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OLUS OIL (AND) HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL

OLUS OIL (AND) HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL
CAS NO 68334-28-1

METATAGS: C14 - C20 Triglycerides and vegetable wax; EINECS 269-820-6; Hydrogenated mixed vegetable oils; Hydrogenated vegetable oil; Mixed vegetable oil, hydrogenated; Mixed vegetable oils, hydrogenated; Vegetable oils, hydrogenated; Fats and Glyceridic oils; vegetable; hydrogenated Oils; vegetable, hydrogenated; BİTKİSEL YAĞ; BİTKİSEL; BİTKİ; HİDROJEN; HİDROJENLENMİŞ; HİDROJENLENMİŞ BİTKİSEL; HİDROJELİ BİTKİSEL; HİDROJENLENMİŞ BİTKİSEL YAĞ; HİDROJENLİ BİTKİSEL YAĞ; BİTKİSEL YAĞ; BİTKİLİ YAĞ; OLUS YAĞI; OLUS YAĞ; OLUS YAG; OLUS YAGI; Olus Yağı (ve) Hidrojenlenmiş Bitkisel Yağ; OLUS; OIL; OİL; HYDROGENATED; VEGETABLE, HIDROGENATED VEGETABLE, VEGETABLE OIL; HIDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL; HİDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL HİDROGENATED VEGETABLE OİL; OLUS OIL (AND) HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL; OLUS OİL (AND) HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OİL; OLUS OIL HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL; OLUS OİL HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OİL; bitkisel yağ; bitkisel; bitki; hidrojen; hidrojenlenmiş; hidrojenlenmiş bitkisel; hidrojeli bitkisel; hidrojenlenmiş bitkisel yağ; hidrojenli bitkisel yağ; bitkisel yağ; bitkili yağ; olus yağı; olus yağ; olus yag; olus yagı; olus yağı (ve) hidrojenlenmiş bitkisel yağ; olus; oıl; oil; hydrogenated; vegetable, hıdrogenated vegetable, vegetable oıl; hıdrogenated vegetable oıl; hidrogenated vegetable oıl hidrogenated vegetable oil; olus oıl (and) hydrogenated vegetable oıl; olus oil (and) hydrogenated vegetable oil; olus oıl hydrogenated vegetable oıl; olus oil hydrogenated vegetable oil; Edible vegetable oil; EINECS 273-313-5; HSDB 5154; Salad oil; Vegetable oil; Viscoleo oil; EDİBLE VEGETABLE OİL; EINECS 273-313-5; HSDB 5154; SALAD OİL; VEGETABLE OİL; VİSCOLEO OİL


PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
PRODUCT

Olus Oil & Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil & Candelilla Cera Wax

TYPICAL PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
APPEARANCE

Yellowish, waxy solid

Used in the preparation of sticks in decorative cosmetics and cosmetic skin care emulsions.
CLASS
Personal Care - Cosmetic Ingredients, Emulsifiers

Home Personal Care & Cosmetics Cegesoft® VP
Cegesoft® VP
Company:
BASF
INCI Name:
Olus Oil (and) Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (and) Euphorbia Cerifera (Candelilla) Wax
DOCUMENTS
Cegesoft® VP Datasheet
Cegesoft® The Vegetable Oils
Choosing the Right Emollient
COSMOS Organic and Natural Standard 3.0 and BASF Personal Care Solutions
NaTrue Guidelines and Formulations
Our COSMOS Approved Products
FORMULATIONS
Cleansing Butter (Formulation #HB-RU-18-AC-09-02)
Cung Cap Nuoc Gel Cream (Formulation #SC-DE-18-151-15)
Dry Skin Emollient Stick Maintain the Skin Barrier (Formulation #SC-DE-17-102-24)
Gourmet Body Balm (Formulation #SC-FR-16-005-A004)
Hydra-Protect Body Balm (Formulation #SC-FR-16-005-A004)
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REGULATORY & ADVISORY STATUS
NAME (CAS NUMBER)
Candelilla wax (8006-44-8)
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Fats and Glyceridic oils, vegetable (68956-68-3)
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Oils, vegetable, hydrogenated (68334-28-1)
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COMPANY
BASF offers one of the most comprehensive ingredients portfolios in the personal care industry. We provide the resources of a global industry leader along with the consumer insights and innovative drive our customers expect. Our high-quality product range includes surfactants, emulsifiers, polymers, emollients, cosmetic active ingredients, UV filters, thickeners, protein products and lipid layer enhancers. With production and development sites as well as sales and marketing offices all over the world, we offer our customers the winning combination of global reach, technological excellence and formulation expertise. Our focus on consumer trends, specific industry requirements and ability to innovate and bring new products rapidly to the market contribute strongly to the success of our customers - and make BASF a valued partner for the personal care industry.

Company Documents
BASF Personal Care Raw Material Guide
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tiendas autorizadas freshly
ALL THE INGREDIENTS USED TO PREPARE OUR PRODUCTS ARE CAREFULLY SELECTED
OLUS OIL
OLUS OIL
INCI: Olus Oil

Extraction: vegetable oil composed mainly of triglycerides of fatty acids.

Benefits: softens and soothes skin, which is why it is used in most cosmetic products. It is an excellent emollient and moisturizer and forms a barrier over the skin to prevent the loss of hydration. Suitable for dry and sensitive skin.

PRODUCTS CONTAINING THIS INGREDIENT
Detox Revitalizing Body ScrubDetox Revitalizing Body Scrub
Detox Revitalizing Body Scrub
Natural body scrub - 150ml
18,00 €
ADD TO BAG
Body Flame Firming CreamBody Flame Firming Cream
Body Flame Firming Cream


GARDENIA
GERANIOL
GINGER Eco ECO
GINKGO BILOBA Eco ECO
GINSENG
GLUCONOLACTONE
GLUCOSE
GLYCERYL CAPRYLATE
GLYCERYL CITRATE/LACTATE/LINOLEATE/OLEATE
GLYCERYL OLEATE
GLYCERYL STEARATE
GLYCERYL STERATE CITRATE
GLYCERYL UNDECYLENATE
GOJI BERRIES Eco ECO
GOTU KOLA
GRAPE SEED OIL
GRAPEFRUIT
GRAPEFRUIT (PEEL)
GREEN ALGAE
GREEN TEA
GRIFFONIA SIMPLICIFOLIA
GYPSOPHILA PANICULATA
GYPSY HERB
H
HALYMENIA DURVILLEI
HAZELNUT OIL
HAZELNUT OIL Eco ECO
HECTORITE
HOLY BASIL
HORSE TAIL
HYDRATED SILICA
HYDROGENATED PALM GLYCERIDES CITRATE
HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL
HYDROLYZED CAESALPINIA SPINOSA GUM
HYDROLYZED WHEAT PROTEIN
HYDROLYZED YEAST EXTRACT
HYDROXYCITRONELLAL

OAT FLOUR
OATS
OIL SERUM NATURAL PERFUME
OILSEED RAPE
OLEIC ACID
OLEIC/LINOLEIC/LINOLENIC POLYGLYCERIDES
OLIVE OIL
OLIVE OIL Eco ECO
OLIVE OIL ESTERS
OLUS OIL
ORANGE
ORANGE NATURAL AROMA
ORANGE PEEL
ORCHID
ORYZANOL

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functional ingredients
As a formulator or manufacturer, you
know that cosmetic innovation is not
only about identifying entirely new
sources, ingredients or formulations.
It is also about finding new ways
to use, improve or replace parts of
them, inspired by evolving demands
from consumers, society and
regulators. A task more easily
accomplished when working with
a knowledgeable partner.
Specialists in lipids
for more than a century
At AAK Personal Care we develop
high-performance, active, functional
and natural based lipids for use in
skin care, hair care, colour cosmetics
and other personal care products.
With more than 100 years of experience working with vegetable oils,
AAK's expertise is unequalled. Our
science-based product development,
technical expertise and technological
know-how are highly regarded and
a guarantee for consistently high
quality.
When natural, functional, stable
and sustainable matter
Today our specialised knowledge
in lipid ingredients brings highly
appreciated benefits to local, regional
and global cosmetic brands. All our
ingredients originate from renewable,
natural sources and are carefully
processed to achieve desired
functionality and stability, while
manufactured with low energyprocessing methods to reduce their
ecological footprint.
Formulators especially appreciate
our ingredients for their track record
concerning functionality, safety,
stability and sustainability.
Supporting your innovation
The development of unique
ingredients is one way we help you
to stay aligned with global trends.
But we don't stop there.
To fully support your innovation
process we provide ever-important
technical support, claims substantiation, idea proposals and knowledge
sharing. Together with our focus on
functionality, this makes us ideally
suited to help you create more
specialised and sustainable cosmetics that consumers are looking
for - your masterpieces in the
making.
Bioactives 4
Emollients 6
Surfactants 10
Structuring Agents 11
Emulsifiers 12
AAK ACADEMYTM 13
Approvals and Certifications 14
Application advice 15
Eco-design 17
‘The Art of Oils'
Some define art as the human capacity to create through
imaginative or technical skill. At AAK Personal Care we
use our technological know-how and skills to bring out
the superb functionality of lipids found in renewable oils.
We call it ‘The Art of Oils'.
Best Sustainable
Ingredient 2014
NPA Industry Champion
Award 2015
Lipex
SheaLightTM
personal care
New!
Lipex SheaLiquidTM TR
from a traceable
supply chain
4 5
naturally-derived bioactive lipids
bioactives
When it comes to protecting skin
against environmental stress and
premature ageing, our naturally-derived
bioactives have proven very powerful.
Even in small doses, these ingredients
have demonstrated large benefits
through excellent anti-inflammatory
and collagen protecting properties.
Utilising the bioactivity
of minor lipids
Our anti-ageing bioactives are
scientifically developed to utilise the
inherent bioactivity of the minor
lipids found in sustainable sources
of canola oil and shea butter. Using
our soft processing and unique
AAK patented fractionation technology, we have been able to develop
and manufacture exceptional bioactive ingredients.
Our bioactives feature high concentrations of anti-oxidative natural
tocopherols (Vitamin E), antiinflammatory phytosterols and their
esters, as well as triterpene esters
appreciated for their skin protecting
and revitalising properties.
Well-documented functionality
and skin tolerance
Lipex bioactives are wellcharacterised lipophilic ingredients
for safe use within personal care
applications. The lipophilic nature
makes them readily bioavailable and
highly functional, allowing low-use
concentrations. Their good skin
tolerance with documented
non-irritancy and non-sensitising
properties make them well suited for
high-end facial skin care, sensitive
skin and dermo-cosmetic applications. The high stability profile further
allows for applications within caring
colour cosmetics.
By including a natural based
Lipex bioactive in your formulations,
you can more easily meet the
objective of well-protected and
younger-looking skin.
Products
Lipex SheaTrisTM
Lipex CellectTM
Description/Applications
Shea butter triterpene ester
concentrate. Long-term protection
against environmental stress.
Protection against premature ageing.
Triterpene ester content 50-65%.
Skin care and makeup.
Canola based phytosterol
concentrate. Helps to supplement
skin lipids. Protects against premature
ageing. Phytosterol ester content 45%.
Skin care and makeup.
Documented
Functionality
Barrier strengthening
(in vitro, ex vivo)
Collagen protecting
(in vitro, ex vivo)
Anti-inflammatory (in vitro)
Anti-inflammatory (in vitro)
INCI (EU)
Butyrospermum
Parkii
Butter Extract
Phytosteryl Canola
Glycerides
Use level
0,3-0,5%
0,5-2%
Bioactives
6 7
emollients
Products
(Origin)
INCI (EU) Description/Applications Use level
Solids
Performance Emollients
Lipex
CocoaSoftTM
(Cocoa)
Lipex IllipeSoftTM
(Illipe)
Lipex 102TM
(Shea)
Lipex 106TM
(Illipe)
Cocoa butter with optimised melting profile.
Improved heat stability and crystallisation
properties versus traditional cocoa butter.
Skin care.
Illipe butter with optimised melting profile.
Improved heat stability and crystallisation
properties versus traditional illipe butter.
Skin care.
Refined and deodorised shea butter.
Low colour and odour. Skin care.
Refined and deodorised illipe butter of the
Dayaks of Borneo. Low colour and odour.
Skin care.
Theobroma Cacao
Seed Butter
Shorea Stenoptera
Seed Butter
Butyrospermum

Products
(Origin)
INCI (EU) Description/Applications Use level
Lipex PreActTM
(Canola)
Canola oil with unique composition of natural
tocopherols (vitamin E) and phytosterols.
Documented protection of skin proteins and
lipids against photo oxidation and free radicals.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Canola Oil 2-5%
Bioactive Emollients
Photo
Protecting

Antiinflammatory


Softening

Our decades of experience within
lipid technology has enabled us to
develop advanced, high-performance
naturally-derived emollients with high
stability and long shelf life. This lipid
expertise is clearly evidenced
through a long list of alternative
butters, gels, oils and esters.
Over the years AAK scientists
have constantly refined and improved
performance of our emollients to
actively contribute to the efficacy,
functionality and sensory aspects
of your final formulations.
Leading manufacturer of shea
based emollients
With more than 60 years of presence
in West Africa, we control and ensure
the highest quality in all aspects of
the shea butter supply chain: sourcing,
processing and manufacturing. This
is your guarantee for outstanding
consistent quality and stability.
Other natural sources
Illipe, mango, canola, cocoa, coconut
and avocado are examples of other
natural sources used in our emollient
range. Each of these sources is
carefully chosen, processed and
in some cases mixed to obtain the
exact chemical profile you need for
developing the specific cosmetic
formulation and consumer
experience you envision.
Semi-solids
Lipex SheaSoftTM
(Shea)
Lipex SheaTM
(Shea)
Lipex GenovaTM
(Palm)
Soft semi-solid shea butter. Documented
moisturisation and skin barrier recovery.
Improved heat stability and crystallisation properties
versus traditional shea butters. Suitable for high
concentrations and anhydrous formulations.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Improved shea butter. Quick crystallisation for
long-term texture stabililty. Skin care and hair care.
Soft palm-based vegetable gel with unique
melting profile. Skin care.
Butyrospermum
Parkii Butter
Butyrospermum
Parkii Butter

•Softening
Moisturising
Sensory
improver
Texture
• high unsaponifiable content
• softens and moisturises the skin
• improves shine and softness in hair
Lipex SheaClearTM
100% clear liquid shea oil
new &
unique!
see table page 8
8 9
Products INCI (EU) Description/Applications Use level
Esters
Lipex Shea WTM
Lipex Shea WMTM
Lipex SheaLightTM
Solid shea butter wax ester. Dry and velvety
skin feel. Optimised for makeup and anhydrous
formulations.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Liquid shea butter ester. Low viscosity and low
spreadability. Quick absorption and velvety skin feel.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Eco-designed liquid shea butter ester.
Low viscosity. Light and silky soft skin feel.
Suitable for cold processing.
Skin care, hair care, sun care and makeup.
Shea Butter Cetyl
Esters
Shea Butter Oleyl
Esters
Shea Butter Ethyl

(Organic Olive)
Liquid shea oil for clear formulations and cold
processing. Suitable for all types of moisturising
and softening body oils, face oils and hair oils.
A mild ingredient for baby oils and lotions.
Liquid shea butter with enriched content of triterpene
esters and vitamin F. Contributes to good skin health.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Liquid shea butter from a traceable supply chain with
enriched content of triterpene esters and vitamin F.
Contributes to good skin health.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Stable delivery system with optimised balance of
omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids (3:1) from Gold of
Pleasure oil. Essential omega fatty acids for restoring
skin health. Suitable for cold processing.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Stable delivery system with evening primrose oil
(gamma linolenic acid). Essential omega fatty acids
for restoring skin health. Suitable for cold processing.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Stable delivery system with passionflower seed oil
(omega-6 fatty acids). Essential omega fatty acids for
restoring skin health. Suitable for cold processing.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Cottonseed oil stabilised with an optimised natural
antioxidant system. Rich in omega-6 fatty acids.
Skin care and hair care.
Canola oil stabilised with an optimised natural
antioxidant system. Rich in omega-3, omega-6
and omega-9 fatty acids. Skin care.
A golden oil from the seeds of the mango fruit.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Refined and deodorised certified organic
olive oil. Rich in omega-9 fatty acids. Skin care.
Butyrospermum
Parkii Oil
Butyrospermum
Parkii Butter (or)
Butyrospermum
Parkii Oil
Butyrospermum
Parkii Butter (or)
Butyrospermum
Parkii Oil
Olus Oil (and)
Camelina Sativa
Seed Oil
Olus Oil (and)
Oenothera Biennis Oil
Olus Oil (and)
Passiflora
Incarnata Seed Oil
Gossypium
Herbaceum Seed Oil
Canola Oil
Mangifera Indica
Seed Oil
Olea Europaea
Fruit Oil
(Coco-glycerides)
Polar vegetable gel. Documented moisturisation.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Stable semi-solid emollient based on cocoglycerides. Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Soybean Glycerides
(and) Butyrospermum
Parkii Butter
Unsaponifiables
Hydrogenated
Coco-glycerides

Texture
High Stability Base Emollients
Semi-solids
AkogelTM
Akogel PlusTM
Semi-solid vegetable gel with paste-like
consistency. Long shelf life (OSI >100h, 110°C).
Skin care and makeup.
Semi-solid vegetable gel with paste-like
consistency. Long shelf life (OSI >100h, 110°C).
Skin care and makeup.
Hydrogenated
Vegetable Oil
Hydrogenated

Products INCI (EU) Description/Applications Use level Softening Moisturising Sensory improver Texture
10 11
structuring
agents
Products INCI (EU) Description/Applications Use level
Akofine RTM
Akofine PTM
Lipex BCTM
Structurising vegetable triglyceride. High melting point
(mp 58-60°C) and good thermal stability. Stabilises oil
based dispersions and increases texture in anhydrous
and emulsion formulations.
Skin care and makeup.
Structurising vegetable triglyceride. High melting point
(mp 59-61°C). Stabilises structure and increases
temperature resistance in anhydrous formulations.
Skin care and makeup.
Structurising triglyceride base for pencils and
stick formulations. Sharp melting point at
body temperature (mp 34-36°C).
Skin care and makeup.
Hydrogenated
Vegetable Oil
Hydrogenated
Vegetable Oil
Hydrogenated
Vegetable Oil
1-5%
1-5%
5-15%

Structuring Agents
Our structuring agents offer good
crystallisation behaviour and choice
of melting profiles to help you achieve
precisely the texture and consistency
that consumers want from skin care
and makeup products.
Based on vegetable fats, these
triglyceride ingredients are designed
to show good compatibility with
other cosmetic ingredients when
structuring all types of emulsions
and anhydrous formulations, particularly decorative cosmetics such as
lipsticks and pencils.
surfactants
Products INCI (EU) Description/Applications Use level
Lipex
Shea BetaineTM
Lipex 102 E75TM
Lipex 203 E70TM
Shea butter based amphoteric surfactant for mild
rinse-off hair and body care formulations. Suitable
for clear, translucent and opaque formulations.
Water-soluble shea butter. Mild non-ionic
surfactant. Improves viscosity and decreases
irritancy in rinse-off hair and body care
formulations.
Water-soluble mango oil. Mild non-ionic surfactant.
Improves viscosity and decreases irritancy in rinseoff hair and body care formulations.
Shea
Butteramidopropyl
Betaine
PEG-75 Shea Butter
Glycerides
PEG-70 Mango

Surfactants
When creating shampoos, conditioners, shower gels, liquid soaps and
face cleansing products, our mild
amphoteric and non-ionic surfactants
help you to reduce eye and skin
irritation potential compared to other
surfactants.
Based on shea butter and mango
oil, these gentle but effective surfactants are appropriate even for baby
care products.
Our Lipex Shea Betaine has been
shown to offer an improvement of
hair volume, softness and combing
properties in both wet and dry hair
compared to betaines from coconut.
And our ethoxylated Lipex surfactants made with water-soluble shea
or mango can also act as solubilisers
of essential oils and perfumes.
12
Products INCI (EU) Description/Applications Use level
emulsifiers
Akoline MCMTM
Akoline GCTM
Akoline SLTM
Akoline LCTM
Akoline PG7TM
Akoline PGPRTM
Medium chain mono-/diglyceride with high solubilisation capacity. Co-emulsifier for o/w emulsions.
Suitable for microemulsion formulations. (HLB 8-9).
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Polar anionic/non-ionic o/w emulsifier. (HLB 11).
Releases citric acid giving improved skin
firmness and smoothness.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.

Highly polar anionic o/w emulsifier. (HLB 17).
Stabilises liquid crystals. Releases lactic acid
giving improved skin firmness and smoothness.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Anionic emulsifier for o/w creams and lotions.
(HLB 12). Can be used in cold processing.
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Non-ionic o/w emulsifier giving shiny emulsions.
Stabilises liquid crystals. (HLB 7).
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
An efficient non-ionic w/o emulsifier and
dispersion stabiliser. (HLB 3-4).
Skin care, hair care and makeup.
Caprylic/Capric
Glycerides
Hydrogenated
Vegetable
Glycerides Citrate
Sodium Stearoyl

Emulsifiers
The composition of the emollient and
emulsifier you choose will always
influence the viscosity and stability
of your cosmetic formulation. But it
can also influence the activity and
sensory aspects of the formulation.
Akoline - our line of vegetable
derived emulsifiers - are high quality
products renowned for their mildness
and moisturising capacity. Formulating with these natural based emulsifiers is therefore relevant not only for
natural skin care products, but also
for developing skin care formulations
that provide a pleasant, soft and
elegant skin feel.
AAK ACADEMYTM
the knowledge centre for applied lipid technology
At AAK, ‘The Art of Oils' is all about
using our technological know-how
and skills to bring out the superb
functionality of renewable, vegetable
derived lipids. The AAK Academy is
all about sharing lipid insights and
know-how, to make you a master in
technical application, because the
more you know about lipid technology,
the easier it is to find the best solution
for your formulation.
As a customer of AAK Personal
Care you have unique access to
AAK's team of lipid experts through
the AAK Academy. Attending our
courses is a great way for product
developers and formulators to learn
more about the technology. It also
paves the way for open and constructive dialogue that can continue to
pay benefits in your future work with
cosmetic formulations.
We offer open and closed courses
ranging from basic lipid know-how
focused on lipid chemistry, sustainable processing and functionality in
different applications, to more
advanced courses in lipid crystallisation and rheology.
Topics
• Skin health
• Lipids - essential skin nutrients
• Vegetable derived,
renewable sources
• Sustainable processing
• Shelf life optimisation
• Optimal emollient blend for
skin care
• Creating texture by combining
waxes and emollients
• Consistency and skin feel
• Crystallisation and rheology
• Lipid based emulsifiers
For more information about the AAK Academy program kindly visit www.aakpersonalcare.com
For more information about closed, customer specific seminars, please call +46 454 820 00 or mail lipid@aak.com

Butyrospermum Parkii
Butter Extract
Phytosteryl Canola Glycerides
Canola Oil
Theobroma Cacao Seed Butter
Shorea Stenoptera Seed Butter
Butyrospermum Parkii Butter
Shorea Stenoptera Seed Butter
Butyrospermum Parkii Butter
Butyrospermum Parkii Butter
Soybean Glycerides (and)
Butyrospermum Parkii Butter
Unsaponifiables
Elaeis Guineensis Oil
Hydrogenated Coco-glycerides
Butyrospermum Parkii Oil
Butyrospermum Parkii Butter
(or) Butyrospermum Parkii Oil
Butyrospermum Parkii Butter
(or) Butyrospermum Parkii Oil
Olus Oil (and) Camelina
Sativa Seed Oil
Olus Oil (and) Oenothera
Biennis Oil
Olus Oil (and) Passiflora
Incarnata Seed Oil
Gossypium Herbaceum
Seed Oil
Canola Oil
Mangifera Indica Seed Oil
Olea Europaea Fruit Oil
Shea Butter Cetyl Esters
Shea Butter Oleyl Esters
Shea Butter Ethyl Esters
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
Olus Oil (or) Canola Oil
Brassica Campestris Seed Oil
Helianthus Annuus Hybrid Oil
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride
Shea Butteramidopropyl Betaine
PEG-75 Shea Butter
Glycerides
PEG-70 Mango Glycerides
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
Caprylic/Capric Glycerides
Hydrogenated Vegetable
Glycerides Citrate
Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate
Glyceryl Stearate Citrate
Polyglyceryl-3 Stearate
Polyglyceryl-3 Polyricinoleate
Products Products INCI (EU) Products INCI (EU) ••••••••••••••••••••••Skin care - Face and Body ••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••••••• ••••••••• •••
Organic

standards are important tools when
developing formulations to meet
market demands. AAK Personal
Care strives to provide ingredients
that not only fulfil demands for
functionality, but also provide
compliance for approval by various
certifying bodies.
All AAK Personal Care ingredients
based on palm oil are sourced and
certified RSPO Mass Balance (MB).
Use the table above as guidance
for selecting ingredients approved
and/or certified according to
specific standards. For the latest
status updates, official certificates
and letters of approval, please
contact AAK Personal Care. ®
17
eco-design
Version 1: 2016
Lipex SheaLightTM
Best Sustainable Ingredient 2014
AAK Personal Care
Industry Champion Award 2015
In the cosmetics and personal
care industry, emollients typically
make up the largest part of most
formulations, particularly within
skin care. This makes them the
best place to start when looking
to improve the sustainability profile
of your formulations.
By considering eco-designed
alternatives early on during the
design phase, you can create
formulations that will advance
your efforts farther and faster. Our
innovative ester, Lipex SheaLight,
is one such alternative, and an
example of how we apply these
same eco-design principles.
Sensible alternatives
Our objective with Lipex SheaLight
was to create a sustainable ester
that could deliver light skin feel
and good stability. We chose shea
as the base material because of its
favourable fatty acid composition
and significance for conservation
and development in West Africa.
Esters, however, require an
alcohol. And because synthetic
alcohols traditionally used for esters
are non-renewable, we chose to
look for an alternative made from
agricultural sources. Ethanol was
the best choice due to its easy
availability and low environmental
impact.
Sustainable processing
With the question of raw materials
addressed, we turned our focus
to another crucial dimension of
eco-design - processing conditions. Conventional processes for
making esters require high amounts
of energy as well as catalysts that
are less advantageous from an
environmental perspective.
In contrast, Lipex SheaLight is
made using lower temperatures,
shorter processing times and biodegradable catalysts - all helping
to reduce energy consumption
and the greenhouse gas footprint.
Award-winning achievement
Our efforts have truly paid off.
At the 2014 Sustainable Cosmetics
Summit in Paris, Lipex SheaLight
was named Best Sustainable
Ingredient! And in 2015 it was
recognized by the National Products Association as a leading
example of advancing technology
to make natural products that are
also sustainable.
AAK Sweden AB
AAK Personal Care
SE-374 82 Karlshamn Sweden
Phone +46 454 820 00
AAK USA Inc.
499 Thornall St., 5th Floor
Edison, NJ 08837 USA
Phone +1 973 741 5049
AAK China Ltd.
6F, Building 6, #3601
Dongfang Road, Shanghai China 200125
Phone +86 21 6466 7979
For contact information to our international distributors please visit aakpersonalcare.com

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Home Products & Formulations Products CEGESOFT® VP
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CEGESOFT® VP
Function
Emollient
Form of Delivery
Wax
Chemical Description
C14-C20 Triglycerides and vegetable wax
INCI
Olus Oil (and) Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (and) Candelilla Cera
Appearance / Product characteristics
Yellowish waxy solid with a bland odor
Use
Waxy component for the preparation of creams, sticks, and decorative cosmetics.

Application
After Sun Antiperspirants & Deodorants Baby Care and Cleansing Body Care Color Care Face Care Face Cleansing Self Tanning
Product Groups
Emollients
Certificates
Downloads
Cegesoft PS 6 and VP (OPP)
Composition Sheet EMC
Manufacturing Procedure EMC
Natrue Overview (OPP)
PC_EU Ecolabel
PC_Indication of Naturalness - ISO List
PC_Nordic Ecolabel
Quality and Regulatory Product Information (EMC)
Technical Information_EN
Tox Abstract
Safety Data Sheets*
For Safety Data Sheets, please get in touch with your BASF contact, or directly go to WorldAccount.
Related Formulations
Gentle Buffing Mask - SC-FR-17-006-F001
Cleansing Butter - HB-RU-18-AC-09-02
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INGREDIENTS
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Is Olus Oil Safe For Baby - Yes, rich with fatty acids that are essential to the production of new skin cells, olus oil is a colorless, odorless, vegetable-derived oil mixed with natural triglycerides.
It has similar beneficial properties to that of the plain petrolatum. It retains the moisture on a baby's skin without causing any damage.

Is Olus Oil Safe For Baby
The Origins Of Olus Oil
Olus Oil Through The Ages
Benefits Of Olus Oil For Babies
How Does Olus Oil Work
Organic Baby Products

Is Olus Oil Safe For Baby
The Origins Of Olus Oil
Olus oil is derived from a combination of different natural triglycerides from vegetable oil. It is stable, semi-white in color, and commonly packed in a tub or jar stored at room temperature. Its formulation requires achieving specific characteristics to make it more effective when combined with skin care products [1].

Because of its high occlusivity, spreadability, and stability against oxidation, it is compared to petrolatum. Petrolatum is traditionally used in skin products that are heavier and more resistant to the skin. Olus oil, on the other hand, creates lighter emulsions while stabilizing the level of a product's protection [2].

Olus crude originates from vegetable oils. Vegetable oils are made up of fatty acids, the same ones that are found on the first layer of the skin [3]. These combinations of fatty acids vary and each variation represents different characteristics. Some mixtures are solid or liquid, saturated, unsaturated, or polyunsaturated. Polyunsaturated vegetable oils contain essential oils and fatty acids that are not naturally produced by the human body but are highly beneficial to dry and sensitive skin. These oils are called Omega-6 and Omega-3 [4]. Olus oil also contains essential vitamins such as Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K [5].

Olus oil is suitable for all types of skin, especially dry skin. It is commonly used in cosmetic products because of its invigoration and replenishment of skin and hair. Also, olus oil products are easier to apply and have a softer, more velvety feel. They can be used on an infant's skin without the risk of destroying its natural barrier. In fact, olus oil is a natural moisturizer and a great alternative to massage oils [6].

Olus oil is one of the ingredients in body lotions and skin care creams. 10% is a standard concentration in cosmetic products with a pH range of 3-8.5. It is also known as olus, olus vegetable, oils, plant oils, or vegetable oils [7].

Is Olus Oil Safe For Baby
The Origins Of Olus Oil
Olus Oil Through The Ages
Benefits Of Olus Oil For Babies
How Does Olus Oil Work
Organic Diaper Rash Cream

Olus Oil Use Through The Ages
Olus Oil Through The Ages
Cosmetic products have existed in this world for quite some time. From ancient Egyptians to the Romans and Greeks, skin care products were used to enhance health and physical appearance. Cosmetics are currently widely available and very mainstream, and vegetable oils have a lot to do with this success [8].

Galen, a Greek physician from the second century, is credited with inventing the cold cream. Most manufacturing companies heavily rely on hydrocarbon molecules found in vegetable oils. These essential oils provide viscosity and antistatic properties. To add to that, creams and body lotions containing vegetable oils are beneficial and healing for the skin. The vegetable oil concentration mixed in skin care products ranges from 1% to 99% [9].

Olus oil is produced by extracting essential oils from plants or vegetables. It is widely used in cosmetics because of its soothing and softening properties. It also serves as an excellent emollient which moisturizes the skin while simultaneously keeping it from losing moisture. Today, a lot of manufacturing companies prefer using naturally-derived olus oil over mineral oils since it is more suitable for sensitive skin [10].

Olus crude, just like most vegetable-derived oils, contains fatty acids and phytochemicals that are healthy for the skin. It is highly beneficial to people with allergy-prone skin and those who suffer from eczema. It is not only safe to eat but also to apply on your skin [11].

Is Olus Oil Safe For Baby
The Origins Of Olus Oil
Olus Oil Through The Ages
Benefits Of Olus Oil For Babies
How Does Olus Oil Work
DELUXE Diaper Subscription

Benefits Of Olus Oil For Babies
Benefits Of Olus Oil For Babies
Creates a protective barrier
Because olus oil is an emollient, it makes skin feel soft and smooth. It creates a barrier on the first layer of the skin locking in the moisture and preventing harmful ingredients from causing damage. It also increases the absorption of other ingredients in skin care products and helps them penetrate the skin's surface [12].

Promotes cell growth
One of the many benefits of vegetable oils is its high Vitamin E content. This vitamin protects skin cells from damage as well as increases their production. Baby skin care products that contain olus oil are vital to the improvement of a baby's immune system. Aside from keeping skin hydrated, it also protects against harmful ingredients [13].

Moisturizes delicate skin
Since time immemorial, vegetable oils have been a popular ingredient in manufacturing personal care products. They are not only easily accessible but very efficient and low cost.

An infant's skin is fragile, so it is critical to buy skin care products that are rich in fatty acids and essentials oils that maintain the skin's health. Harsh ingredients cause dry skin and trigger allergens among other negative reactions.

With olus oil, you are buying both a moisturizer and a hypoallergenic skin care product making it an important part of your personal care [14].

Is Olus Oil Safe For Baby
The Origins Of Olus Oil
Olus Oil Through The Ages
Benefits Of Olus Oil For Babies
How Does Olus Oil Work
Calming Organic Baby Powder

How Does Olus Oil Work
How Does Olus Oil Work?
The nutritional value alone helps explain the benefits and workings of vegetable oils in baby skin care products. Aside from being rich in fatty acids such as Omega-3 and Omega-6, olus oil contains vitamin E also known as Tocopherol making it an important part in skin care formulations. It helps protect skin against UV induced aging and damage from free radicals. It's antioxidant properties and antibacterial properties make it a popular ingredient in many personal care products. Olus oil is a popular ingredient in lip balms and lip care products in general.

Our outermost layer of the skin, the epidermis, is the first line of defense against harmful toxins from the environment. It consists of dead skin cells that are separated by layers of lipids that protect the skin. These lipids include essential fatty acids and waxes that are naturally produced by the body. They account for 14% of the weight of the surface. The dermis, on the other hand, is the next layer which contains a combination of collagen and elastin. To maintain the skin's smoothness, the collagen should retain moisture with no problem helping to keep the skin supple. Olus oil helps skin retain its moisture protecting the dermis and allowing skin care products to be easily absorbed through the epidermis.

Sebum is the body's natural protective oil, and it is a mixture of glycerides and fatty acids. As babies grow, the production of sebum decreases. The more you use skin care products with harsh ingredients, the more the skin loses its natural plumpness.

Olus oil is an excellent solution for keeping your baby's skin healthy and unclogged. This multi-purpose oil is non-irritant, hypoallergenic, and does not damage the skin's protective layers.

Is Olus Oil Safe For Baby
The Origins Of Olus Oil
Olus Oil Through The Ages
Benefits Of Olus Oil For Babies
How Does Olus Oil Work
Organic Baby Product Samples
What Is It?
Vegetable Oil is an expressed oil of vegetable origin consisting primarily of triglycerides of fatty acids. The addition of hydrogen atoms to Vegetable Oil results in Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil.

In cosmetics and personal care products, Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil are used in the formulation of bath products, cleansing products, eye makeup, fragrances, foot powders, facial makeup, personal cleanliness products, suntan products, and other skin products.

Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil slow the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin's surface. Vegetable Oil may also be used as a hair conditioning agent, and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil may also be used to increase the thickness of the lipid (oil) portion of cosmetics and personal care products.

Scientific Facts:
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil is produced by the addition of hydrogen (H2) to vegetable oil. Hydrogenation results in the conversion of liquid vegetable oils to solid or semi-solid fats, such as those present in margarine.


Safety Information:
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes oils derived from vegetables on its list of indirect food additives. It is permitted for use as a component of adhesives having incidental contact with food.

The safety of Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated scientific data and concluded that these ingredients were safe for use as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.

More safety Information:
CIR Review:

Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil were included in the CIR Expert Panel's review of plant-derived fatty acids oils. Based on a history of safe use in food, the composition of the oils, and data indicating these ingredients were not dermal irritants or sensitizers, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that plant-derived fatty acid oils including Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil were safe as used in cosmetic products.

Link to FDA Code of Federal Regulations for fats and oils derived from animal or vegetable sources http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr...

Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil may be used in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in Europe according to the general provisions of the Cosmetics Regulation of the European Union.

Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/consumers/product_labelling_and_packaging/co0013_en.htm

More scientific Information:
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil is the end product of controlled hydrogenation of vegetable oil. In cosmetics and personal care products, Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil function as a skin conditioning agent - occlusive.

Vegetable Oil may also be used as a hair conditioning agent, and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil may also be used as a viscosity increasing agent - nonaqueous.

Vegetable Oil is an expressed oil of vegetable origin consisting primarily of triglycerides of fatty acids. The addition of hydrogen atoms to Vegetable Oil results in Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil.

In cosmetics and personal care products, Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil are used in the formulation of bath products, cleansing products, eye makeup, fragrances, foot powders, facial makeup, personal cleanliness products, suntan products, and other skin products.

Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil slow the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin's surface. Vegetable Oil may also be used as a hair conditioning agent, and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil may also be used to increase the thickness of the lipid (oil) portion of cosmetics and personal care products.

Scientific Facts:
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil is produced by the addition of hydrogen (H2) to vegetable oil. Hydrogenation results in the conversion of liquid vegetable oils to solid or semi-solid fats, such as those present in margarine.


Safety Information:
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes oils derived from vegetables on its list of indirect food additives. It is permitted for use as a component of adhesives having incidental contact with food.

The safety of Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated scientific data and concluded that these ingredients were safe for use as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.

More safety Information:
CIR Review:

Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil were included in the CIR Expert Panel's review of plant-derived fatty acids oils. Based on a history of safe use in food, the composition of the oils, and data indicating these ingredients were not dermal irritants or sensitizers, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that plant-derived fatty acidoils including Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil were safe as used in cosmetic products.

Link to FDA Code of Federal Regulations for fats and oils derived from animal or vegetable sources http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr...

Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil may be used in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in Europe according to the general provisions of the Cosmetics Regulation of the European Union.

Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/consumers/product_labelling_and_packaging/co0013_en.htm

More scientific Information:
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil is the end product of controlled hydrogenation of vegetable oil. In cosmetics and personal care products, Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil function as a skin conditioning agent - occlusive.

Vegetable Oil may also be used as a hair conditioning agent, and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil may also be used as a viscosity increasing agent - nonaqueous.


Resources:
Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration

Food Ingredients and Packaging: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/default.htm

Food Contact Substances: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/PackagingFCS/default.htm

Substances Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS): http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/default.htm

Search the Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm

EU Cosmetics Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/

ShareThis Copy and PasteSkip to main content THE SCIENCE & SAFETY BEHIND YOUR FAVORITE PRODUCTS Safety Basics What's in My Products? Get the Facts Regulation & Oversight About Us Blog FIND AN INGREDIENT Search formsearch youtubeTwitterFacebook PRODUCT CATEGORIES INTRODUCTION SHELF LIFE BABY BATH EYE MAKEUP FACIAL MAKEUP FRAGRANCE HAIR CARE HAIR DYE AND HAIR COLORING NAIL ORAL CARE PERSONAL CLEANLINESS SHAVING SKIN CARE SUNSCREENS AND SUNLESS TANNERS Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Messages Overview(active tab) Safety Resources What Is It? Vegetable Oil is an expressed oil of vegetable origin consisting primarily of triglycerides of fatty acids. The addition of hydrogen atoms to Vegetable Oil results in Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil. In cosmetics and personal care products, Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil are used in the formulation of bath products, cleansing products, eye makeup, fragrances, foot powders, facial makeup, personal cleanliness products, suntan products, and other skin products. Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products? Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil slow the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin's surface. Vegetable Oil may also be used as a hair conditioning agent, and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil may also be used to increase the thickness of the lipid (oil) portion of cosmetics and personal care products. Scientific Facts: Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil is produced by the addition of hydrogen (H2) to vegetable oil. Hydrogenation results in the conversion of liquid vegetable oils to solid or semi-solid fats, such as those present in margarine. Safety Information: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes oils derived from vegetables on its list of indirect food additives. It is permitted for use as a component of adhesives having incidental contact with food. The safety of Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated scientific data and concluded that these ingredients were safe for use as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products. More safety Information: CIR Review: Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil were included in the CIR Expert Panel's review of plant-derived fatty acids oils. Based on a history of safe use in food, the composition of the oils, and data indicating these ingredients were not dermal irritants or sensitizers, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that plant-derived fatty acid oils including Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil were safe as used in cosmetic products. Link to FDA Code of Federal Regulations for fats and oils derived from animal or vegetable sources http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr... Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil may be used in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in Europe according to the general provisions of the Cosmetics Regulation of the European Union. Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/consumers/product_labelling_and_packaging/co0013_en.htm More scientific Information: Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil is the end product of controlled hydrogenation of vegetable oil. In cosmetics and personal care products, Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil function as a skin conditioning agent - occlusive. Vegetable Oil may also be used as a hair conditioning agent, and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil may also be used as a viscosity increasing agent - nonaqueous. Resources: Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration Food Ingredients and Packaging: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/default.htm Food Contact Substances: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/PackagingFCS/default.htm Substances Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS): http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/default.htm Search the Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm EU Cosmetics Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ PRODUCT TYPES Baby Bath Eye Makeup Facial Makeup Fragrance Hair Care Hair Color Nail Oral Care Personal Cleanliness Shaving Skin Care Sun Protection RESOURCES History of Cosmetics FAQs Resources ABOUT US IMPORTANT LEGAL NOTICE About Us Privacy Site Map 2016 Copyright. All Rights Reserved. Cosmeticsinfo.org Skip to main content THE SCIENCE & SAFETY BEHIND YOUR FAVORITE PRODUCTS Safety Basics What's in My Products? Get the Facts Regulation & Oversight About Us Blog FIND AN INGREDIENT Search formsearch youtubeTwitterFacebook PRODUCT CATEGORIES INTRODUCTION SHELF LIFE BABY BATH EYE MAKEUP FACIAL MAKEUP FRAGRANCE HAIR CARE HAIR DYE AND HAIR COLORING NAIL ORAL CARE PERSONAL CLEANLINESS SHAVING SKIN CARE SUNSCREENS AND SUNLESS TANNERS Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Messages Overview(active tab) Safety Resources What Is It? Vegetable Oil is an expressed oil of vegetable origin consisting primarily of triglycerides of fatty acids. The addition of hydrogen atoms to Vegetable Oil results in Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil. In cosmetics and personal care products, Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil are used in the formulation of bath products, cleansing products, eye makeup, fragrances, foot powders, facial makeup, personal cleanliness products, suntan products, and other skin products. Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products? Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil slow the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin's surface. Vegetable Oil may also be used as a hair conditioning agent, and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil may also be used to increase the thickness of the lipid (oil) portion of cosmetics and personal care products. Scientific Facts: Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil is produced by the addition of hydrogen (H2) to vegetable oil. Hydrogenation results in the conversion of liquid vegetable oils to solid or semi-solid fats, such as those present in margarine. Safety Information: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) includes oils derived from vegetables on its list of indirect food additives. It is permitted for use as a component of adhesives having incidental contact with food. The safety of Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated scientific data and concluded that these ingredients were safe for use as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products. More safety Information: CIR Review: Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil were included in the CIR Expert Panel's review of plant-derived fatty acids oils. Based on a history of safe use in food, the composition of the oils, and data indicating these ingredients were not dermal irritants or sensitizers, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that plant-derived fatty acid oils including Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil were safe as used in cosmetic products. Link to FDA Code of Federal Regulations for fats and oils derived from animal or vegetable sources http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr... Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil may be used in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in Europe according to the general provisions of the Cosmetics Regulation of the European Union. Link to the EU Cosmetic Regulation: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/consumers/product_labelling_and_packaging/co0013_en.htm More scientific Information: Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil is the end product of controlled hydrogenation of vegetable oil. In cosmetics and personal care products, Vegetable Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil function as a skin conditioning agent - occlusive. Vegetable Oil may also be used as a hair conditioning agent, and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil may also be used as a viscosity increasing agent - nonaqueous. Resources: Find out more about the regulation of Food Additives by the Food and Drug Administration Food Ingredients and Packaging: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/default.htm Food Contact Substances: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/PackagingFCS/default.htm Substances Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS): http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/default.htm Search the Code of Federal Regulations http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm EU Cosmetics Inventory http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ PRODUCT TYPES Baby Bath Eye Makeup Facial Makeup Fragrance Hair Care Hair Color Nail Oral Care Personal Cleanliness Shaving Skin Care Sun Protection RESOURCES History of Cosmetics FAQs Resources ABOUT US IMPORTANT LEGAL NOTICE About Us Privacy Site Map 2016 Copyright. All Rights Reserved. Cosmeticsinfo.org ShareThis Copy and Paste

The beauty industry's love affair with natural ingredients is as strong as ever, as John Woodruff discovers


There appears to be no end to the love affair that the cosmetic industry has with natural, nature identical and naturally-derived ingredients, although this latter may be better termed as ‘derived from natural sources'. This feature will present some of the new materials that fall into these categories.

Top of the swaps
One trend that is very noticeable is the substitution of natural materials for petrochemicals. For example, BioNat Consult suggests its Polyna R as a natural and safe alternative to petrolatum. It is an anhydrous lipid with a high melting point and similar texture and film-forming properties to petrolatum. It has been developed using olive oil and rice bran wax to form a mixture of Olea europea (olive) fruit oil, Oryza rice bran wax, stearic acid and Olea europea (olive) fruit oil glyceryl oleate.

Cremer Care promotes Cremerlin PURA made from a blend of natural triglycerides of pure olus oil (a generic name for expressed oil of vegetable origin consisting primarily of triglycerides of fatty acids) with similar properties to petrolatum. Although traditionally petrolatum has been used in more heavy emulsions that are highly resistant and perceptible on the skin, Cremerlin PURA enables the production of light emulsions while maintaining the protection desired. Plantasens VP R15 from Clariant International is a mixture of Ricinus communis (castor) seed oil, hydrogenated castor oil and Copernicia cerifera (carnauba) wax offered as a vegetable alternative to petrolatum that can rapidly protect the skin from its daily exposure to the environment.

Vertellus Performance Materials offers Castorlatum [INCI: Ricinus communis (castor) seed oil, hydrogenated castor oil] that has an appearance and consistency very much like petrolatum. Even Sonneborn, known for its white oils and petrolatum, offers natural alternatives based on either meadowfoam seed oil [INCI: Limnanthes alba] or olus oil.

BioNat Consult supplies Polyte Extra [INCI: Butyrospermum parkii (shea) butter, olea europea (olive) fruit oil, Olea europea (olive) fruit oil glyceryl oleate, linoleic acid] as a substitute for lanolin, and as a natural texturing agent and co-emulsifier. It can absorb four to five time its weight in water and shows improved organoleptic characteristics when compared with lanolin. It is used in formulations to give hydration, skin protection and film-forming properties and to decrease transepidermal water loss. Its melting point (close to the skin temperature) and high shine make it an ideal base for balms and make-up products. Its amphiphilic polymeric structure allows it to have good dispersing properties for pigments, mineral UV filters and actives, claims BioNat.

Another material from BioNat Consult is Polyssan OL, offered as a substitute for squalene that avoids the use of shark liver oil and hydrogenated vegetable oils. According to BioNat, its R&D team is continuously sourcing in the vegetable world to find alternatives to animal derivatives and hydrogenated products. Polyssan OL [INCI: Olea europea (olive) fruit oil, Olea europea (olive) fruit oil glyceryl oleate] was developed using olive oil and polyglyceride esters to supply an anhydrous lipid presenting the light texture, good spreadability and dry skin feeling characteristic of squalene. Sharing the same INCI listed ingredients, Polyssan O is a silicone substitute presenting the light texture, high shine and dry skin feeling of light silicones. Because of its skin feel Hydrafeel-3 [INCI: Polyglyceryl-3 PCA] from CR&D is also presented as an alternative to silicones with natural moisturising properties.

Northstar Lipids extracts Crambe Seed Oil from the seeds of Crambe abyssinica, principally by means of cold expeller pressing. Its high lubricity combined with a rich skin feel means that it can be used economically as a silicone oil replacement while still providing superior skin barrier function. Northstar also markets English Poppy Seed Oil [INCI: Papaver somniferum seed oil], which is obtained by careful cold pressing and light refining of poppy seeds giving rise to an oil of extremely high quality, freshness and stability, to preserve essential nutrients such as vitamin E.

Shea butter derivatives
Butyrospermum parkii (shea) butter is a favourite natural ingredient and also the source of many derivatives with important properties. AAK produces Lipex SheaClear, described as a new liquid shea oil that is completely clear at 20°C. It is optimally processed to deliver clarity while maintaining a high level (6%-8%) of functional unsaponifiables. The physical and sensory attributes of Lipex SheaClear make it an ideal ingredient for skin, hair and face oils where absolute clarity and low colour is desired, claims AAK. Due to its low melting point, it is also suitable for cold processed emulsions and it can advantageously be used in combination with AAK's Lipex SheaLight [INCI: Shea butter ethyl esters] to create a wide range of sensory properties. By varying the ratio of these two emollients the formulator is able to adjust spreadability, absorption, cushion, and the short and long term feel on skin and hair.

Oléos also utilises shea butter as the source of many of its naturally derived ingredients, including three new shea esters to meet different formulation sensory requirements. Olvea Silky Shea [INCI: Shea butter ethyl esters] is a lightweight alternative to conventional shea butter, which imparts lightness and a velvety after feel to skin and hair care formulations. It is rapidly absorbed into the skin, providing an instant moisturising effect and a radiant glow, and this shea-based emollient is said to improve the overall texture and appearance of skin and hair.

Olvea Glossy Shea [INCI: Shea butter polyglyceryl-4 esters] is an effective moisturiser, which gives consistency to formulas and builds fine structure textures. It leaves a soft finish to skin and hair and it improves hair gloss and combability. Olvea Creamy Shea [INCI: Shea butter glycerides] is a co-emulsifier which helps achieve the perfect cocoon texture for cosmetic products. This emollient with co-emulsifying properties increases the potential of other emulsifiers and improves the stability of emulsions while having excellent nourishing and revitalising properties. Olvea Creamy Shea, with its unsaponifiable content, softens and calms irritated skin, and helps to protect and improve the skin condition.

Soy, oh soy
Also selected as the basis of many naturally-derived ingredients is soy oil [INCI: Glycine max], well-known for the different activities that its phytocomplex (especially characterised by isoflavones) is able to exert on skin. Phenbiox obtains soy stem cells that then undergo fermentation to force the stem cells to overproduce phytocomplex active molecules. The resultant Soy Cell [INCI: Glycine max (Soybean) callus culture] causes increased proliferation of dermal fibroblasts and improved synthesis of type I procollagen. This improves skin protection from UV-induced photoageing and free radical damage, and reduces the depth of wrinkles.

Ethical sourcing
A problem facing those who wish to be thought truly natural has been the sourcing of standard commodities, especially inexpensive ones that are pure chemicals. There is no chemical difference in pure glycerin whatever its origin, but glycerin obtained by the saponification of animal fats was avoided by many companies only to find their substitute source was palm oil.

Interaxion sources glycerin from India. It is produced from Karanja seeds that grow in semi-arid areas and Indian authorities are promoting the planting of these trees on environmental grounds. Each tree can produce between 25kg and 40kg of fruits per year, and fruits contain between 30%-35% of oil, which comprises about 15% glycerin and the balance is free fatty acids. Karanja oil is a non-edible oil, so it does not interfere with food crops and it has organic certification from the principle recognised certification bodies.

There are many suppliers of ethically sourced natural oils, butters and waxes.

The International Cosmetic Science Centre (ICSC) of Denmark has a background in supplying edible oils for foodstuffs and claims all its materials are of food grade. It has a very extensive range of oils, butters and waxes to which it has just added amla, curcumin and omega 3-enriched oils for use in Ayurvedic cosmetic applications. Also new this year are a number of exotic nutrient powders such as pomegranate, green tea, brahmi and boswellia extract and a selection of specially designed products for use in ethnic skin and hair care.

Get active
An exciting aspect of natural ingredients is the active principals that can be identified and extracted from them. At SCS Formulate 2014, Tony Dweck of Dweck Data gave an insight into the chemistry of many of the plant extracts that had active claims. Dweck examined 219 fixed oils from nuts, seeds, fruits and cereals, identified their fatty acid profiles, and related their constituents to their properties in medicine and cosmetics. Dweck also examined 230 essential oils, and commented on natural preservatives and natural colours, astringents, thickening agents and exfoliating abrasives.

The major activities sought by cosmetic formulators are anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties, skin whitening, promoting the skin's synthesis of collagen and elastin, and anti-ageing in general.

Maruzen Pharmaceuticals produces various active ingredients from natural plant extracts. Rose Myrtle Extract BG80 [INCI: Rhodomyrtus tomentosa fruit extract] is supplied in butylene glycol and contains two active ingredients: piceatannol, which has strong antioxidant properties, and piceatannol glycoside, which has anti-inflammatory and skin lightening properties. Rose Myrtle Extract BG80 is recommended for preventing damage to DNA by exposure to solar radiation.

It appears that translucent skin as an indicator of skin beauty is highly regarded in Asian countries, but skin's natural transparency is clouded by protein carbonylation, which also damages its water-holding capacity. Maruzen Pharmaceuticals claims that Silver Vine Extract BG3 [INCI: Actinidia polygama fruit extract] is a new anti-pollution concept with anti-carbonylation properties that is capable of translucency enhancement.

Constant exposure to environmental toxins leads to accumulated damage to DNA and to chronic inflammation, both leading to premature signs of ageing. IBR-Pristinizer is an aqueous extract of Asteriscus graveolens claimed to shield the skin and its cells against damage from pollution by reducing the expression of cell death related genes. A 28-day trail showed that IBR-Pristinizer delivered anti-ageing effects, including decreasing wrinkles around the eyes and mouth, and improving skin texture. It was also perceived to improve skin tone and radiance.

Iris ISO [INCI: Iris florentina extract] from Silab is described as a 3-in-1 product to protect the skin from environmental factors; skin's barrier function is strengthened, skin tone is preserved and wrinkles fade. BioSpectrum offers Red Snow as an antioxidant with anti-wrinkle properties. Red Snow is the name given to an extract of Camellia japonica gathered from an island off the coast of Korea with UNESCO World Heritage status.

The European equivalent of translucent skin is a ‘healthy glow'. BASF Beauty Creations has developed an active ingredient based on white blossoms that helps women achieve the brightness they want while maintaining healthy skin functions. Dermawhite contains extracts of Saxifraga sarmentosa, Carica papaya (papaya) fruit and Psidium guajava (guava) fruit, and noticeably brightens the complexion by inhibiting melanin synthesis.

Lightening and brightening effects are also claimed for three new products from Korea's Natural Solution. BDS Perilla [INCI: Perilla frutescens sprout extract] contains rosmarinic acid, which inhibits melanogenesis and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Gingerbright-F [INCI: Sacchromyces/Kaempferia parviflora rhizome ferment extract] inhibits tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 expression to brighten and soothe skin, while Scoti-Horsetail [INCI: Equisetum fluviatile extract], which inhibits melanin synthesis and has an anti-inflammatory effect, was developed in association with the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.

Bio-Dynamic Sprout (BDS) system is a special facility used by Natural Solution to cultivate plant sprouts. Environmental factors, such as light and temperature, are controlled to optimise cultivation conditions, and the fresh sprouts are free from pesticides and pollution. Sprouts are believed to have a greater nutritive value than seeds and higher levels of plant actives. BDS-Memil is an extract of Polygonum fagopyrum, or buckwheat sprouts, with skin brightening effects.

Synerga has taken a slightly different approach to anti-ageing with Dolcévia, suggesting that we should enjoy, embrace and respect the things that come with age. Instead of fighting it we should be working to make skin the best it can be through the use of products able to restore a healthy and natural complexion. Everyday life often causes chronic stress and wrinkles; crow's feet and fine lines are some of the physical results of skin hypertension and suffering. Dolcévia aims to help the skin recover itself and get rid of abnormal tension.

Dolcévia is an ingredient extracted from leaves of Stevia rebaudiana by Synerga. It yields a pure stevioside for cosmetic and dermo-cosmetic use with a proved de-contracting effect on involuntary muscle tension. It does this by enhancing the presence of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, which is responsible for deactivating the nervous signal that causes muscles to contract, which minimises stress-induced involuntary muscle contractions that lead to the formation of signs of age. Skin becomes smoother, better hydrated and more evenly toned.

Stress is a causative factor for a new type of sensitive skin discovered by Maruzen Pharmaceuticals that it has named Yuragi hada. Other factors are environmental conditions and changes in diet or physical condition. Maruzen suggests that dipotassium glycyrrhizinate with its well-documented anti-inflammatory properties can soothe skin suffering from Yuragi hada. As with all Maruzen ingredients, there is extensive documentation available to explain the cause of skin problems and the effect that its ingredients have on alleviating them.

Glycyrrhetinic acid is the active principal of Glycerrate from Prolabin & Tefarm that is supplied in a clay matrix for slow release. It is recommended for reducing skin damage caused by free radicals and to prevent problems associated with photoageing. Photoageing is a major cause of perceptible skin ageing and the focus for many ingredients. Elix-IR from Lucas Meyer is an extract of knotgrass, Polygonum aviculare, which is rich in flavonoids that protect elastic fibres of the papillary and reticular dermis from sun damage. It prevents premature ageing after repeated sun exposure, increases skin firmness and reduces the appearance of wrinkles.

The eye area is often the first to show signs of age, so has attracted much attention from cosmetic ingredients suppliers. At in-cosmetics 2015, Naolys launched a new 100% pure active plant cell complex that it called Initial E [INCI: Polianthes tuberosa callus extract], which combines tuberose cells and betaine that work in synergy to provide comprehensive action on the three major changes that occur around the eyes: dark circles, puffiness and wrinkles.

Eyedeline from Lipotec's marine technology division, Biointec, is a plankton extract claimed to act on the three main evidences of tiredness and ageing around the eyes. By improving microcirculation and reinforcing the cellular matrix, it is claimed to rejuvenate the delicate skin and enhance the appearance of the eye contour area, reducing dark circles, decreasing eye bags and improving collagen synthesis.

Natural hair loss solutions
Active ingredients from natural sources tend to focus on skin care but an innovative active ingredient for hair care is Akosky Azuki from Akott. This material is derived from mung bean and red clover, [INCI: Vigna radiata sprout extract and Trifolium pratense sprout extract], and offers a new way of treating hair loss. The primary function of Akosky Azuki is to stimulate positive growth factors and genetic messages throughout the life cycle of the hair. Many hair loss products are targeted at extending the anagen phase, but although this will slow hair loss in the short term it may lead to a damaged hair cycle in which the catagen and telogen phases are then unable to complete properly. Akosky Azuki helps improve the lifespan of the anagen phase but it also ensures that the catagen and telogen phase complete their cycle in order to produce healthy and thicker looking hair.

The majority of the ingredients mentioned comply with Ecocert and/or COSMOS standards for organic or natural materials. INCI lists as given generally only show the principal ingredients and those interested are advised to seek full information from the material suppliers.

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Author
John Woodruff
www.creative-developments.co.uk

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This attestation has been granted by ECOCERT Greenlife to the company:
AAK SWEDEN AB
Västra Kajen
SE-374 82 KARLSHAMN
SWEDEN
whose non-organic raw materials (listed hereafter) have been assessed as compliant to the standard:
Unless an exception, the following references are published on the ECOCERT raw materials online database for approved
raw materials available at the following link: http://ap.ecocert.com/ecoproduits.
Commercial name / INCI / Function %PPAI %CPAI %NNI %PeMo Approved
since
Restriction
Akogel Plus*
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
Emollient
0 100 0 0 01/01/2019
Akogel*
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
Emollient
0 100 0 0 01/01/2019
Akoline PGPR*
Polyglyceryl-3 Ricinoleate
Emulsifier
0,02 99,98 0 0 01/01/2019
Gold-of-Pleasure oil refined
Camelina Sativa Seed Oil
Emollient
99,99 0,01 0 0 01/01/2019
Kristal
Cocos Nucifera Oil / Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil
Emollient
100 0 0 0 Use only in
COSMOS
natural
products
01/01/2019
Valid until: 31/12/2019
WARNING: The sole purpose of the present attestation is to allow the raw material(s) to be used in finished products to be certified as compliant to the standard specified in
the first page. In no event this attestation should constitute proof of the actual certification of the conformity of the raw material(s) to this standard. In that context, the raw
material(s) listed in this attestation must not be qualified and / or marketed as «organic» raw material(s) certified in accordance with the abovementioned standard.
The approval of the raw material (s) listed in the present attestation is personally addressed to the above-mentioned beneficiary. It is the beneficiary's liability to ensure that its
own customers are aware of the requirements and prohibitions defined in the terms and conditions and governing any reference to and use of the approval of the raw
material(s) and that they abide by it.
ECOCERT Greenlife S.A.S. - Capital 50 000 € - BP 47 - 32600 L'ISLE JOURDAIN - FRANCE
TVA Intracommunautaire n° FR 55 509 534 095
Phone: +33 5 62 07 50 16 - Fax: +33 5 62 07 74 96 - Mail: mpgreenlife@ecocert.com
Page 2 of 4
F363(COS)v08en
Issued the: 06/02/2019
Attestation n°: 864227
ATTESTATION OF CONFORMITY - COSMOS
List of the approved raw materials of: AAK SWEDEN AB
Commercial name / INCI / Function %PPAI %CPAI %NNI %PeMo Approved
since
material(s) listed in this attestation must not be qualified and / or marketed as «organic» raw material(s) certified in accordance with the abovementioned standard.


VEGETABLE FATTY ACID
Appeared as: OLUS OIL
Allergies/immunotoxicity (low)
Use restrictions (moderate)

Limited
OCTYLDODECYL STEAROYL STEARATE
None
HYDROGENATED PALM KERNEL GLYCERIDES

Limited
PRUNUS AMYGDALUS DULCIS (SWEET ALMOND) OIL
Appeared as: PRUNUS AMYGDALUS DULCIS OIL

Limited
HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL

Limited
COPERNICIA CERIFERA (CARNAUBA) WAX
Appeared as: CERA CARNAUBA

Limited
EUPHORBIA CERIFERA (CANDELILLA) WAX
Appeared as: CANDELILLA CERA

Limited
SESAMUM INDICUM (SESAME) OIL
Appeared as: SESAMUM INDICUM OIL

None
HYDROGENATED PALM GLYCERIDES

Limited
POLYGLYCERYL-3 DIISOSTEARATE
• Use restrictions (low)


Limited
GLYCERYL CAPRYLATE
Enhanced skin absorption

Product's Animal Testing Policies
Some cosmetics companies have taken People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and Leaping Bunny animal-testing pledges. For consumers who are concerned about companies' policies on animal testing, Skin Deep reports this information.

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EWG Verified
User Added: Alva (not reviewed by EWG)
**This is not an official Skin Deep® report. This product has not been reviewed by EWG scientists. These reports are for informational, non-commercial purposes only.**

Data Availability: LIMITED

Learn more About
EWG's Scores

EWG scientists reviewed the User Added: Alva (not reviewed by EWG) product label collected on July 02, 2013 for safety according to the methodology outlined in our Skin Deep Cosmetics Database. We assess the ingredients listed on the labels of personal care products based on data in toxicity and regulatory databases, government and health agency assessments and the open scientific literature. EWG's rating for User Added: Alva (not reviewed by EWG) is 2.

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Data last updated: July 2013

Ingredient Concerns
Cancer
Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Use Restrictions
Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Other Ingredient Concerns
HIGH
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
Persistence and bioaccumulation
Use restrictions
MODERATE
Contamination concerns
LOW
Enhanced skin absorption
Ecotoxicology
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
Learn more About
Ingredient Concerns
Score Data Availability Ingredient Concern

Ingredients from packaging:
Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate, Mica, Olus Oil, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Glycerides, Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis Oil, Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil, Cera Carnauba, Candelilla Cera, Sesamum Indicum Oil, Hydrogenated Palm Glycerides, Polyglyceryl-3 Diisostearate, Glyceryl Caprylate, Tocopheryl Acetate, Sorbic Acid

Directions from packaging:
The directions were not available for this product.

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EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

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Home Food Requirements and guidance Labelling Industry Fats and Oils
Labelling Requirements for Fats and Oils
List of Ingredients - Fats and Oils
Single or Multi-Source Vegetable Oils
Declaration of both Regular and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
Modified Oil Mixtures as an Ingredients
Medium Chain Triglycerides
Shortening as an Ingredient
Spray Dried Shortening as an Ingredient
Use of Adjectives and Descriptive Phrases to Describe Nutrient Content
The same list of ingredients requirements and exemptions that apply to all foods also apply to fats and oils. Refer to list of ingredients for more information.

Certain fats and oils, when declared in the list of ingredients, are required to use specific mandatory common names. See Mandatory Common Names for Ingredients and Components for more information.

There are other fats and oils, when declared in the list of ingredients, that may optionally be listed using collective or class names. See Class/Collective Names for Ingredients and Components for more information.

A number of fat and oil products, when used as ingredients in foods, are usually exempt from declaring components in the list of ingredients. These include margarine, shortening, lard, and, in certain situations, standardized oils. See Ingredients that Generally Do Not have to Declare their Components for more information.

Single or Multi-Source Vegetable Oils
In general, when a single source of "(naming the source) oil" is used as an ingredient in another food, it may be listed in the list of ingredients either specifically by name, e.g., "canola oil", or as "vegetable oil".

Also, when vegetable oil containing more than one kind of vegetable oil is used as an ingredient in another food, it may be listed in the list of ingredients as "vegetable oil".

However, there are two exceptions to the ingredient list common names mentioned above:

if the oil is an ingredient of a cooking oil, salad oil or table oil, the oil must be specifically named in the ingredient list, e.g., "canola oil", and the general term "vegetable oil" is not acceptable [B.09.010, FDR]; or
if the vegetable oil is coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil or cocoa butter, the oil must be specifically named in the ingredient list, and the general term "vegetable oil" is not acceptable [B.01.010(3)(b), Item 1, FDR].
Declaration of both Regular and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
Hydrogenated vegetable oil must be declared as "hydrogenated" plus "vegetable oil" or "hydrogenated (naming the vegetable oil)" in the list of ingredients [B.01.010 (3)(a), FDR]. In order to meet the regulation intended to inform consumers that the oil may have been hydrogenated within a 12-month period [B.01.011(1), FDR], when using either a vegetable oil or a hydrogenated vegetable oil, the following declarations are acceptable in the list of ingredients:

"(Naming the vegetable oil) (may have been hydrogenated)" / "(Naming the vegetable oil) (peut avoir été hydrogénée)"; or
"(Naming the vegetable oil) (may be hydrogenated)"/ "(Naming the vegetable oil) (peut être hydrogenée)"
Note: As per subsection B.01.011(1) of the FDR, ingredients must be listed in descending order of the proportion by weight in which they will appear during the next 12-month period. If it is more likely that "hydrogenated canola oil" will be present in the product, the above declarations would not be acceptable. Instead, a declaration such as "hydrogenated canola oil or canola oil" would have to be used.

Modified Oil Mixtures as an Ingredients
When the common name "modified vegetable oil" is used, a list of ingredients naming the individual oils is also required.

When a common name that includes all of the oils in a mixture is used, such as "canola oil and modified sunflower oil", it is considered satisfy both the common name and list of ingredients requirements. This means that a separate list of ingredients is not required, providing there are no other ingredients than the oils mentioned.

Medium Chain Triglycerides
When medium chain triglycerides are added as an ingredient of foods, the acceptable common name in the list of ingredients must reflect the source of the medium chain triglycerides, e.g., "modified coconut oil" when fractionated coconut oil is the source. Refer to the Food and Drug Regulations, paragraph B.01.010(3)(a), Items 13, 17, 18 and 19, for other prescribed names. It is recommended that the words "medium chain triglycerides" be shown in brackets after the ingredient to identify the product of the modification, e.g., "modified coconut oil (medium chain triglycerides)".

Shortening as an Ingredient
Shortening containing vegetable oil or partially hydrogenated vegetable oil must be listed in the list of ingredients of a food as "vegetable oil shortening" (unless it contains one of the fats that must be mentioned by name, e.g. coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, cocoa butter, peanut oil). Shortening containing lard should be called "lard shortening".

Shortening does not have to be qualified in the list of ingredients as "hydrogenated" or "partially hydrogenated".

Spray Dried Shortening as an Ingredient
Spray dried shortening is an unstandardized food which cannot be listed as a vegetable oil shortening but can be listed as a spray dried shortening preparation in the list of ingredients. All of the components must be listed.

Use of Adjectives and Descriptive Phrases to Describe Nutrient Content
It is generally not acceptable to use adjectives and descriptive phrases that describe or imply nutrient content characteristics of an ingredient in the list of ingredients, e.g., "unhydrogenated vegetable oil". "Non-hydrogenated" and "unhydrogenated" are considered implied "free of trans fatty acid" claims. For more information see Implied Nutrient Content Claims.

See Additional Information in the List of Ingredients for further details.

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English
Yüksek Stabilite Sağlayan Emolyentler
ÜRÜN İSMİ INCI İSMİ
Akofine P hydrogenated vegetable oil
Akofine R hydrogenated vegetable oil
Akogel hydrogenated vegetable oil
Akogel Plus hydrogenated vegetable oil
Akomed R caprylic/capric triglyceride
Akosun helianthus annuus hybrid oil
High Oleic Brassica Oil brassica campestris seed oil
Lipex BC hydrogenated vegetable oil
Lipex Bassol C olus oil (or) canola oil


Le CEGESOFT VP est un émollient cireux 100% d'origine naturelle, d'étalement lent avec un point de fusion proche de la température cutanée.
Alternative idéale à la vaseline et aux huiles minérales, il apporte texture et fondant à toutes vos applications soin ainsi qu'à vos produits de maquillage. Il constitue en effet une excellente base pour les produits lèvres (sticks, baumes et rouges à lèvres)
Facile d'utilisation, le CEGESOFT VP ( Olus oil ( and) Hydrogenated vegetable oil (and) Candelilla Cera) s'introduit en phase grasse et permet de s'affranchir des problématiques de cristallisation des beurres végétaux.

PROPRIÉTÉS
Richesse et texture
Non gras ni collant
Non comédogène
Excellente tolérance cutanée et oculaire
ON AIME
Cheat sheet Emollients
Alternative aux « petrolatum »
Indice d'Origine Naturelle =1
INGRÉDIENTS COSMÉTIQUES
DOCS RÉGLEMENTAIRES
AJOUTER À MA SELECTION
Formule(s) d'orientation
Gel creme visage cosmos
Baume de modelage fondant
Baume nutritif corps cosmos
Stick protecteur levres spf 30 combo 2 en 1
Creme pieds poudree
Baume en stick démaquillant


Bambo Nature takes extra care in always buying the best and most transparently sourced raw materials.
Our products under go the strictest certification processes available to ensure the safety your baby. So go ahead, see what we're made of!


Absorbent of polyacrylate (SAP) - SAP are Super Absorbent Polymers, the gel-like balls found within the core of our nappies. A small amount of these are used throughout the core of our nappies for optimum absorbency.

Allantoin- a skin conditioning, skin protecting, soothing active ingredient used in the prevention and treatment of dry and chapped skin and lips.

Aloe Vera (Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract)- a plant that is known for its ability to help regenerate skin and hair by preserving moisture and balancing pH levels. It contains important vitamins, including B12, C and E, as well as beta carotene, the predecessor of vitamin A.

Apricot Oil (Prunus Armeniaca Kernel Oil)- plentiful in vitamins and essential fatty acids, this oil is easily absorbed by the skin. Also useful for dry or irritated skin, due to its softening and moisturizing qualities, and it can also increase the natural elasticity of skin.

Aqua- tap water treated by reverse osmosis.

 

B

Brassica Campestris Seed Oil (Rapeseed Oil, Brassica Napus Seed Oil)- an oil with a high content of natural vitamin E, protecting against free radicals and oxidation. An excellent protector of skin and hair against outer pollution.

Brassica Napus Seed Oil (Brassica Campestris Seed Oil, Rapeseed Oil)- an oil with a high content of natural vitamin E, protecting against free radicals and oxidation. An excellent protector of skin and hair against outer pollution.

Butyrospermum Parkii Butter (Shea Butter)- a natural fat obtained from the fruit of the karate tree, it is known to restore skin suppleness, increase moisturization, and improve the appearance of irritated dry skin.

 

C

Canola oil- an oil with a high content of natural vitamin E, protecting against free radicals and oxidation. A good protector for the skin against outer pollution, it provides emollience and lubricity.

Caprylic (Capric Triglyceride)- a vegetable oil used in cosmetics to promote penetration and nourishment through fatty acid esters that do not leave visible traces of oiliness on the skin. Stable when exposed to air.

Cellulose (ECF fluff)- the fibres obtained from plant-based materials that create a soft filling, or fluff; our diapers and training pants use fluff that is ECF-chlorine-free.

Cetearyl Glucoside- a vegetable emulsifier, suitable for sensitive skin and promoting softness. Made from cetearyl alcohol and glucose.

Citric Acid - an organic acid that occurs naturally in citrus fruits and corn.

Coco-glucoside- a mild vegetable nonion surfactant that is degradable in nature and originates from palm or coconut oil. It acts as a very mild cleansing agent.

Coconut Oil (Cocos Nucifera Oil)- a grouping of primarily short-chain fatty acids bonded with glycerine and expressed from coconut kernels. Stable when exposed to air, with good softening qualities and the ability to soothe dry, itchy and sensitive skin.

 

E

E-vitamin (Tocopherol)- one of the most important antioxidants for protection against free radicals. A fat-soluble vitamin absorbed by the cell walls, it protects fat (phospholipids) against rancidification. E-vitamin also preserves the elasticity and softness of the skin and hair.

ECF fluff- elemental chlorine-free fibres obtained from plant-based materials that create a soft filling.

Elastane- a polyurethane material that is elastic for a snug-but comfortable-fit.

Emulsifier- a substance that enables the mix of oily and watery ingredients, providing a product with a more uniform structure.

Ethylhexlyglycerin - A clear liquid preservative derived from vegetable glyerin often from coconut or palm oil.

 

G

Gluconolactone - Derived from corn, this acts as a preservative helpful for protecting the skin.

Glycereth-17 Cocoate- a non-ionic, surfactant cleansing agent of vegetable origin (RSPO palm oil).

Glycerine- a preserver of the natural moisture balance in skin and hair, which increases elasticity as it helps retain moisture. Ours is of vegetable origin.

 

H

Hydrogenated Castor Oil (Castor Wax) (PEG-40) - An emollient carrier oil that leaves the skin soft and supple, while keeping cosmetic formulations together.

 

L

Lactic Acid- Exfoliant, moisturizer and pH balancer. Ours is made from vegetables through the fermentation of sugar.

Laureth-10- a mild, anionic surfactant cleansing agent of vegetable origin (RSPO palm oil).

 

M

Magnesium Sulphate- this compound is easily absorbed by the skin and has long been hailed for its soothing and anti-inflammatory properties. The ingredient has stabilizing properties.

 

O

Olus Oil (Vegetable Oil)- a mild vegetable oil with origins from rapeseed. Oxidation-stable and easily degradable, it provides the skin with moisture and elasticity.

 

P

Polyacrylate (SAP)- a superabsorbent polymer with the ability to absorb as much as 300 times its mass in liquid.

Polyethylene (PE)- the most commonly used plastic in production globally; ours however, is made with biodegradable raw materials from renewable resources rather than petroleum or natural gas.

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET/Co-PET)- a thermoplastic polymer that serves as a high-performing moisture barrier.

Polyglyceryl-2 Dipolyhydroxystearate- a softening and moisture-retaining emulsifier.

Polyglyceryl-3 Diisostearate- a softening emulsifier.

Polypropylene (PP)- a thermoplastic polymer with a low-energy, slippery surface.

Potassium Sorbate- a preservative to prevent fungi and bacteria that can occur naturally in fruit and berries. Ours is synthesized from compounds that come from mineral oils.

Propylene Glycol - is a synthetic liquid, completely soluble in water, which helps the skin to absorbs moisture. It is recognised as safe for use in foods, cosmetics and medicines.

Prunus Armeniaca Kernel Oil (Apricot Oil)- plentiful in vitamins and essential fatty acids, this oil is easily absorbed by the skin. Also useful for dry or irritated skin, due to its softening and moisturizing qualities, and it can also increase the natural elasticity of skin.

 

R

Rapeseed Oil (Brassica Campestris Seed Oil, Brassica Napus Seed Oil)- an oil with a high content of natural vitamin E, protecting against free radicals and oxidation. An excellent protector of skin and hair against outer pollution.

 

S

Shea Butter (Butyrospermum Parkii Butter)- a natural fat obtained from the fruit of the karate tree, it is known to restore skin suppleness, increase moisturisation, and improve the appearance of irritated dry skin.

Sodium Benzoate- a preservative used to prevent mold, yeast and fungi. Ours is synthesized from compounds that come from mineral oils.

Sodium Coco-Sulfate- degradable in nature, it originates from palm or coconut oil. It is a vegetable surfactant that works effectively on skin and hair.

Surfactant- an ingredient that lowers the surface tension of cosmetics, and aids in making products more spreadable when applied. In shampoos, it dissolves fat and dirt to gently clean and make rinsing easy.

Sodium Laureth-11 Carboxylate- a mild, anionic surfactant cleansing agent with vegetable origin (RSPO palm oil).

Sodium Stearoyl Glutamate- a vegetable emulsifier with a high electrolyte tolerance, it is used frequently in cosmetic products, where it has skin and hair conditioning effects.

Stearyl Alcohol- a vegetable viscosity builder and stabilizer of vegetable origin.

 

T

Tapioca Starch- with origins from the Tapioca plant, tapioca starch is a viscosity regulator and stabilizer. It binds moisture and regulates the texture of a product.

Tocopherol (E-vitamin)- one of the most important antioxidants for protection against free radicals. A fat-soluble vitamin absorbed by the cell walls, it protects fat (phospholipids) against rancidification. E-vitamin also preserves the elasticity and softness of the skin and hair.

 

V

Vegetable Oil (Olus Oil)- a mild vegetable oil with origins from rapeseed. Oxidation-stable and easily degradable, it provides the skin with moisture and elasticity.

 

Bambo Nature takes extra care in always buying the best and most transparently sourced raw materials for our products. While we cannot guarantee the complete absence of small trace residue throughout the entire production process, we ABSOLUTELY guarantee that we do not add ANY harmful chemicals or allergens during production and that our products and raw materials have undergone the strictest certification processes available to guarantee your safety! Please check out our accreditations page to learn more about the care we take to ensure the quality and purity of our products.

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NUTRITION
What Is Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil?
Production & uses
Side effects
Food sources
Bottom line
Hydrogenated vegetable oil is a common ingredient in many processed foods.

Many manufacturers prefer this oil for its low cost and long shelf life.

However, it's associated with several serious side effects.

This article examines hydrogenated vegetable oil, explaining its uses, downsides, and food sources.

Production and uses
Hydrogenated vegetable oil is made from edible oils extracted from plants, such as olives, sunflowers, and soybeans.

Because these oils are typically liquid at room temperature, many companies use hydrogenation to get a more solid and spreadable consistency. During this process, hydrogen molecules are added to alter the texture, stability, and shelf life of the final product (1Trusted Source).

Hydrogenated vegetable oils are also used in many baked goods to improve taste and texture (2).

Additionally, these oils are more stable and resistant to oxidation, which is the breakdown of fats when exposed to heat. Thus, they're easy to use in baked or fried foods, as they're less likely to become rancid than other fats (3Trusted Source).

Yet, hydrogenation also creates trans fats, a type of unsaturated fat that can harm your health (4Trusted Source).

Although many countries have tightened regulations around hydrogenated vegetable oil, it can still be found in a variety of food products.

SUMMARY
Hydrogenated vegetable oil undergoes processing to enhance its taste, texture, and shelf life. This process forms trans fats, which are bad for your health.


Side effects
Hydrogenated vegetable oils have been linked to several adverse health effects.

May impair blood sugar control
Some research suggests that hydrogenated vegetable oils harm blood sugar control.

One 16-year study in nearly 85,000 women found that those who consumed the highest amount of trans fats, which are a byproduct of hydrogenation, had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes (5Trusted Source).

Another study in 183 people associated trans fat intake with a higher risk of insulin resistance. This condition impairs your body's ability to use insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels (6Trusted Source, 7Trusted Source).

However, other studies give conflicting results about the effects of trans fats on blood sugar levels. Thus, more research is needed (8Trusted Source).

May increase inflammation
Although acute inflammation is a normal immune response that protects against illness and infection, chronic inflammation can contribute to conditions like heart disease, diabetes, and cancer (9Trusted Source).

Studies show that the trans fats in hydrogenated vegetable oil can increase inflammation in your body.

One small, 5-week study in 50 men noted that swapping out other fats for trans fat raised levels of inflammatory markers (10Trusted Source).

Similarly, a study in 730 women found that certain markers of inflammation were up to 73% higher in those who consumed the highest amount of trans fats, compared with those who consumed the least (11Trusted Source).

Can harm heart health
Hydrogenated vegetable oils' trans fats have been shown to harm heart health.

Studies reveal that trans fats can increase levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol while decreasing good HDL (good) cholesterol, both of which are risk factors for heart disease (12Trusted Source).

Other studies link high trans fat intake to a higher risk of heart disease and stroke.

For example, one 20-year study in 78,778 women associated high trans fat intake with a significantly greater risk of heart disease, while another study in 17,107 people tied every 2 grams of trans fat consumed daily to a 14% higher risk of stroke in men (13Trusted Source, 14Trusted Source).

SUMMARY
Hydrogenated vegetable oil may increase inflammation and negatively affect heart health and blood sugar control.

powered by Rubicon Project
Food sources
Several countries have banned or restricted the use of trans fats in commercial products.

Beginning in 2021, the European Union will limit trans fats to no more than 2% of total fat in food products (15).

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also banned artificial trans fats from processed foods in the United States. However, this rule doesn't take full effect until 2020, and hydrogenated vegetable oils are still present in many pre-packaged and processed foods (16Trusted Source).

Some of the most common sources of hydrogenated vegetable oils include:

margarine
fried foods
baked goods
coffee creamers
crackers
pre-made dough
vegetable shortening
microwave popcorn
potato chips
packaged snacks
To minimize your trans fat intake, carefully check the ingredient lists of your foods for hydrogenated vegetable oils - which may be called "hydrogenated oils" or "partially hydrogenated oils."

SUMMARY
Although many governments are cracking down on trans fats, hydrogenated oils can still be found in many pre-packaged and processed foods.

The bottom line
Hydrogenated vegetable oils are widely used in the food industry to improve the taste and texture of processed foods.

Still, they harbor trans fats, which may negatively affect heart health, inflammation, and blood sugar control.

Although many countries now restrict trans fats, this oil is still present in numerous packaged foods. Therefore, read food labels carefully to minimize your intake of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

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Written by Rachael Link, MS, RD on September 25, 2019

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Oils can be heated to temperatures significantly higher than the boiling point of water, 100 °C (212 °F), and used to cook foods (frying). Oils for this purpose must have a high flash point. Such oils include the major cooking oils - soybean, rapeseed, canola, sunflower, safflower, peanut, cottonseed, etc. Tropical oils, such as coconut, palm, and rice bran oils, are particularly valued in Asian cultures for high-temperature cooking, because of their unusually high flash points.

Hydrogenated oils
Unsaturated vegetable oils can be transformed through partial or complete "hydrogenation" into oils of higher melting point. The hydrogenation process involves "sparging" the oil at high temperature and pressure with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst, typically a powdered nickel compound. As each carbon-carbon double-bond is chemically reduced to a single bond, two hydrogen atoms each form single bonds with the two carbon atoms. The elimination of double bonds by adding hydrogen atoms is called saturation; as the degree of saturation increases, the oil progresses toward being fully hydrogenated. An oil may be hydrogenated to increase resistance to rancidity (oxidation) or to change its physical characteristics. As the degree of saturation increases, the oil's viscosity and melting point increase.

The use of hydrogenated oils in foods has never been completely satisfactory. Because the center arm of the triglyceride is shielded somewhat by the end fatty acids, most of the hydrogenation occurs on the end fatty acids, thus making the resulting fat more brittle.[citation needed] A margarine made from naturally more saturated oils will be more plastic (more "spreadable") than a margarine made from hydrogenated soy oil.[citation needed] While full hydrogenation produces largely saturated fatty acids, partial hydrogenation results in the transformation of unsaturated cis fatty acids to unsaturated trans fatty acids in the oil mixture due to the heat used in hydrogenation. Partially hydrogenated oils and their trans fats have been linked to an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease,[8] among other increased health risks.

In the US, the Standard of Identity for a product labeled as "vegetable oil margarine" specifies only canola, safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean, or peanut oil may be used.[9] Products not labeled "vegetable oil margarine" do not have that restriction.

Industrial uses
Vegetable oils are used as an ingredient or component in many manufactured products.

Many vegetable oils are used to make soaps, skin products, candles, perfumes and other personal care and cosmetic products. Some oils are particularly suitable as drying oils, and are used in making paints and other wood treatment products. Dammar oil (a mixture of linseed oil and dammar resin), for example, is used almost exclusively in treating the hulls of wooden boats. Vegetable oils are increasingly being used in the electrical industry as insulators as vegetable oils are not toxic to the environment, biodegradable if spilled and have high flash and fire points. However, vegetable oils are less stable chemically, so they are generally used in systems where they are not exposed to oxygen, and they are more expensive than crude oil distillate. Synthetic tetraesters, which are similar to vegetable oils but with four fatty acid chains compared to the normal three found in a natural ester, are manufactured by Fischer esterification. Tetraesters generally have high stability to oxidation and have found use as engine lubricants.[relevant? - discuss] Vegetable oil is being used to produce biodegradable hydraulic fluid[10] and lubricant.[11]

One limiting factor in industrial uses of vegetable oils is that all such oils are susceptible to becoming rancid. Oils that are more stable, such as ben oil or mineral oil, are thus preferred for industrial uses. Castor oil has numerous industrial uses, owing to the presence of hydroxyl group on the fatty acid. Castor oil is a precursor to Nylon 11.

Pet food additive
Vegetable oil is used in the production of some pet foods. AAFCO[12] defines vegetable oil, in this context, as the product of vegetable origin obtained by extracting the oil from seeds or fruits which are processed for edible purposes.

Fuel
Main article: Vegetable oil fuel
Vegetable oils are also used to make biodiesel, which can be used like conventional diesel. Some vegetable oil blends are used in unmodified vehicles but straight vegetable oil, also known as pure plant oil, needs specially prepared vehicles which have a method of heating the oil to reduce its viscosity. The use of vegetable oils as alternative energy is growing and the availability of biodiesel around the world is increasing.

The NNFCC estimates that the total net greenhouse gas savings when using vegetable oils in place of fossil fuel-based alternatives for fuel production, range from 18 to 100%.[13]

Production
The production process of vegetable oil involves the removal of oil from plant components, typically seeds. This can be done via mechanical extraction using an oil mill or chemical extraction using a solvent. The extracted oil can then be purified and, if required, refined or chemically altered.

Mechanical extraction
Oils can be removed via mechanical extraction, termed "crushing" or "pressing." This method is typically used to produce the more traditional oils (e.g., olive, coconut etc.), and it is preferred by most "health-food" customers in the United States and in Europe.[citation needed] There are several different types of mechanical extraction.[14] Expeller-pressing extraction is common, though the screw press, ram press, and ghani (powered mortar and pestle) are also used. Oilseed presses are commonly used in developing countries, among people for whom other extraction methods would be prohibitively expensive; the ghani is primarily used in India.[15] The amount of oil extracted using these methods varies widely, as shown in the following table for extracting mowrah butter in India:[16]

Method Percentage extracted
Ghani[17] 20-30%
Expellers 34-37%
Solvent 40-43%
Solvent extraction
The processing of vegetable oil in commercial applications is commonly done by chemical extraction, using solvent extracts, which produces higher yields and is quicker and less expensive. The most common solvent is petroleum-derived hexane. This technique is used for most of the "newer" industrial oils such as soybean and corn oils. After extraction, the solvent is evaporated out by heating the mixture to about 300 °F (149 °C).[18]

Supercritical carbon dioxide can be used as a non-toxic alternative to other solvents.[19]

Hydrogenation
Oils may be partially hydrogenated to produce various ingredient oils. Lightly hydrogenated oils have very similar physical characteristics to regular soy oil, but are more resistant to becoming rancid. Margarine oils need to be mostly solid at 32 °C (90 °F) so that the margarine does not melt in warm rooms, yet it needs to be completely liquid at 37 °C (98 °F), so that it doesn't leave a "lardy" taste in the mouth.

Hardening vegetable oil is done by raising a blend of vegetable oil and a catalyst in near-vacuum to very high temperatures, and introducing hydrogen. This causes the carbon atoms of the oil to break double-bonds with other carbons, each carbon forming a new single-bond with a hydrogen atom. Adding these hydrogen atoms to the oil makes it more solid, raises the smoke point, and makes the oil more stable.



Hydrogenated vegetable oils differ in two major ways from other oils which are equally saturated. During hydrogenation, it is easier for hydrogen to come into contact with the fatty acids on the end of the triglyceride, and less easy for them to come into contact with the center fatty acid. This makes the resulting fat more brittle than a tropical oil; soy margarines are less "spreadable".[compared to?] The other difference is that trans fatty acids (often called trans fat) are formed in the hydrogenation reactor, and may amount to as much as 40 percent by weight of a partially hydrogenated oil. Hydrogenated oils, especially partially hydrogenated oils with their higher amounts of trans fatty acids, are increasingly thought to be unhealthy.

Deodorization
In the processing of edible oils, the oil is heated under vacuum to near the smoke point or to about 450 °F (232 °C),[20] and water is introduced at the bottom of the oil. The water immediately is converted to steam, which bubbles through the oil, carrying with it any chemicals which are water-soluble. The steam sparging removes impurities that can impart unwanted flavors and odors to the oil. Deodorization is key to the manufacture of vegetable oils. Nearly all soybean, corn, and canola oils found on supermarket shelves go through a deodorization stage that removes trace amounts of odors and flavors, and lightens the color of the oil.

Occupational exposure
People can breathe in vegetable oil mist in the workplace. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (permissible exposure limit) for vegetable oil mist exposure in the workplace as 15 mg/m3 total exposure and 5 mg/m3 respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 10 mg/m3 total exposure and 5 mg/m3 respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday.[21]

Yield
Typical productivity of some oil crops, measured in tons (t) of oil produced per hectare (ha) of land per year (yr). Oil palm is by far the highest yielding crop, capable of producing about 4 tons of palm oil per hectare per year.

Crop Yield
(t/ha/yr)
Palm oil [22] 4.0
Coconut oil [23] 1.4
Canola oil [24] 1.4
Soybean oil [24] 0.6
Sunflower oil [23] 0.6
Particular oils
For a more comprehensive list, see List of vegetable oils.
The following triglyceride vegetable oils account for almost all worldwide production, by volume. All are used as both cooking oils and as SVO or to make biodiesel. According to the USDA, the total world consumption of major vegetable oils in 2007/08 was:[25]

Oil source World consumption
(million metric tons) Notes
Palm 41.31 The most widely produced tropical oil, also used to make biofuel
Soybean 41.28 One of the most widely consumed cooking oils
Rapeseed 18.24 One of the most widely used cooking oils, canola is a variety (cultivar) of rapeseed
Sunflower seed 9.91 A common cooking oil, also used to make biodiesel
Peanut 4.82 Mild-flavored cooking oil
Cottonseed 4.99 A major food oil, often used in industrial food processing
Palm kernel 4.85 From the seed of the African palm tree
Coconut 3.48 Used in cooking, cosmetics and soaps
Olive 2.84 Used in cooking, cosmetics, soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps
Note that these figures include industrial and animal feed use. The majority of European rapeseed oil production is used to produce biodiesel, or used directly as fuel in diesel cars which may require modification to heat the oil to reduce its higher viscosity. The suitability of the fuel should come as little surprise, as Rudolf Diesel originally designed his engine to run on peanut oil.

Other significant triglyceride oils include:

Corn oil, one of the most common cooking oils. As of 2006, the US produced about 1.09 million metric tons [26] of corn oil, which is used for cooking oil, salad dressing, margarine, mayonnaise, prepared goods like spaghetti sauce and baking mixes, and to fry prepared foods like potato chips and French fries.
Grape seed oil, used in cooking and cosmetics
Hazelnut oil and other nut oils
Linseed oil, from flax seeds
Rice bran oil, from rice grains
Safflower oil, a flavorless and colorless cooking oil
Sesame oil, used as a cooking oil, and as a massage oil, particularly in India
Açaí palm oil, used in culinary and cosmetics
Jambú oil, is extracted from the flowers, leaves and stem from jambu (Acmella oleracea), contains spilanthol
Graviola oil, derived from Annona muricata
Tucumã oil, from Astrocaryum aculeatum is used to manufacture soap.
Brazil nut oil, culinary and cosmetics use
Carapa oil, pharmaceutical use and anti-mosquito candle
Buriti oil, from Mauritia flexuosa, used in cosmetics (skin and hair care)
Passion fruit oil, derived from Passiflora edulis, has varied applications in cosmetics manufacturing and for uses as a human or animal food.
Pracaxi oil, obtained from Pentaclethra macroloba, cosmetics use
Solarium oil, derived from chloroplasts, various applications in cooking
Composition of fats
Vegetable oils[27][28]
Type Processing
treatment Saturated
fatty acids Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids Smoke point
Total mono[27] Oleic acid
(ω-9) Total poly[27] α-Linolenic acid
(ω-3) Linoleic acid
(ω-6)
Avocado[29] 11.6 70.6 13.5 1 12.5 271 °C (520 °F)[30]
Brazil nut[31] 24.8 32.7 31.3 42.0 0.1 41.9 208 °C (406 °F)[32]
Canola[33] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 238 °C (460 °F)[32]
Coconut[34] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[32]
Corn[35] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58
232 °C (450 °F)[36]

Cottonseed[37] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 216 °C (420 °F)[36]
Flaxseed/Linseed[38] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13
107 °C (225 °F)

Grape seed 10.5 14.3 14.3 74.7 - 74.7 216 °C (421 °F)[39]
Hemp seed[40] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0
166 °C (330 °F)[41]

Olive[42] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 193 °C (380 °F)[32]
Palm[43] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 235 °C (455 °F)
Peanut[44] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 31.4 232 °C (450 °F)[36]
Safflower[45] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 212 °C (414 °F)[32]
Soybean[46] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 238 °C (460 °F)[36]
Sunflower (standard, 65% linoleic)[47] 10.3 19.5 19.5 65.7 0 65.7 227 °C (440 °F)[36]
Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)[48] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8
Sunflower (> 70% oleic)[49] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6 232 °C (450 °F)[50]
Cottonseed[51] Hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.3
Palm[52] Hydrogenated 88.2 5.7 0
Soybean[53] Partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9
Values as percent (%) by weight of total fat.
History
Such oils have been part of human culture for millennia. Poppy seed, rapeseed, linseed, almond oil, sesame seed, safflower, and cottonseed were used since at least the bronze age throughout the Middle East and Central Asia.[1] In 1780, Carl Wilhelm Scheele demonstrated that fats were derived from glycerol. Thirty years later Michel Eugène Chevreul deduced that these fats were esters of fatty acids and glycerol.

In modern times, cottonseed oil was marketed by Procter & Gamble as a creamed shortening in 1911. Ginning mills were happy to have someone haul away the cotton seeds. The extracted oil was refined and partially hydrogenated to give a solid at room temperature and thus mimic natural lard, and can it under nitrogen gas. Compared to the rendered lard Procter & Gamble was already selling to consumers, Crisco was cheaper, easier to stir into a recipe, and could be stored at room temperature for two years without turning rancid.



Soybeans were an exciting new crop from China in the 1930s. Soy was protein-rich, and the medium viscosity oil was high in polyunsaturates. Henry Ford established a soybean research laboratory, developed soybean plastics and a soy-based synthetic wool, and built a car "almost entirely" out of soybeans.[54] Roger Drackett had a successful new product with Windex, but he invested heavily in soybean research, seeing it as a smart investment.[55] By the 1950s and 1960s, soybean oil had become the most popular vegetable oil in the US.

In the mid-1970s, Canadian researchers developed a low-erucic-acid rapeseed cultivar. Because the word "rape" was not considered optimal for marketing, they coined the name "canola" (from "Canada Oil low acid"). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved use of the canola name in January 1985,[56] and U.S. farmers started planting large areas that spring. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats, and higher in monounsaturates. Canola is very thin (unlike corn oil) and flavorless (unlike olive oil), so it largely succeeds by displacing soy oil, just as soy oil largely succeeded by displacing cottonseed oil.

Used oil
A large quantity of used vegetable oil is produced and recycled, mainly from industrial deep fryers in potato processing plants, snack food factories and fast food restaurants.

Recycled oil has numerous uses, including use as a direct fuel, as well as in the production of biodiesel, soap, animal feed, pet food, detergent, and cosmetics. It is traded as the commodity, yellow grease.

Since 2002, an increasing number of European Union countries have prohibited the inclusion of recycled vegetable oil from catering in animal feed. Used cooking oils from food manufacturing, however, as well as fresh or unused cooking oil, continue to be used in animal feed.[57]

Shelf life
Due to their susceptibility to oxidation from the exposure to oxygen, heat and light, resulting in the formation of oxidation products, such as peroxides and hydroperoxides, plant oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have a limited shelf-life.[58][59]

Product labeling
In Canada, palm oil is one of five vegetable oils, along with palm kernel oil, coconut oil, peanut oil, and cocoa butter, which must be specifically named in the list of ingredients for a food product.[60] Also, oils in Canadian food products which have been modified or hydrogenated must contain the word "modified" or "hydrogenated" when listed as an ingredient.[61] A mix of oils other than the aforementioned exceptions may simply be listed as "vegetable oil" in Canada; however, if the food product is a cooking oil, salad oil or table oil, the type of oil must be specified and listing "vegetable oil" as an ingredient is not acceptable.[60]

From December 2014, all food products produced in the European Union were legally required to indicate the specific vegetable oil used in their manufacture, following the introduction of the Food Information to Consumers Regulation.[62]

See also
Algae culture
Cholesterol
Decorticator
Deodoriser
Essential oils
Fatty acid
Food extrusion
Fragrance oil
Lipid
List of macerated oils
List of vegetable oils
Neem
Non-food crops
Oleochemistry
Vernonia oil
Vegetable oil recycling
Notes and references


Alfred Thomas (2002). "Fats and Fatty Oils". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_173.
Parwez Saroj. The Pearson Guide to the B.Sc. (Nursing) Entrance Examination. Pearson Education India. p. 109. ISBN 81-317-1338-5.
Robin Dand (1999). The International Cocoa Trade. Woodhead Publishing. p. 169. ISBN 1-85573-434-6.
"4,000-year-old 'kitchen' unearthed in Indiana". Archaeo News. January 26, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-31.
Ruth Schuster (December 17, 2014). "8,000-year old olive oil found in Galilee, earliest known in world", Haaretz. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
Ehud Galili et al., "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast, Israel", Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141-1150 (1997); Pagnol, p. 19, says the 6th millennium in Jericho, but cites no source.
Harris, H. A. (2009). "Lubrication in Antiquity". Greece and Rome. 21 (1): 32-36. doi:10.1017/S0017383500021665. ISSN 0017-3835.
Trans Fat Task Force (June 2006). "TRANSforming the Food Supply (Appendix 9iii)". Archived from the original on February 25, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-09. (Consultation on the health implications of alternatives to trans fatty acids: Summary of Responses from Experts)
"Margarine". Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter I, Subchapter B, Part 166. US Food and Drug Administration. April 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
Linda McGraw (April 19, 2000). "Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid Nears Market". USDA. Retrieved 2006-09-29.
"Cass Scenic Railroad, West Virginia". GWWCA. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
"The Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO)".
National Non-Food Crops Centre. GHG Benefits from Use of Vegetable Oils for Electricity, Heat, Transport, and Industrial Purposes, NNFCC 10-016
Hossain, Amjad (2012). "Kalu". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
Janet Bachmann. "Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers". Retrieved 2006-07-31.
B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Illipe". Minor oil crops. FAO. Retrieved 2006-11-12.
Aziz, KMA (2012). "Ghani". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. A ghani is a traditional Indian oil press, driven by a horse or ox.
"Polyunsaturated Fats". Clark's Nutrition. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
Eisenmenger, Michael; Dunford, Nurhan T.; Eller, Fred; Taylor, Scott; Martinez, Jose (2006). "Pilot-scale supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and fractionation of wheat germ oil". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 83 (10): 863-868. doi:10.1007/s11746-006-5038-6.
Feuge, R. O. "Vegetable Oils and Fats for Edible Use". usda.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2019. Certain crude oils that contain minor amounts of impurities other than free fatty acids can be refined by a process known as steam refining. It is merely a high-temperature steam distillation under reduced pressure. The crude vegetable oil is heated to about 450° F. and maintained under a pressure of 0.25 inch of mercury or less while steam is passed through it. The steam strips the free fatty acids out of the oil. The ]:>roccss is used somewhat in Europe but not often in the United States.
"CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Vegetable oil mist". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
Malaysian Palm Oil Industry, palmoilworld.org
Oil Staple Crops Compared, gardeningplaces.com
Global oil yields: Have we got it seriously wrong?, Denis J. Murphy, August 2009, aocs.org
January 2009 (PDF). Oilseeds: World Market and Trade. FOP 1-09. USDA. 2009-01-12., Table 03: Major Vegetable Oils: World Supply and Distribution at Oilseeds: World Markets and Trade Monthly Circular
Corn Refiners Association. Corn Oil 5th Edition. 2006
"US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this column are from the USDA Nutrient database unless otherwise cited.

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List of vegetable oils
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Plant oils
Olive oil from Oneglia.jpg
Olive oil
Types
Vegetable oil (list)Macerated oil (list)Essential oil (list)
Uses
Drying oilOil paintCooking oilFuelBiodiesel
Components
Saturated fatMonounsaturated fatPolyunsaturated fatTrans fat
vte
Vegetable oils are triglycerides extracted from plants. Some of these oils have been part of human culture for millennia.[1] Edible vegetable oils are used in food, both in cooking and as supplements. Many oils, edible and otherwise, are burned as fuel, such as in oil lamps and as a substitute for petroleum-based fuels. Some of the many other uses include wood finishing, oil painting, and skin care.

The term "vegetable oil" can be narrowly defined as referring only to substances that are liquid at room temperature,[2] or broadly defined without regard to a substance's state (liquid or solid) at a given temperature.[3] While a large majority of the entries in this list fit the narrower of these definitions, some do not qualify as vegetable oils according to all understandings of the term.

Classification
Vegetable oils can be classified in several ways. For instance, by their use or by the method used to extract them. In this article, vegetable oils are grouped in common classes of use.

Extraction method
There are several types of plant oils, distinguished by the method used to extract the oil from the plant. The relevant part of the plant may be placed under pressure to extract the oil, giving an expressed (or pressed) oil. The oils included in this list are of this type. Oils may also be extracted from plants by dissolving parts of plants in water or another solvent. The solution may be separated from the plant material and concentrated, giving an extracted or leached oil. The mixture may also be separated by distilling the oil away from the plant material. Oils extracted by this latter method are called essential oils. Essential oils often have different properties and uses than pressed or leached vegetable oils. Finally, macerated oils are made by infusing parts of plants in a base oil, a process called liquid-liquid extraction.

Sources
Most, but not all vegetable oils are extracted from the fruits or seeds of plants. For instance, palm oil is extracted from palm fruits, while soybean oil is extracted from soybean seeds. Vegetable oils may also be classified by grouping oils extracted from similar plants, such as "nut oils".

Although most plants contain some oil, only the oil from certain major oil crops[4] complemented by a few dozen minor oil crops[5] is widely used and traded.

Use
Oils from plants are used for several different purposes. Edible vegetable oils may be used for cooking, or as food additives. Many vegetable oils, edible and otherwise, are burned as fuel, for instance as a substitute for petroleum-based fuels. Some may be also used for cosmetics, medical purposes, wood finishing, oil painting and other industrial purposes.

Edible oils
See also: Cooking oil
Major oils
These oils make up a significant fraction of worldwide edible oil production. All are also used as fuel oils.

Coconut oil, a cooking oil, with medical and industrial applications as well. Extracted from the kernel or meat of the fruit of the coconut palm. Common in the tropics, and unusual in composition, with medium chain fatty acids dominant.[6]
Corn oil, one of the principal oils sold as salad and cooking oil.[7]
Canola oil, the most sold cooking oil all around the world, used as a salad and cooking oil, both domestically and industrially.[8] Also used in fuel industry as bio-fuel.
Cottonseed oil, used as a salad and cooking oil, both domestically and industrially.[8]
Olive oil, used in cooking, cosmetics, soaps, and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.
Palm oil, the most widely produced tropical oil.[9] Popular in West African and Brazilian cuisine.[10] Also used to make biofuel.[11]
Peanut oil (Ground nut oil), a clear oil with some applications as a salad dressing, and, due to its high smoke point, especially used for frying.[12]
Rapeseed oil, including Canola oil, one of the most widely used cooking oils.[13]
Safflower oil, until the 1960s used in the paint industry, now mostly as a cooking oil.[14]
Sesame oil, cold pressed as light cooking oil, hot pressed for a darker and stronger flavor.[15]
Soybean oil, produced as a byproduct of processing soy meal.[16]
Sunflower oil, a common cooking oil, also used to make biodiesel.[17]
Nut oils

Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel, used to make Hazelnut oil
Nut oils are generally used in cooking, for their flavor. Most are quite costly, because of the difficulty of extracting the oil.

Almond oil, used as an edible oil, but primarily in the manufacture of cosmetics.[18]
Beech nut oil, from Fagus sylvatica nuts, is a well-regarded edible oil in Europe, used for salads and cooking.[19]
Brazil nut oil contains 75% unsaturated fatty acids composed mainly of oleic and linolenic acids, as well as the phytosterol, beta-sitosterol,[20] and fat-soluble vitamin E.[21] Extra virgin oil can be obtained during the first pressing of the nuts, possibly for use as a substitute for olive oil due to its mild, pleasant flavor.
Cashew oil, somewhat comparable to olive oil. May have value for fighting dental cavities.[22]
Hazelnut oil, mainly used for its flavor. Also used in skin care, because of its slight astringent nature.[23]
Macadamia oil, with a mild nutty flavor and a high smoke point.[24]
Mongongo nut oil (or manketti oil), from the seeds of the Schinziophyton rautanenii, a tree which grows in South Africa. High in vitamin E. Also used in skin care.[25]
Pecan oil, valued as a food oil, but requiring fresh pecans for good quality oil.[26]
Pine nut oil, sold as a gourmet cooking oil,[27][28] and of potential medicinal interest as an appetite suppressant.[29]
Pistachio oil, a strongly flavored oil with a distinctive green color.[24]
Walnut oil, used for its flavor,[24] also used by Renaissance painters in oil paints.[30][31]
Pumpkin seed oil[32]
Citrus oils
A number of citrus plants yield pressed oils. Some, such as lemon and orange oil, are used as essential oils, which is uncommon for pressed oils.[note 1][33] The seeds of many if not most members of the citrus family yield usable oils.[33][34][35][36]

Grapefruit seed oil, extracted from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi). Grapefruit seed oil was extracted experimentally in 1930 and was shown to be suitable for making soap.[37]
Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. One of a small number of cold pressed essential oils.[38] Used as a flavoring agent[39] and in aromatherapy.[40]
Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled.[41] Consists of 90% d-Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods.[42]

The fruit of the sea-buckthorn
Oils from melon and gourd seeds

Watermelon seed oil, extracted from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris, is used in cooking in West Africa.
Members of the Cucurbitaceae include gourds, melons, pumpkins, and squashes. Seeds from these plants are noted for their oil content, but little information is available on methods of extracting the oil. In most cases, the plants are grown as food, with dietary use of the oils as a byproduct of using the seeds as food.[43]

Bitter gourd oil, from the seeds of Momordica charantia. High in α-Eleostearic acid. Of current research interest for its potential anti-carcinogenic properties.[44]
Bottle gourd oil, extracted from the seeds of the Lagenaria siceraria, widely grown in tropical regions. Used as an edible oil.[45]
Buffalo gourd oil, from the seeds of the Cucurbita foetidissima, a vine with a rank odor, native to southwest North America.[46]
Butternut squash seed oil, from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata, has a nutty flavor that is used for salad dressings, marinades, and sautéeing.[47]
Egusi[note 2] seed oil, from the seeds of Cucumeropsis mannii naudin, is particularly rich in linoleic acid.[48]
Pumpkin seed oil, a specialty cooking oil, produced in Austria, Slovenia and Croatia. Used mostly in salad dressings.[49]
Watermelon seed oil, pressed from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris. Traditionally used in cooking in West Africa.[50][51]
Food supplements
A number of oils are used as food supplements (or "nutraceuticals"), for their nutrient content or purported medicinal effect. Borage seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, and evening primrose oil all have a significant amount of gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA) (about 23%, 15-20% and 7-10%, respectively), and it is this that has drawn the interest of researchers.

Açaí oil, from the fruit of several species of the Açaí palm (Euterpe) grown in the Amazon region.[52][53]
Black seed oil, pressed from Nigella sativa seeds, has a long history of medicinal use, including in ancient Greek, Asian, and Islamic medicine, as well as being a topic of current medical research.[54][55][56]
Blackcurrant seed oil, from the seeds of Ribes nigrum, used as a food supplement. High in gamma-Linolenic, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.[57]
Borage seed oil, from the seeds of Borago officinalis.[57]
Evening primrose oil, from the seeds of Oenothera biennis,[58] the most important plant source of gamma-Linolenic acid, particularly because it does not contain alpha-Linolenic acid.[57][59]
Flaxseed oil (called linseed oil when used as a drying oil), from the seeds of Linum usitatissimum. High in omega-3 and lignans, which can be used medicinally. A good dietary equivalent to fish oil.[60] Easily turns rancid.[61]
Other edible oils

Carob seed pods, used to make carob pod oil
Amaranth oil, from the seeds of grain amaranth species, including Amaranthus cruentus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus, high in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids.[62]
Apricot oil, similar to almond oil, which it resembles. Used in cosmetics.[63]
Apple seed oil, high in linoleic acid.[64]
Argan oil, from the seeds of the Argania spinosa, is a food oil from Morocco[65] developed through a women's cooperative founded in the 1990s,[note 3] that has also attracted recent attention in Europe.
Avocado oil, an edible oil[66] used primarily in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.[67][68] Unusually high smoke point of 510 °F (266 °C).[69]
Babassu oil, from the seeds of the Attalea speciosa, is similar to, and used as a substitute for, coconut oil.[70]
Ben oil, extracted from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera. High in behenic acid. Extremely stable edible oil. Also suitable for biofuel.[citation needed]
Borneo tallow nut oil, extracted from the fruit of species of genus Shorea. Used as a substitute for cocoa butter, and to make soap, candles, cosmetics and medicines in places where the tree is common.[71]
Cape chestnut oil, also called yangu oil, is a popular oil in Africa for skin care.[72]
Carob pod oil (Algaroba oil), from carob, with an exceptionally high essential fatty acid content.[73][74]
Cocoa butter, from the cacao plant, is used in the manufacture of chocolate, as well as in some ointments and cosmetics; sometimes known as theobroma oil[75]
Cocklebur oil, from species of genus Xanthium, with similar properties to poppyseed oil, similar in taste and smell to sunflower oil.[76][77]
Cohune oil, from the Attalea cohune (cohune palm) used as a lubricant, for cooking, soapmaking and as a lamp oil.[78]

Kenaf seed oil, from the seeds of Hibiscus cannabinus. An edible oil similar to cottonseed oil, with a long history of use.[92][93]
Lallemantia oil, from the seeds of Lallemantia iberica, discovered at archaeological sites in northern Greece.[94]
Mafura oil, extracted from the seeds of Trichilia emetica. Used as an edible oil in Ethiopia. Mafura butter, extracted as part of the same process when extracting the oil, is not edible, and is used in soap and candle making, as a body ointment, as fuel, and medicinally.[95]
Marula oil, extracted from the kernel of Sclerocarya birrea. Used as an edible oil with a light, nutty flavor. Also used in soaps. Fatty acid composition is similar to that of olive oil.[96][97]
Meadowfoam seed oil, highly stable oil, with over 98% long-chain fatty acids. Competes with rapeseed oil for industrial applications.[98]
Mustard oil (pressed), used in India as a cooking oil. Also used as a massage oil.[99]
Niger seed oil is obtained from the edible seeds of the Niger plant, which belongs to the genus Guizotia of the family Asteraceae. The botanical name of the plant is Guizotia abyssinica. Cultivation for the plant originated in the Ethiopian highlands, and has since spread from Malawi to India.[100]

Poppy seeds, used to make poppyseed oil
Nutmeg butter, extracted by expression from the fruit of cogeners of genus Myristica. Nutmeg butter has a large amount of trimyristin. Nutmeg oil, by contrast, is an essential oil, extracted by steam distillation.[101]
Okra seed oil, from Abelmoschus esculentus. Composed predominantly of oleic and linoleic acids.[102] The greenish yellow edible oil has a pleasant taste and odor.[103]
Papaya seed oil, high in omega-3 and omega-6, similar in composition to olive oil.[104] Not to be confused with papaya oil produced by maceration.[105]
Perilla seed oil, high in omega-3 fatty acids. Used as an edible oil, for medicinal purposes in Asian herbal medicine, in skin care products and as a drying oil.[106][107]
Persimmon seed oil, extracted from the seeds of Diospyros virginiana. Dark, reddish-brown color, similar in taste to olive oil. Nearly equal content of oleic and linoleic acids.[108]
Pequi oil, extracted from the seeds of Caryocar brasiliense. Used in Brazil as a highly prized cooking oil.[109]
Pili nut oil, extracted from the seeds of Canarium ovatum. Used in the Philippines as an edible oil, as well as for a lamp oil.[110]
Pomegranate seed oil, from Punica granatum seeds, is very high in punicic acid (which takes its name from pomegranates). A topic of current medical research for treating and preventing cancer.[111][112]
Poppyseed oil, long used for cooking, in paints, varnishes, and soaps.[113][114][115][116]
Pracaxi oil, extracted from the seeds of Pentaclethra macroloba. Similar to peanut oil, but has a high concentration of behenic acid (19%).[117]

Virgin pracaxi oil
Prune kernel oil, marketed as a gourmet cooking oil[118][119] Similar in composition to peach kernel oil.[120]
Quinoa oil, similar in composition and use to corn oil.[121]
Ramtil oil, pressed from the seeds of the one of several species of genus Guizotia abyssinica (Niger pea) in India and Ethiopia.[122][123]
Rice bran oil is a highly stable cooking and salad oil, suitable for high-temperature cooking.[69][124] It also has potential as a biofuel.[125]
Royle oil, pressed from the seeds of Prinsepia utilis, a wild, edible oil shrub that grows in the higher Himalayas. Used medicinally in Nepal.[126]

Shea nuts, from which shea butter is pressed
Sacha inchi oil, from the Peruvian Amazon. High in behenic, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.[127][128]
Sapote oil, used as a cooking oil in Guatemala.[129]
Seje oil, from the seeds of Jessenia bataua. Used in South America as an edible oil, similar to olive oil, as well as for soaps and in the cosmetics industry.[130]
Shea butter, much of which is produced by poor, African women. Used primarily in skin care products and as a substitute for cocoa butter in confections and cosmetics.[131][132]
Taramira oil, from the seeds of the arugula (Eruca sativa), grown in West Asia and Northern India. Used as a (pungent) edible oil after aging to remove acridity.[133][134]
Tea seed oil (Camellia oil), widely used in southern China as a cooking oil. Also used in making soaps, hair oils and a variety of other products.[135][136]
Thistle oil, pressed from the seeds of Silybum marianum.[137] A good potential source of special fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, phenol compounds and natural anti-oxidants,[138] as well as for generally improving the nutritional value of foods.[139]
Tigernut oil (or nut-sedge oil) is pressed from the tuber of Cyperus esculentus. It has properties similar to soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils.[140] It is used in cooking and making soap[141] and has potential as a biodiesel fuel.[140]
Tobacco seed oil, from the seeds of Nicotiana tabacum and other Nicotiana species. Edible if purified.[142]
Tomato seed oil is a potentially valuable by-product, as a cooking oil, from the waste seeds generated from processing tomatoes.[143]
Wheat germ oil, used nutritionally and in cosmetic preparations, high in vitamin E and octacosanol.[144]
Oils used for biofuel
See also: Vegetable oil used as fuel

A flask of biodiesel

Sunflower kernels

Jojoba fruit
A number of oils are used for biofuel (biodiesel and Straight Vegetable Oil) in addition to having other uses. Other oils are used only as biofuel.[note 4][145]

Although diesel engines were invented, in part, with vegetable oil in mind,[146] diesel fuel is almost exclusively petroleum-based. Vegetable oils are evaluated for use as a biofuel based on:

Suitability as a fuel, based on flash point, energy content, viscosity, combustion products and other factors
Cost, based in part on yield, effort required to grow and harvest, and post-harvest processing cost
Multipurpose oils also used as biofuel
The oils listed immediately below are all (primarily) used for other purposes - all but tung oil are edible - but have been considered for use as biofuel.

Castor oil, lower cost than many candidates. Kinematic viscosity may be an issue.[147]
Coconut oil (copra oil), promising for local use in places that produce coconuts.[148]
Colza oil, from Brassica rapa, var. oleifera (turnip) is closely related to rapeseed (or canola) oil. It is a major source of biodiesel in Germany.[149]
Corn oil, appealing because of the abundance of maize as a crop.
Cottonseed oil, the subject of study for cost-effectiveness as a biodiesel feedstock.[150][151]
False flax oil, from Camelina sativa, used in Europe in oil lamps until the 18th century.[87]
Hemp oil, relatively low in emissions. Production is problematic in some countries because of its association with marijuana.[152][153]
Mustard oil, shown to be comparable to Canola oil as a biofuel.[154]
Palm oil, very popular for biofuel, but the environmental impact from growing large quantities of oil palms has recently called the use of palm oil into question.[155]
Peanut oil, used in one of the first demonstrations of the Diesel engine in 1900.[146]
Radish oil. Wild radish contains up to 48% oil, making it appealing as a fuel.[156]
Rapeseed oil, the most common base oil used in Europe in biodiesel production.[145]
Ramtil oil, used for lighting in India.[157]
Rice bran oil, appealing because of lower cost than many other vegetable oils. Widely grown in Asia.[158]
Safflower oil, explored recently as a biofuel in Montana.[159]
Salicornia oil, from the seeds of Salicornia bigelovii, a halophyte (salt-loving plant) native to Mexico.[160]
Soybean oil, not economical as a fuel crop, but appealing as a byproduct of soybean crops for other uses.[145]
Sunflower oil, suitable as a fuel, but not necessarily cost effective.[161]
Tigernut oil has been described by researchers in China as having "great potential as a biodiesel fuel."[140]
Tung oil, referenced in several lists of vegetable oils that are suitable for biodiesel.[162] Several factories in China produce biodiesel from tung oil.[163]
Inedible oils used only or primarily as biofuel
See also: Algae fuel
These oils are extracted from plants that are cultivated solely for producing oil-based biofuel.[note 5] These, plus the major oils described above, have received much more attention as fuel oils than other plant oils.

Copaiba, an oleoresin tapped from species of genus Copaifera. Used in Brazil as a cosmetic product and a major source of biodiesel.[164]
Jatropha oil, widely used in India as a fuel oil. Has attracted strong proponents for use as a biofuel.[165][166]
Jojoba oil, from the Simmondsia chinensis, a desert shrub.[167]
Milk bush, popularized by chemist Melvin Calvin in the 1950s. Researched in the 1980s by Petrobras, the Brazilian national petroleum company.[168]
Nahor oil, pressed from the kernels of Mesua ferrea, is used in India as a lamp oil.[169]
Paradise oil, from the seeds of Simarouba glauca, has received interest in India as a feed stock for biodiesel.[170]
Petroleum nut oil, from the Petroleum nut (Pittosporum resiniferum) native to the Philippines. The Philippine government once explored the use of the petroleum nut as a biofuel.[171]
Pongamia oil (also known as Honge oil), extracted from Millettia pinnata and pioneered as a biofuel by Udipi Shrinivasa in Bangalore, India.[172][173]
Drying oils
See also: Drying oil
Drying oils are vegetable oils that dry to a hard finish at normal room temperature. Such oils are used as the basis of oil paints, and in other paint and wood finishing applications. In addition to the oils listed here, walnut, sunflower and safflower oil are also considered to be drying oils.[174]

Dammar oil, from the Canarium strictum, used in paint as an oil drying agent.[175] Can also be used as a lamp oil.[176]
Linseed oil's properties as a polymer make it highly suitable for wood finishing, for use in oil paints, as a plasticizer and hardener in putty and in making linoleum.[177] When used in food or medicinally, linseed oil is called flaxseed oil.
Poppyseed oil, similar in usage to linseed oil but with better color stability.[174]
Stillingia oil (also called Chinese vegetable tallow oil), obtained by solvent from the seeds of Sapium sebiferum. Used as a drying agent in paints and varnishes.[178][179]
Tung oil, used as an industrial lubricant and highly effective drying agent. Also used as a substitute for linseed oil.[180]
Vernonia oil is produced from the seeds of the Vernonia galamensis. It is composed of 73-80% vernolic acid, which can be used to make epoxies for manufacturing adhesives, varnishes and paints, and industrial coatings.[181]
Other oils
A number of pressed vegetable oils are either not edible, or not used as an edible oil.


The fruit of the amur cork tree

Castor beans are the source of castor oil.

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Edible fats and oils
Fats
Pork fats
Fatback LardoSaloSalt porkSzalonnaLardLardonPork belly BaconPancettaTocinoSpeck
Beef/mutton fats
DrippingSuetTallowTail fat
Dairy fats
ButterClarified butter GheeNiter kibbehSmen
Poultry fats
Chicken fatDuck fatSchmaltz
Other animal fats
Blubber MuktukWhale oil
Vegetable fats
Borneo tallowCocoa butterMargarineShea butterVegetable shortening
Oils
Fish oils
Cod liver oilShark liver oil
Vegetable oils
Major oils
Coconut oilCorn oilCottonseed oilOlive oilPalm oil palm kernel oilPeanut oilRapeseed oil Canola oil and Colza oil (toxic oil syndrome)Safflower oilSoybean oilSunflower oil
Nut oils
Almond oilArgan oilCashew oilHazelnut oilMacadamia oilMarula oilMongongo nut oilPecan oilPine nut oilPistachio oilWalnut oil
Fruit and
seed oils
Ambadi seed oilAvocado oilCastor oilGrape seed oilHemp oilLinseed oil (flaxseed oil)Mustard oilOlive oilPerilla oilPoppyseed oilPumpkin seed oilRice bran oilSesame oilTea seed oilWatermelon seed oil
See also List of vegetable oilsCooking oilEssential oil
Categories: Vegetable oilsCooking fatsChemistry-related listsLists of foods

 

 

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