selected by our editors. If you buy something through our retail links, we may earn an affiliate commission.
ou may not have heard of the ingredient niacinamide-a form of vitamin B3-by name, but chances are you've already used it on your face. The ingredient has been a staple in skin-care products for literally years, but has recently come into the spotlight as a shining star, particularly for those prone to breakouts, or for sensitive skin types. Niacinamide is also water-soluble, which makes it an easy ingredient to be added into cleansers, serums, creams or sunscreen, Shasa Hu, M.D., F.A.A.D, co-founder of BIA Life, and associate professor of dermatology at Miami University tells SELF.
Niacinamide has anti-inflammatory properties which, when applied topically, help minimize the impact of acne, and moderate rosacea. If that wasn't impressive enough, the ingredient can also neutralize free radical damage, helping to prevent skin cancer as well as fine lines and wrinkles in the process. "The amount of niacinamide in products varies in formulations, and depends on what other ingredients are in the product," says Marnie B. Nussbaum, M.D., Clinical Instructor of Dermatology at Weill Cornell Medical College. "There are topical formulations ranging from two percent to 10 percent."

 

 

If you're considering trying it out at home but unsure where to start, check out some of these over-the-counter niacinamide products dermatologists swear by.
All products featured on SELF are independently selected by our editors. If you buy something through our retail links, we may earn an affiliate commission.

 

 

There are a lot of heavy duty skin care ingredients that can seriously transform the skin, but stealthy improvement is easier to achieve, and usually comes with fewer risks. That's why I want to shine a light on niacinamide, a fascinating skin care ingredient that can improve almost any skin concern, with virtually no potential side effects.
Unlike many other ingredients that cosmetics brands like to rave about in their marketing, there is actually a ton of research behind niacinamide that shows just how well it works. It is a magical ingredient that anyone will find useful. In this article, I'll tell you all about it " how niacinamide works, what it treats, how to add it to your skin care routine, and which are the best niacinamide products you can try.

 

 

What Is Niacinamide?
Niacinamide is also known as vitamin B3, or nicotinic acid. In the body, Niacinamide vitamin B3 is important for a variety of functions, including converting food into energy, maintaining blood circulation, keeping the liver, skin, hair and eyes healthy, and suppressing inflammation.

 

When applied topically to the skin, however, niacinamide acts as an antioxidant and improves a variety of cosmetic skin concerns. In skin care, the vitamin B3 usually comes from synthetic sources, although natural sources of it are primarily meat and fish.

 

What Skin Concerns Does Niacinamide Target?
• Restores compromised skin barrier functions, which look like flakey, dehydrated, or irritated skin.

 

• Reduces facial redness and flushing.

• Brightens dull skin tone.

• Fades surface hyperpigmentation, especially when caused by acne.

• Acts as an antioxidant to slow down the aging process and prevent free radical damage.

• Improves skin elasticity, and reduces fine lines and wrinkles.

• Minimizes the look of pores.

• Calms and reduces active acne.

• Keeps the skin looking matte.

What is interesting is that we do not fully understand exactly how niacinamide works " we just know that it does work, based on clinical trials. For example, niacinamide restores the skin's barrier functions both by acting as an antioxidant, as well as by increasing cell turnover rate, and natural lipid production. It likely reduces wrinkles by increasing collagen production, and reduces pigmentation by controlling the amount of pigment that is transferred from melanocytes to the skin.

The one that really has me in a doozy is niacinamide's mattifying ability. Hundreds of people report a decrease in oil production in their skin after using niacinamide, even though there is no mechanism that explains how this might occur.

 

How Quickly Does Niacinamide Work?
Research conducted by Proctor and Gamble showed that after 12 weeks a product with 5% niacinamide was able to improve the appearance of various signs of skin aging, including skin elasticity, pigmentation, lines and wrinkles, and redness.

 

Another study, on acne, showed an improvement in just over 80% of the participants, after 8 weeks. So don't be impatient! Use your niacinamide regularly, and know that it might take 2 or 3 months to see noticeable improvement.

 

Side Effects, Risks, or Concerns of Niacinamide
• Those with very sensitive skin might find themselves reacting to niacinamide at high concentrations. Possible reactions include facial flushing, and mild irritation. Reducing the percentage at which you use niacinamide, or using it less often should help.

 

• Some people are allergic to niacinamide. This usually manifests as redness, flushing, itching, or small (non-acne) bumps. If this occurs, stop using niacinamide.

• While generally non-comedogenic, Niacinamide some people do find that niacinamide breaks them out.

 

How Should I Introduce Niacinamide Into My Skin Care Routine?
As always, begin by conducting a patch test. Apply the niacinamide product of your choice to a small area of skin every day, for a few days in a row. If no adverse reaction occurs, you can keep going.

 

Once you fully introduce niacinamide into your skincare routine, the time when you apply it depends on what else you are using, and what kind of texture it comes in. Since niacinamide is effective at a relatively higher pH, you definitely want to use it after your pH dependent actives, like AHA, BHA, or vitamin C.

In fact, your routine could be as simple as cleansing, and applying a moisturizer with niacinamide, or it could be as complex as cleansing, toning, applying chemical exfoliant, applying another active, applying a serum with niacinamide, and then a moisturizer or two. This is totally up to you.

While niacinamide does not make the skin photosensitive, I think it defeats the purpose to use it while simultaneously not taking protective measures against sun exposure.

 

Can I Pair Vitamin C with Niacinamide?
The short answer is yes. The long answer is also yes, but with some care. Products that contain both vitamin C and niacinamide might cause the skin to flush on contact, but this reaction does not harm the skin and goes away after about 20 minutes.

 

This kind of reaction is much less likely to occur when the vitamin C and niacinamide are present in two different products. However, if you do notice a reaction, you may choose to use the products separately, using one during the day and another in the evening.

 

Finding The Best Niacinamide Skin Care Products
For skin care product with niacinamide to truly have an impact on the skin, it must be present in the formula at an effective concentration. Between 2% to 5% is enough to really make a difference, without irritating the skin.

 

Usually, this means that you want niacinamide to be the 4th or 5th ingredient on the ingredients list. I have selected the best niacinamide products on the market, at different price points, and I guarantee they all contain an adequate amount of this incredible ingredient.

 

1. CeraVe Facial Moisturizing Niacinamide Lotion PM
CeraVe finds its way into almost any skin care compilation, because they make some of the best products in general, and some of the best niacinamide products, specifically. This nighttime moisturizer has 4% niacinamide, as well as a few other skin mimicking and hydrating ingredients like ceramides and hyaluronic acid.

 

It is super easy to integrate into one's routine, because it doesn't add an extra skin care step to your routine. It has a light texture that penetrates quickly into the skin, and it works well for both oily and dry skin types (and anyone in between).

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