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TARTRAZİN (TARTRAZINE)

TARTRAZINE (TARTRAZİN)

 

SYNONYMS: Tartrazine; Tartrazin; Tartraziyn; Tartazin; Tar tazin; Tardazin; TARTRAZINE; TARTRAZİNE; TARTAZİN; TAR TAZİN; TARDAZİN; tartrazine; tartrazin; tartraziyn; tartazin; tar tazin; tardazin; tartazim; 1934-21-0; Yellow 5; Aizen tartrazine; trisodium salt; C.I. ACID YELLOW 23; Food Yellow 4; Tartrazine FD&C Yellow #5; Atul Tartrazine; Erio Tartrazine; Kako Tartrazine; Tartrazine Lake; Tartrazine B; Tartrazine C; Tartrazine G; Tartrazine M; Tartrazine N; Tartrazine O; Tartrazine T; CI 19140; HD Tartrazine; Lake Yellow; Sugai Tartrazine; Tartrazine FQ; Tartrazine NS; Tartrazine XX; Tartrazol Yellow; A.F. Yellow No. 4; Tartrazine XXX; Tartrazine MCGL; Tartrazol BPC; Amacid Yellow T; Cilefa Yellow T; Dye Yellow Lake; Fenazo Yellow T; Kayaku Tartrazine; Mitsui Tartrazine; Oxanal Yellow T; Tartar Yellow N; Tartar Yellow S; Tartrazine Yellow; Lemon Yellow A; Acid Yellow T; Bucacid tartrazine; Dolkwal tartrazine; Hexacol Tartrazine; Acilan Yellow GG; C.I. 19140; Egg Yellow A; San-ei Tartrazine; Tartar Yellow FS; Tartar Yellow PF; Airedale Yellow T; Canacert tartrazine; Food Yellow 5; Neklacid Yellow T; Tartrine Yellow O; Eurocert Tartrazine; Hydroxine Yellow L; Tartrazine C Extra; Calcocid Yellow XX; KCA Tartrazine PF; Yellow Lake 69; Naphtocard Yellow O; Tartrazine A Export; HD Tartrazine Supra; Calcocid Yellow MCG; Tartrazine Yellow 5; Yellow No. 5; Tartrazine A expo T; Tartrazine B.P.C.; D&C Yellow 5; Lemon Yellow A Geigy; Schultz No. 737; Maple Tartrazol Yellow; Acid Leather Yellow T; Unitertracid Yellow TE; Yellow No. 5 FDC; Curon Fast Yellow 5G; FD And C Yellow 5; 1310 Yellow; 1409 Yellow; Xylene Fast Yellow GT; Hispacid Fast Yellow T; Usacert Yellow No. 5; C.I. Food Yellow 4; Hexacert Yellow No. 5; CHEBI:9405; FD&G Yellow No. 5; Tartrazine Extra Pure A; L Yellow Z 1020; 1342-47-8; Tartrazine Lake Yellow N; Edicol Supra Tartrazine N; D and C Yellow No. 5; KCA Foodcol Tartrazine PF; Certicol Tartrazol Yellow S; Tartrazine O Specially Pure; Tartrazine XX Specially Pure; C.I. 640; C.I. Pigment Yellow 100; MFCD00148908; Dye FD and C Yellow No. 5; Tartrazine FD & C Yellow #5; E102; Kayaku Food Colour Yellow No. 4; Tartrazine, 89%, pure; Food Yellow 4:1; 12225-21-7; C.I. Acid Yellow 23, trisodium salt; NSC4760; Zlut kysela 23; 4,5-Dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-4-((4-sulfophenyl)azo)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid, trisodium salt; Trisodium 5-oxo-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-[(E)-(4-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate; Zlut pigment 100; Zlut potravinarska 4; 3-Carboxy-5-hydroxy-1-p-sulfophenyl-4-p-sulfophenylazopyrazole trisodium salt; L-Gelb 2; tri sodium salt; Food yellow No.4; EaEthO>>AE 23; AC1L4VJG; AC1Q1UOE; Epitope ID:124945; Tartrazine, analytical standard; Tartrazine (C.I. 19140); CTK4B9056; KS-00000YDJ; UJMBCXLDXJUMFB-UHFFFAOYSA-K; Tartrazine, p.a., 95-105%; Tartrazine, Dye content >=85 %; HY-D0257; C.I. 19140(Acid Yellow 23; Tartrazine, for microscopy (Hist.); AKOS015903034; AKOS016010270; CS-5364; 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-4-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-1h-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid trisodium salt; AN-22220; BP-31013; LS-162700; FT-0621860; ST24031674; C07574; W-107716; C.I. Acid Yellow 23, trisodium salt (VAN) (8CI); I14-18503; TARTRAZINE LAKE, CI NO 19140:1 , FD & C YELLOW 5 LAKE; 4,5-Dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-4-((4-sulfophenyl)azo)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid; 5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-4-[(E)-(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-4H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid; trisodium 5-oxo-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-(4-sulfonatophenyl)azo-4H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate; 1H-Pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid,4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-4-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-, trisodiumsalt; sodium (E)-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-((4-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate; tripotassium 5-oxo-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-[2-(4-sulfonatophenyl)diazen-1-yl]-4H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate; trisodium 5-oxo-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-[(4-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-4H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate; Trisodium 5-oxo-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-[(E)-(4-sulfonatophenyl)d iazenyl]-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate; trisodium 5-oxo-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-[(E)-2-(4-sulfonatophenyl)diazen-1-yl]-4H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate; trisodium;5-oxo-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-[(E)-(4-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-4H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate;Acid Yellow 23 ; TARTRAZİN; TARTRAZİNE; tartrazin; tartrazine; ≥85 %; CI FOOD YELLOW 4; FD AND C YELLOW No. 5; TRISODIUM 5-HYDROXY-1-(4-SULFONATOPHENYL)-4-(4-SULFONATOPHENYLAZO)-H-PYRAZOL- 3-CARBOXYLATE; 1934-21-0; TARTRAZIN; TARTRAZINE; tartrazın; tartrazıne; Trisodium (4E)-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-[(4-sulfonatophenyl)hydrazono]-3-pyrazolecarboxylate
Suda Çözünür Gıda Renklendiricisi
E-100 gurubu gıda renklendiricilerindendir. Suda çözünürlüğü yüksek, sentetik bir katkı maddesidir. çoğunlukla, peynir, kek, ciklet, puding, dondurma, makarna ve şekerleme imalatlarında renklendirici olarak kullanılır. insan sağlığı açısından zararsız bir katkı maddesi olmakla birlikte, günlük kullanımı; kullanan kişinin beher kg. ağırlığına karşı 7.5 mg/gün değerini geçmemelidir. bu değer aşıldığında; nadiren, astım benzeri semptomlar ve deri dökülmeleri görülebilir. Tartrazin (ayrıca E102 veya FD & C Sarı 5 olarak da bilinir) gıda boyası için ağırlıklı olarak kullanılan sentetik bir sarı boya olduğunu. Bu benzen üretilmiştir - ve parlak renkli endüstriyel atık daha teknik olarak biraz daha fazla olduğunu. Onun aynı zamanda dünyanın en çok kullanılan renk katkı biri - orada doğal ve daha az zarar verici alternatifler, beta karoten, zerdeçal ve annatto olarak kullanılabilir olmasına rağmen. gıda ilaç bir ürün büyük bir aralıkta Tartrazinin bulabilirsiniz. Örneğin: Gıda Ürünleri şekerleme alkolsüz içecekler (Mountain Dew iyi bilinen bir suçlu olan) enerji içecekleri anlık pudingler aromalı mısır cipsi kahvaltılık tahıllar kek karışımları hamur işleri krema tozu patlamış mısırçorbalar (özellikle anlık ya da "küp" çorba) soslar bazı Pirinç (paella, risotto, vb gibi) toz içecek karışımları spor içecekleri dondurma sakız badem ezmesi reçel ve marmelat hardal ve turp yoğurt jöle erişte turşu ve diğer salamura ürünler meyve samimi patates cipsi bisküvi limon ürünleri bal ürünleri ve birçok hazır gıdalar Gıda Dışı Ürünler sabun kozmetik şampuan ve diğer saç ürünlerinemlendiriciler el santiser ojeboya kalemleri araçları ve damga boyalar yazmak için mürekkep de kullanabilirsiniz İlaçlar vitamin antasitler tıbbi kapsül bazı reçeteli ilaçlar Ne işe yarar? Tartrazin kimyasal yapısı, aspirin benzer. Yani aspirin duyarlılığı ile astımlı ve diğerleri Tartrazinin içeren ürünler için yan etkiler özellikle yatkındır. Buna ek olarak, bu dahil olmak üzere, zararlı ve hoş olmayan reaksiyonlar arasında oldukça listesi ile bağlantılı olmuştur: anksiyete migren OKB (obsesif kompulsif bozukluk) ürtiker astım atak uyku bozuklukları / uykusuzluk bulanık görme egzama ve diğer deri döküntüleri tiroid kanserieozinofili (beyaz kan hücrelerinin belirli biçimlerde bir artış) klinik depresyon hiperaktivite kalıcı DNA hasarı kalp çarpıntısı rinit genel all-over zayıflık sıcak basması Tartrazin tüm azo boyalarının en alerjik ve hoşgörüsüzlüğe reaksiyonlara neden gibi görünüyor (azo boyalarının bir azo grubu içeren sentetik renkler,-N = N-, kimyasal yapısının bir parçası olarak). Boya Tepkiler o değil, aynı zamanda cildinizi aracılığıyla emerek sindirerek kaynaklanır sadece. Bu yüzden maddeler biri olarak bu listede görmek herhangi bir ürün kaçınmak akıllıca olacaktır! Bu yapay renkler doğal renklerin sadece sentetik versiyonu olmadığını akılda değer yataktır. Onlar DOĞADAKİ VAR YAPMAYIN maddelerdir ve gibi gıda yeri yoktur! Tartrazine PubChem CID: 164825

 

Structure:

Tartrazine_small.png Tartrazine_3D_Structure.png Find Similar Structures Chemical Safety: Irritant Health Hazard Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS) Datasheet Molecular Formula: C16H9N4Na3O9S2 Synonyms: Tartrazine 1934-21-0 Yellow 5 Aizen tartrazine risodium salt More... Molecular Weight: 534.4 g/mol Dates: Modify: 2019-10-26 Create: 2005-06-24 Tartrazine is an organic sodium salt which is the trisodium salt of tartrazine acid. A synthetic lemon yellow azo dye used as a food colouring. It has a role as a histological dye and a food colouring. It contains a tartrazine(3-). from ChEBI C.i. pigment yellow 100 is a yellow to greenish-yellow powder. (NTP, 1992) from CAMEO Chemicals An anionic, hydrophilic azo dye with an orange-yellow color used in fabrics, foods and cosmetics, and as a biological stain. from MeSH 1Structures HelpNew Window 1.12D Structure HelpNew Window Find Similar Structures Get Image Download Chemical Structure Depiction Tartrazine.png Full screen Zoom in Zoom out from PubChem 1.23D Conformer HelpNew Window 3D Conformer of Parent Get Image Download Interactive Chemical Structure Model of Parent CID 62302 Ball and Stick Sticks Wire-Frame Space-Filling Show Hydrogens Animate Full screen Zoom in Zoom out from PubChem 2Names and Identifiers HelpNew Window 2.1Computed Descriptors HelpNew Window 2.1.1IUPAC Name HelpNew Window trisodium;5-oxo-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-[(4-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-4H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate from PubChem 2.1.2InChI HelpNew Window InChI=1S/C16H12N4O9S2.3Na/c21-15-13(18-17-9-1-5-11(6-2-9)30(24,25)26)14(16(22)23)19-20(15)10-3-7-12(8-4-10)31(27,28)29;;;/h1-8,13H,(H,22,23)(H,24,25,26)(H,27,28,29);;;/q;3*+1/p-3 from PubChem 2.1.3InChI Key HelpNew Window UJMBCXLDXJUMFB-UHFFFAOYSA-K from PubChem 2.1.4Canonical SMILES HelpNew Window C1=CC(=CC=C1N=NC2C(=NN(C2=O)C3=CC=C(C=C3)S(=O)(=O)[O-])C(=O)[O-])S(=O)(=O)[O-].[Na+].[Na+].[Na+] from PubChem 2.2Molecular Formula HelpNew Window C16H9N4Na3O9S2 from EU Food Improvement Agents; PubChem Identifiers HelpNew Window 2.3.1CAS HelpNew Window 1934-21-0 from ChemIDplus; European Chemicals Agency (ECHA); HSDB Related CAS 34175-08-1 (parent) 74920-66-4 (barium salt) 84681-80-1 (barium salt (2:3)) from ChemIDplus 12225-21-7 from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA; European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2.3.1Other CAS HelpNew Window 117209-34-4, 12000-64-5, 1342-53-6, 134240-82-7, 139601-06-2, 154881-98-8, 183808-13-1, 191807-79-1, 50809-64-8, 642-62-6, 84842-94-4, 389057-90-3, 469888-21-9, 1342-47-8 from ChemIDplus 2.3.2European Community (EC) Number HelpNew Window Number 217-699-5 from EU Food Improvement Agents; European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 235-428-9 from European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2.3.3Wikipedia HelpNew Window Tartrazine from Wikipedia 2.4Synonyms HelpNew Window 2.4.1MeSH Entry Terms HelpNew Window Barium, Tartrazine FD and C Yellow No. 5 Tartrazine Tartrazine Barium Tartrazine Barium (2:3) from MeSH 2.4.2Depositor-Supplied Synonyms HelpNew Window Tartrazine 1934-21-0 Yellow 5 Aizen tartrazine trisodium salt C.I. ACID YELLOW 23 Food Yellow 4 Tartrazine FD&C Yellow #5 Atul Tartrazine Tartrazine Kako Tartrazine Tartrazine Lake Tartrazine B Tartrazine C Tartrazine G Tartrazine M Tartrazine N Tartrazine O Tartrazine T CI 19140 HD Tartrazine Lake Yellow Sugai Tartrazine Tartrazine FQ Tartrazine NS Tartrazine XX Tartrazol Yellow A.F. Yellow No. 4 Tartrazine XXX Tartrazine MCGL Tartrazol BPC Amacid Yellow T Cilefa Yellow T Dye Yellow Lake Fenazo Yellow T Kayaku Tartrazine Mitsui Tartrazine Oxanal Yellow T Tartar Yellow N Tartar Yellow S Tartrazine Yellow Lemon Yellow A Acid Yellow T Bucacid tartrazine Dolkwal tartrazine Hexacol Tartrazine Acilan Yellow GG C.I. 19140 Egg Yellow A San-ei Tartrazine Tartar Yellow FS Tartar Yellow PF Airedale Yellow T Canacert tartrazine Food Yellow 5 Neklacid Yellow T Tartrine Yellow O Eurocert Tartrazine Hydroxine Yellow L Tartrazine C Extra Calcocid Yellow XX KCA Tartrazine PF Yellow Lake 69 Naphtocard Yellow O Tartrazine A Export HD Tartrazine Supra Calcocid Yellow MCG Tartrazine Yellow 5 Yellow No. 5 Tartrazine A expo T Tartrazine B.P.C. D&C Yellow 5 Lemon Yellow A Geigy Schultz No. 737 Maple Tartrazol Yellow Acid Leather Yellow T Unitertracid Yellow TE Yellow No. 5 FDC Curon Fast Yellow 5G FD And C Yellow 5 1310 Yellow 1409 Yellow Xylene Fast Yellow GT Hispacid Fast Yellow T Usacert Yellow No. 5 C.I. Food Yellow 4 Hexacert Yellow No. 5 CHEBI:9405 FD&G Yellow No. 5 Tartrazine Extra Pure A L Yellow Z 1020 1342-47-8 Tartrazine Lake Yellow N Edicol Supra Tartrazine N D and C Yellow No. 5 KCA Foodcol Tartrazine PF Certicol Tartrazol Yellow S Tartrazine O Specially Pure Tartrazine XX Specially Pure C.I. 640 C.I. Pigment Yellow 100 MFCD00148908 Dye FD and C Yellow No. 5 Tartrazine FD & C Yellow #5 E102 Kayaku Food Colour Yellow No. 4 Tartrazine, 89%, pure Food Yellow 4:1 12225-21-7 C.I. Acid Yellow 23, trisodium salt NSC4760 Zlut kysela 23 4,5-Dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-4-((4-sulfophenyl)azo)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid, trisodium salt Trisodium 5-oxo-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-4-[(E)-(4-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate Zlut pigment 100 Zlut potravinarska 4 3-Carboxy-5-hydroxy-1-p-sulfophenyl-4-p-sulfophenylazopyrazole trisodium salt -Gelb 2 tri sodium salt Food yellow No.4 EaEthO>>AE 23 AC1L4VJG AC1Q1UOE Epitope ID:124945 Tartrazine, analytical standard Tartrazine (C.I. 19140) CTK4B9056 KS-00000YDJ UJMBCXLDXJUMFB-UHFFFAOYSA-K Tartrazine, p.a., 95-105% Tartrazine, Dye content >=85 % HY-D0257 C.I. 19140(Acid Yellow 23 Tartrazine, for microscopy (Hist.) AKOS015903034 AKOS016010270 CS-5364 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-4-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-1h-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid trisodium salt AN-22220 BP-31013 LS-162700FT-0621860 ST24031674 C07574 W-107716 C.I. Acid Yellow 23, trisodium salt (VAN) (8CI) I14-18503

 

Comments The Committee established an ADI of 0-10 mg/kg bw, on the basis of a NOAEL of 984 mg/kg bw per day for reductions in body weight in a chronic rat study, with application of a 100-fold uncertainty factor to account for interspecies and intraspecies variability. The Committee withdrew the previous ADI of 0-7.5 mg/kg bw per day. The Committee noted that the dietary exposure estimate for children aged 1-10 years was below the upper bound of the ADI and concluded that dietary exposure to tartrazine for the general population, including children, does not present a health concern.
from FAO/WHO Food Additive Evaluations (JECFA) 8Pharmacology and Biochemistry HelpNew Window 8.1MeSH Pharmacological Classification HelpNew Window Coloring Agents Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS. (See all compounds classified as Coloring Agents.) from MeSH Food Coloring Agents Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods. (See all compounds classified as Food Coloring Agents.) from MeSH 8.2Absorption, Distribution and Excretion New Window ... The fate of the pyrazole fragment of Tartrazine /was examined/ using sulphur-35 labelled Tartrazine and 1-(4-sulphophenyl)-3-methyl-4-(4-sulphophenylazo)-5-pyrazolone (SPMP an analogue of Tartrazine) and carbon-14 labeled SPMP. Following oral administration, both Tartrazine and SPMP labeled with sulphur-35 were predominantly excreted in feces (90 and 89 % of the dose respectively after 72 hours) with small amounts in urine (8 and 7.2 % of the dose, respectively, after 72 hours). The urinary radioactivity excreted in 48 hours with sulphanilic acid and 4-sulphophenylhydrazine was 23 and 23 % after Tartrazine administration, and 54 and 22 % after SPMP administration; the remaining radioactivity was not characterized. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA); Scientific Opinion of the ANS Panel on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102) Published: 12 November 2009 Available from, as of June 28, 2011: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/publications.htm from HSDB ... The metabolism of carbon-14 Tartrazine randomly labeled in the phenyl azo group /was studied/ in rat, rabbit and human. In both animal species Tartrazine was administered orally and intraperitoneally whilst humans received oral Tartrazine. ... After intraperitoneal administration to 6 rats of 2.4 mg/kg bw of Tartrazine, between 64 and 96 % of the dose was recovered unchanged in urine within 24 hours; no other products were reported. In rabbit, at a dose of 2.4 mg/kg bw of Tartrazine administered intraperitoneally, 94 % of the dose was recovered unchanged in urine within 24 hours, with a further 1.4 % recovered as conjugated sulphanilic acid. However, after an intraperitoneal dose of 1000 mg in the rabbit ... only 57.3% was recovered unchanged in urine within 24 hours, with a further 25.7 and 6 % recovered as free and conjugated sulphanilic acid, respectively. After oral administration to 3 rats at 5 mg/rat ..., no free Tartrazine was measured but means of 28 and 34.6 % were recovered in urine as free and conjugated sulphanilic acid, respectively. In the rabbit dosed 1000 mg ... 8.2 % was recovered unchanged in urine within 24 hours with a further 27 and 26.8 % as free and conjugated sulphanilic acid respectively within 72 hours. In 4 humans receiving a single capsule containing 89-100 mg of Tartrazine ..., no free Tartrazine was measured in urine for any subject; in one subject 106 % was recovered as free sulphanilic acid whilst for the other 3 subjects mean recoveries of free and conjugated sulphanilic acid were 40.6 and 49.7 % respectively. ...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA); Scientific Opinion of the ANS Panel on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102) Published: 12 November 2009 Available from, as of June 28, 2011: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/publications.htm from HSDB Low biliary excretion of Tartrazine (1 %) /was demonstrated/ following intravenous administration of an unspecified dose. ... low biliary excretion was due to the carboxyl group. After a dose of 2 mg ... unchanged Tartrazine could be detected in bile, but there was no evidence of ring fission products. Following intraperitoneal injection, an unidentified and unquantified Tartrazine conjugate was rapidly excreted in bile, but again none of the previously reported reductive ring fission products. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA); Scientific Opinion of the ANS Panel on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102) Published: 12 November 2009 Available from, as of June 28, 2011: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/publications.htm from HSDB 8.3Metabolism/Metabolites HelpNew Window After oral administration there is extensive metabolism of Tartrazine by the gastrointestinal microflora to sulphanilic acid and aminopyrazalone (which may then be subsequently cleaved to sulphanilic acid and alpha-amino-beta-ketobutyric acid fragments with the latter breaking down further via intermediary metabolism with release of carbon dioxide). European Food Safety Authority (EFSA); Scientific Opinion of the ANS Panel on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102) Published: 12 November 2009 Available from, as of June 28, 2011: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/publications.htm from HSDB Absorption and metabolism of (14)C-labelled tartrazine (FD & C Yellow No. 5) and high molecular weight polymeric derivatives were compared in rats. A trace to 1.5% of unchanged monomeric dyes was excreted in urine and bile during the first 24 hr after dosing. No unchanged dye was absorbed after administration of the polymeric derivatives. ...In animals dosed with tartrazine and its polymer derivative, absorption of the cleavage product aminopyrazolone and its metabolites was 4.0 and 4.6%, respectively. Azo bond cleavage did not appear to be decreased in the polymer derivatives. However, the sulphanilic acid moiety of both dyes remained attached to the polymer backbone, resulting in a 95% decrease in sulphanilic acid absorption with polymeric tartrazine.

 

PMID:602250 Honohan T et al; Xenobiotica 7 (12): 765-774 (1977) from HSDB The 4-sulphophenylhydrazine metabolite was also labeled with sulphur-35 and administered orally and intraperitoneally. Excretion of this metabolite differed with the route of administration (35 and 49 % in urine and feces, respectively, 48 hours following oral, and 90 and 5 % in urine and feces, respectively, 48 hours following intraperitoneal administration). Following oral administration, 69 % of urinary radioactivity excreted in 48 hours was sulphanilic acid and 21 % was 4-sulphophenylhydrazine, whereas following intraperitoneal administration, 9 % of urinary radioactivity excreted in 48 hours was sulphanilic acid and 73% was 4-sulphophenylhydrazine. These data suggest there is a marked conversion of 4- sulphophenylhydrazine to sulphanilic acid presumably in the gut lumen. /4-sulphophenylhydrazine/ European Food Safety Authority (EFSA); Scientific Opinion of the ANS Panel on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102) Published: 12 November 2009 Available from, as of June 28, 2011: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/publications.htm from HSDB 8.4Mechanism of Action HelpNew Window ... Blocking studies showed that tartrazine contraction was inhibited by atropine alone but not by any other blocking agent tested, implying that tartrazine acts either directly or indirectly upon the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor associated with parasympathetic innervation. PMID:1570631 Hutchinson AP et al; Toxicol Lett 60 (2): 165-73 (1992) from HSDB

The ability of selected food colors to interact with isolated guinea-pig ileum was investigated using a gut bath system. Studies revealed that guinea-pig ileum was specifically sensitive to tartrazine. Intestinal contraction occurred dose-dependently down to a minimum effective dose of 10 uM. ...Studies investigating the biological activity of structural analogues of tartrazine revealed the ability to initiate intestinal contraction was associated with the presence of the carboxylic acid residue at the R1 position of the pyrazole ring. Blocking studies showed that tartrazine contraction was inhibited by atropine alone but not by any other blocking agent tested, implying that tartrazine acts either directly or indirectly upon the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor associated with parasympathetic innervation. from HSDB 9.4Formulations/Preparations HelpNew Window Admiral Liquid: Erioglaucine 15.31%, Tartrazine 1.00% Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System, Tartrazine PC Code 110302. Available from, as of June 7, 2011: http://npirspublic.ceris.purdue.edu/ppis/ from HSDB Admiral WSP: Erioglaucine 49.72%, Tartrazine 3.27% Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System, Tartrazine PC Code 110302. Available from, as of June 7, 2011: http://npirspublic.ceris.purdue.edu/ppis/ from HSDB Aquashade: Erioglaucine 12.6%, Tartrazine 1.04% Purdue University; National Pesticide Information Retrieval System, Tartrazine PC Code 110302. Available from, as of June 7, 2011: http://npirspublic.ceris.purdue.edu/ppis/ from HSDB 9.5U.S. Production HelpNew Window (1988) 47 metric ton /From table/ Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V3: 836 (1992) from HSDB 1H-Pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-4-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-, trisodium salt is listed as a High Production Volume (HPV) chemical (65FR81686). Chemicals listed as HPV were produced in or imported into the U.S. in >1 million pounds in 1990 and/or 1994. The HPV list is based on the 1990 Inventory Update Rule. (IUR) (40 CFR part 710 subpart B; 51FR21438).[EPA/Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics; High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program. 1H-Pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-4- (4-sulfophenyl)azo]-, trisodium salt (1934-21-0). Available from, as of June 23, 2011: http://www.epa.gov/hpv/pubs/general/opptsrch.htm from HSDB Production volumes for non-confidential chemicals reported under the Inventory Update Rule. Table:

 

9.6Manufacturers HelpNew Window
Max Marx Color Corp., 1200 Grove St., Irvington, NJ 07111, (973) 373-7801; Production site: Irvington, NJ 07111 SRI Consulting, 2010 Directory of Chemical Producers. Menlo Park, CA. 2010, p. 785 from HSDB Blackman Uhler Specialties LLC, P.O. Box 5627, Spartanburg, SC 29304 (864) 585-3661; Production site: Spartanburg, SC 29304 /Acid Dyes/ SRI Consulting, 2010 Directory of Chemical Producers. Menlo Park, CA. 2010, p. 550 from HSDB Clariant Corp., 4000 Monroe Rd., Charlotte, NC 28205, (704) 331-7000; Production sites: Charlotte, NC 28214; Martin, SC 29836 /Acid Dyes/ SRI Consulting, 2010 Directory of Chemical Producers. Menlo Park, CA. 2010, p. 550 from HSDB M. Dohmen USA Inc., 25 Ellwood Court, Greenville, SC 29607, (864) 676-1669; Production site: Greenville, NC 27858 /Acid Dyes/ SRI Consulting, 2010 Directory of Chemical Producers. Menlo Park, CA. 2010, p. 550 from HSDB Emerald Performance Materials, LLC, 2020 Front Street, Cuyahoga Falls, OH 44221 (330) 916-6700; Production site: Emerald Specialties, Emerald Hilton Davis, Cincinnati, OH 45237 /Acid Dyes/ SRI Consulting, 2010 Directory of Chemical Producers. Menlo Park, CA. 2010, p. 550 from HSDB C. Lever Colors, Inc., 736 Dunks Ferry Rd., Bensalem, PA 19020-6575, (215) 639-8640; Production site: Bensalem, PA 19020-6575 /Acid Dyes/ SRI Consulting, 2010 Directory of Chemical Producers. Menlo Park, CA. 2010, p. 550 from HSDB Manufacturers Chemicals, LLC, 4325 Old Tasso Road, P.O. Box 2788, Cleveland, TN 37320 (423) 476-6518; Production site: Dalton, GA 30721 /Acid Dyes/ SRI Consulting, 2010 Directory of Chemical Producers. Menlo Park, CA. 2010, p. 550 from HSDB Passaic Color and Chemical Co., 28-36 Paterson St., Paterson, NJ 07501, (973) 279-0400; Production site: Paterson, NJ 07501 /Acid Dyes/ SRI Consulting, 2010 Directory of Chemical Producers. Menlo Park, CA. 2010, p. 550 from HSDB Sensient Colors, Inc., 2515 N. Jefferson, St. Louis, MO 63106 (314) 889-7600; Production site: St. Louis, MO 63106 /Acid Dyes/ SRI Consulting, 2010 Directory of Chemical Producers. Menlo Park, CA. 2010, p. 550 from HSDB Sigma Aldrich Fine Chemicals, 3050 Spruce St., St. Louis, MO 63103, (314) 534-4900; Production site: not specified /Acid Dyes/ SRI Consulting, 2010 Directory of Chemical Producers. Menlo Park, CA. 2010, p. 550 from HSDB Sunbelt Corporation, 2120 Burkette Road, Rock Hill, SC 27930, (803) 329-9787; Production site: Rock Hill, SC 29730 /Acid Dyes/ SRI Consulting, 2010 Directory of Chemical Producers. Menlo Park, CA. 2010, p. 550 from HSDB 9.7General Manufacturing Information HelpNew Window Industry Processing Sectors Food, beverage, and tobacco product manufacturing Synthetic dye and pigment manufacturing from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA EPA TSCA Commercial Activity Status C.I. Pigment Yellow 100: ACTIVE https://www.epa.gov/tsca-inventory from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA FD&C Yellow No. 5 is the certified form of tartrazine, and is approved for use in cosmetics generally. But tartrazine, which has not undergone FDA analysis and received FDA certification, must not be substituted for, or identified in an ingredient declaration as FD&C Yellow No. 5. FDA; In Cosmetics. Color Additives and Cosmetics. Updated April 29, 2007. Available from, as of June 1, 2011: http://www.fda.gov/ForIndustry/ColorAdditives/ColorAdditivesinSpecificProducts/InCosmetics/UCM110032 from HSDB 10Identification HelpNew Window 10.1Analytic Laboratory Methods HelpNew Window Method: AOAC 944.04; Procedure: colorimetric method; Analyte: tartrazine; Matrix: macaroni products; Detection Level: not provided. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th Edition Online. Tartrazine (1934-21-0. Available from, as of August 6, 2011: http://www.aoac.org from HSDB Method: AOAC 930.38; Procedure: column chromatographic method; Analyte: tartrazine; Matrix: food; Detection Limit: not provided. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th Edition Online. Tartrazine (1934-21-0). Available from, as of August 6, 2011: http://www.aoac.org from HSDB 11Safety and Hazards HelpNew Window 11.1Hazards Identification HelpNew Window 11.1.1GHS Classification HelpNew Window Pictogram(s) Irritant Health Hazard Signal Danger GHS Hazard Statements Aggregated GHS information provided by 2133 companies from 11 notifications to the ECHA C&L Inventory. Each notification may be associated with multiple companies. Reported as not meeting GHS hazard criteria by 1355 of 2133 companies. For more detailed information, please visit ECHA C&L website Of the 8 notification(s) provided by 778 of 2133 companies with hazard statement code(s): H317 (99.74%): May cause an allergic skin reaction [Warning Sensitization, Skin] H334 (86.89%): May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled [Danger Sensitization, respiratory] Information may vary between notifications depending on impurities, additives, and other factors. The percentage value in parenthesis indicates the notified classification ratio from companies that provide hazard codes. Only hazard codes with percentage values above 10% are shown. Precautionary Statement Codes P261, P272, P280, P285, P302+P352, P304+P341, P321, P333+P313, P342+P311, P363, and P501 (The corresponding statement to each P-code can be found at the GHS Classification page.) from European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 11.1.2EPA Safer Chemical HelpNew Window Chemical: C.I. Pigment Yellow 100
Yellow triangle Yellow triangle - The chemical has met Safer Choice Criteria for its functional ingredient-class, but has some hazard profile issues. Specifically, a chemical with this code is not associated with a low level of hazard concern for all human health and environmental endpoints. (See Safer Choice Criteria). While it is a best-in-class chemical and among the safest available for a particular function, the function fulfilled by the chemical should be considered an area for safer chemistry innovation.

 

National Toxicology Program, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health (NTP). 1992. National Toxicology Program Chemical Repository Database. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. from CAMEO Chemicals 11.2First Aid Measures HelpNew Window 11.2.1First Aid HelpNew Window EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop. SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment. INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing. INGESTION: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital if advised by a physician. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. (NTP, 1992) National Toxicology Program, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health (NTP). 1992. National Toxicology Program Chemical Repository Database. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. from CAMEO Chemicals 11.3Fire Fighting HelpNew Window Fires involving this material can be controlled with a dry chemical, carbon dioxide or Halon extinguisher. (NTP, 1992) National Toxicology Program, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health (NTP). 1992. National Toxicology Program Chemical Repository Database. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. from CAMEO Chemicals 11.4Accidental Release Measures HelpNew Window 11.4.1Disposal Methods HelpNew Window SRP: The most favorable course of action is to use an alternative chemical product with less inherent propensity for occupational harm/injury/toxicity or environmental contamination. Recycle any unused portion of the material for its approved use or return it to the manufacturer or supplier. Ultimate disposal of the chemical must consider: the material's impact on air quality; potential migration in soil or water; effects on animal and plant life; and conformance with environmental and public health regulations. from HSDB

 

11.5Handling and Storage HelpNew Window 11.5.1Nonfire Spill Response HelpNew Window SMALL SPILLS AND LEAKAGE: If you spill this chemical, you should dampen the solid spill material with 5% acetic acid, then transfer the dampened material to a suitable container. Use absorbent paper dampened with 5% acetic acid to pick up any remaining material. Your contaminated clothing and the absorbent paper should be sealed in a vapor-tight plastic bag for eventual disposal. Wash all contaminated surfaces with 5% acetic acid followed by washing with a soap and water solution. Do not reenter the contaminated area until the Safety Officer (or other responsible person) has verified that the area has been properly cleaned. STORAGE PRECAUTIONS: You should store this material under ambient temperatures. (NTP, 1992) National Toxicology Program, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health (NTP). 1992. National Toxicology Program Chemical Repository Database. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. from CAMEO Chemicals 11.6Exposure Control and Personal Protection HelpNew Window 11.6.1Allowable Tolerances HelpNew Window Residues of tartrazine are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used in accordance with good agricultural practice as inert (or occasionally active) ingredients in pesticide formulations applied to growing crops or to raw agricultural commodities after harvest. Use: dye. 40 CFR 180.910 (USEPA); U.S. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Available from, as of June 22, 2011: http://www.ecfr.gov from HSDB Residues of tartrazine are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used in accordance with good agricultural practice as inert (or occasionally active) ingredients in pesticide formulations applied to animals. Use: dye, coloring agent. 40 CFR 180.930 (USEPA); U.S. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Available from, as of June 22, 2011: http://www.ecfr.gov from HSDB Residues of the following chemical substances are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice as ingredients in an antimicrobial pesticide formulation, provided that the substance is applied on a semi-permanent or permanent food-contact surface (other than being applied on food packaging) with adequate draining before contact with food. ... (b) The following chemical substances when used as ingredients in an antimicrobial pesticide formulation may be applied to: Dairy processing equipment, and food-processing equipment and utensils. Tartrazine is included on this list. 40 CFR 180.940(b) (USEPA); U.S. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Available from, as of June 22, 2011: http://www.ecfr.gov from HSDB
Residues of the following chemical substances are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice as ingredients in an antimicrobial pesticide formulation, provided that the substance is applied on a semi-permanent or permanent food-contact surface (other than being applied on food packaging) with adequate draining before contact with food. ... (c) The following chemical substances when used as ingredients in an antimicrobial pesticide formulation may be applied to: Food-processing equipment and utensils. Tartrazine is included on this list. 40 CFR 180.940(c) (USEPA); U.S. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Available from, as of June 22, 2011: http://www.ecfr.gov from HSDB
National Toxicology Program, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health (NTP). 1992. National Toxicology Program Chemical Repository Database. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. from CAMEO Chemicals 11.7Stability and Reactivity HelpNew Window 11.7.1Air and Water Reactions HelpNew Window Azo dyes can be explosive when suspended in air at specific concentrations. Insoluble in water. from CAMEO Chemicals 11.7.2Reactive Group HelpNew Window Amides and Imides Azo, Diazo, Azido, Hydrazine, and Azide Compounds Esters, Sulfate Esters, Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters, and Borate Esters Sulfonates, Phosphonates, and Thiophosphonates, Organic Salts, Basic from CAMEO Chemicals 11.7.3Reactivity Alerts HelpNew Window Explosive from CAMEO Chemicals 11.7.4Reactivity Profile HelpNew Window C.I. PIGMENT YELLOW 100 is an azo dye complex. Azo, diazo, azido compounds can detonate. This applies in particular to organic azides that have been sensitized by the addition of metal salts or strong acids. Toxic gases are formed by mixing materials of this class with acids, aldehydes, amides, carbamates, cyanides, inorganic fluorides, halogenated organics, isocyanates, ketones, metals, nitrides, peroxides, phenols, epoxides, acyl halides, and strong oxidizing or reducing agents. Flammable gases are formed by mixing materials in this group with alkali metals. Explosive combination can occur with strong oxidizing agents, metal salts, peroxides, and sulfides. from CAMEO Chemicals 11.8Regulatory Information HelpNew Window 11.8.1FIFRA Requirements HelpNew Window Residues of tartrazine are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used in accordance with good agricultural practice as inert (or occasionally active) ingredients in pesticide formulations applied to growing crops or to raw agricultural commodities after harvest. Use: dye. 40 CFR 180.910 (USEPA); U.S. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Available from, as of June 22, 2011: http://www.ecfr.gov from HSDB Residues of tartrazine are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used in accordance with good agricultural practice as inert (or occasionally active) ingredients in pesticide formulations applied to animals. Use: dye, coloring agent.

 

 

In 2006, the Korea Food and Drug Administration reported that combinations of dietary colors such as allura red AC (R40), tartrazine (Y4), sunset yellow FCF (Y5), amaranth (R2), and brilliant blue FCF (B1) are widely used in food manufacturing. Although individual tar food colors are controlled based on acceptable daily intake (ADI), there is no apparent information available for how combinations of these additives affect food safety. In the current study, the potencies of single and combination use of / allura red AC, tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, amaranth, and brilliant blue FCF / were examined on neural progenitor cell (NPC) toxicity, a biomarker for developmental stage, and neurogenesis, indicative of adult central nervous system (CNS) functions. /allura red AC/and /amaranth/ reduced NPC proliferation and viability in mouse multipotent NPC, in the developing CNS model. Among several combinations tested in mouse model, combination of /tartrazine/ and /brilliant blue FCF/ at 1000-fold higher than average daily intake in Korea significantly decreased numbers of newly generated cells in adult mouse hippocampus, indicating potent adverse actions on hippocampal neurogenesis. However, other combinations including /allura red AC/ and /amaranth/ did not affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Evidence indicates that single and combination use of most tar food colors may be safe with respect to risk using developmental NPC and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the response to excessively high dose combination of /tartrazine/and /brilliant blue FCF/ is suggestive of synergistic effects to suppress proliferation of NPC in adult hippocampus. Data indicated that combinations of tar colors may adversely affect both developmental and adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
The release of histamine from purified rat peritoneal mast cells induced by specific antigen (egg albumin), compound 48/80 and calcium ionophore A23187 was modified by tartrazine. Histamine release induced by 48/80 and antigen was inhibited by the presence of 1x10-5 to 1x10-2 M tartrazine. The inhibitory effect on egg albumin induced histamine release was maximal when the tartrazine was added simultaneously with egg albumin, and was reduced by increased preincubation of the cells with tartrazine. Tartrazine had a small inhibitory effect on ionophore induced release at high concentrations, but augmented histamine release at tartrazine concentrations of 1x10-3 and 1x10-4 M. Augmentation of ionophore induced release was maximal at between 0-5 min preincubation of the cells with tartrazine.

 

 

from HSDB
/HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES/ Very few data are available from the literature on whether nonatopic subjects affected by persistent rhinitis may show the appearance of objective symptoms of rhinitis after the ingestion of food additives such as tartrazine (E102), erythrosine (E127), monosodium benzoate (E211), p-hydroxybenzoate (E218), sodium metabisulphite (E223), and monosodium glutamate (E620). It is still unclear whether the ingestion of food additive may cause, as well, a consensual reduction of nasal peak inspiratory flow (NPIFR). Therefore, /investigators/ used a double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) study to evaluate this hypothesis. Two hundred and twenty-six consecutive patients (76 males and 150 females) aged 12-60 years (mean age 40.2 +/- 16.3 years). After 1 month of an additive-free diet regimen, an open challenge was carried out (food additive-rich diet for 2 weeks). After this period, challenges were administered in a DBPC manner using the above-mentioned substances under investigation. Twenty of 226 subjects (8.8%) reported an improvement of the symptoms of rhinitis after additive-free diet. More precisely, six of 226 (2.6%) were symptom-free and 14 of 226 (6.2%) showed an improvement in their symptoms after an additive-free diet. As far as the results for DBPC are concerned, 20 challenges with monosodium benzoate induced both objective (i.e. sneezing and rhinorrhoea) and subjective symptoms (nasal blockage and nasal itching) of rhinitis with reduction of NPIFR >/=20%, 45 challenges induced subjective symptoms of rhinitis (i.e. nasal blockage and nasal itching), without reduction of NPIFR >/=20% of the basal value, two with tartrazine, seven with erythrosine, 19 with monosodium benzoate, three with p-hydroxybenzoate, six with sodium metabisulphite, and eight with monosodium glutamate, respectively. The observation that nonatopic persistent rhinitis may be caused by the frequent, probably daily, ingestion of small doses of a nontolerated substance is intriguing and suggests that at least some patients with 'chronic vasomotor rhinitis' may be intolerant to a particular food additive. Therefore, food additives can be considered triggers or aggravating factors, rather than etiological factors.

 

 

from HSDB
/HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES/To establish whether there is an association between the ingestion of synthetic food colorings and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of "hyperactivity."...Thirty-four other children (23 suspected reactors, 11 uncertain reactors) and 20 control subjects, aged 2 to 14 years, were studied. A 21-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study used each child as his or her own control. Placebo, or one of six dose levels of tartrazine (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg), was administered randomly each morning, and behavioral ratings were recorded by parents at the end of each 24 hours. The study identified 24 children as clear reactors (19 of 23 "suspected reactors," 3 of 11 "uncertain reactors," and 2 of 20 "control subjects"). They were irritable and restless and had sleep disturbance. Significant reactions were observed at all six dose levels. A dose response effect was obtained. With a dose increase greater than 10 mg, the duration of effect was prolonged. Behavioral changes in irritability, restlessness, and sleep disturbance are associated with the ingestion of tartrazine in some children. ...

 

 

from HSDB
/HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES/ Thirty-six patients (29 females and 7 males from age 4 to 62 years old) with the clinical diagnostic of chronic urticaria from January to June, 1995... /were given/ oral challenge tests (PRO) /with/ Tartrazine (Ta), Sodium Metabisulfite (MS), Potasium Metabisulfite (MP) and Sodium Bisulfite (BS) in consecutive days with increasing doses unless an adverse reactions appear. ... 63.8% (23/36) had positive oral challenge tests. 47.2% (17/36) positive to Tartrazine, 36.1% (13/36) to Sodium Metabisulfite, 33.3% (12/36) to Sodium Bisulfite and 30.5% (11/36) to Potasium Metabisulfite. ... Tartrazine was the additive that caused more reactivity /in patients tested/. ...

 

 

from HSDB
/HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES/ Multiple double blind placebo controlled challenges with tartrazine 50 mg (three challenges) and glucose placebo (three challenges) were performed in 12 children with atopic eczema aged 1 to 6 years. The children were selected on the basis of severity (regular clinic attenders) and a parental history that tartrazine provoked worsening of the eczema. In only one patient did the three tartrazine challenge periods correspond with the highest symptom scores or the highest physician observer scores, and the probability of this occurring by chance in one or more patients out of 12 was 0.46. In this sample we were unable to confirm intolerance to tartrazine in 11 out of 12 patients.

 

 

from HSDB
/SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ Tartrazine (FD & C Yellow No. 5) is an approved azo dye present in many drugs and food products. ...Tartrazine sensitivity is most frequently manifested by urticaria and asthma. Although azo dyes have been implicated in accentuating hyperkinetic syndromes, tartrazine is not considered an offender. Vasculitis, purpura and contact dermatitis infrequently occur as manifestations of tartrazine sensitivity. Cross-sensitivity in aspirin-sensitive and NSAID-sensitive patients may also occur. The mechanism of sensitivity is obscure and has been called pseudoallergic. Management consists mainly of avoidance of drugs and food products that contain

 

 

from HSDB
/CASE REPORTS/ Cases of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) have been reported predominantly in adult patients, but pediatric cases have rarely been reported. ... /This case/ present a 5-year-old girl who suffered from recurrent reactions accompanied by urticaria, angioedema, headaches, dyspnea, loss of consciousness, and abdominal pain that were not eradicated, but were instead exacerbated, by various treatments with antihistamines and intravenous corticosteroids. Her diet diary revealed that symptoms occurred after ingestion of colorful sweets such as candies and jellybeans. Open challenge tests with food additives and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were performed after elimination of these items. Skin prick tests using additives and NSAIDs, which were dissolved in saline, and prick-prick tests using candies and jellybeans, were carried out. Open challenge tests with Tartrazine, aspirin and acetaminophen were positive, whereas skin prick tests using additives and NSAIDs and prick-prick tests using candies and jellybeans were all negative. Consequently, intolerance to azo dyes and NSAIDs such as aspirin was diagnosed. However, she appeared to react to multiple chemical odors such as those of cigarette smoke, disinfectant, detergent, cleaning compounds, perfume, and hairdressing, all while avoiding additives and NSAIDs. On the basis of her history and the neuro-ophthalmological abnormalities, a diagnosis of severe MCS was made and she was prescribed multiple vitamins and glutathione. The present results suggest that in pediatric MCS, food and drug additives containing azo dyes might play important roles as elicitors.

 

/GENOTOXICITY/ Food coloring agents, amaranth, erythrosine and tartrazine have been tested at 0.02-8mM in human peripheral blood cells in vitro, in order to investigate their genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic potential. Amaranth at the highest concentration (8mM) demonstrates high genotoxicity, cytostaticity and cytotoxicity. The frequency of /sister chromatid exchanges per/ cell was increased 1.7 times over the control level. Additionally, erythrosine at 8, 4 and 2mM shows a high cytotoxicity and cytostaticity. Finally, tartrazine seems to be toxic at 8 and 4mM. No signs of genotoxicity were observed. Reversely, tartrazine showed cytotoxicity at 1 and 2mM. Furthermore, spectroscopic titration studies for the interaction of these food additives with DNA showed that these dyes bind to calf thymus DNA and distinct isosbestic points are observed clearly suggesting binding of the dyes to DNA. Additionally DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments showed that these colorants are obviously capable for strong binding to linear dsDNA causing its degradation. /Polymerase chain reaction amplification/ of all DNA fragments (which previously were pre-treated with three different concentrations of the colorants, extracted from agarose gel after separation and then purified), seems to be attenuated with a manner dye concentration-dependent reflecting in a delayed electrophoretic mobility due to the possible binding of some molecules of the dyes. Evaluation of the data and curves were obtained after quantitative and qualitative analysis of the lanes of the gel by an analyzer computer program. Our results indicate that these food colorants had a toxic potential to human lymphocytes in vitro and it seems that they bind directly to DNA.

/ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS/ The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC50 values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. ... Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC50 values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of /singlet oxygen/ originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by /singlet oxygen/ quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. ...

/IMMUNOTOXICITY/ ...A sensitive and reproducible microassay model using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) for discrimination between the cytotoxic and immunosuppressive effects of food colorants such as tartrazine /is described/. The cytotoxic effects of a wide range of concentrations were studied on human PBL by the colorimetric in vitro cytotoxicity assays, neutral red uptake (NR) and thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The immunotoxic properties were determined by a [(3)H]-thymidine DNA incorporation assay on phytohemagglutinin stimulated or non-stimulated lymphocytes, as well as by a (51)Cr release Natural Killer assays. The results showed clear immunosuppressive effects tested, although the concentrations chosen for this study proved to be non-cytotoxic by NR and MTT cytotoxic endpoints.

/OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/There are over 200 food additives that have been approved in Finland. They are being used in order to improve preservability, flavor, appearance and texture. Some of them may cause hypersensitivity reactions, the most common being anaphylactic reactions, urticaria and exacerbation of asthma. Such reactions are, however, very rare. Anaphylactic reactions and other symptoms have resulted from carmine, lysozyme, acetic acid and acetates, gums of plant origin, sulfites and tartrazine

/OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ The Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties (CPS) / The Canadian Drug Reference for Health Professionals/ was used to reference the inert ingredients found in oral dermatologic medications. An extensive literature review was subsequently conducted using PubMed and Medline to document adverse reactions to these excipients. Sixty-three oral dermatologic medications were reviewed. Lactose was commonly used as a filler. Several medications indicated that they were dye, tartrazine, or gluten free. Three medications were found to contain soybean oil and one was found to contain peanut oil. Although there are documented reactions to excipients in other products in the literature, few reports outline reactions to excipients in oral dermatologic medications. Whether this low frequency is accurate or whether it is due to a lack of reporting remains unknown.

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ ... The effects of Tartrazine on dermal mast cell degranulation /were/ studied in the mouse 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours after a single intradermal injection. After 1 and 12 hours the dye caused partial degranulation; at the end of the 6-hour period an internal degranulation was predominant. The effects were no longer visible after 24 hours.

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure/ Tests were conducted on the effects of diet on the response of immature male rats to massive doses of tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No.5). When incorporated at a 5% level in a stock diet, tartrazine had no grossly observable toxic effects. When fed with a purified diet, however, tartrazine at 5% level in the diet resulted in a marked retardation in growth, an unthrifty appearance of the fur and death of 50% or more of the rats within an experimental period of 14 days. The toxic effects obtained by feeding the latter diets were counteracted by the concurrent feeding of blond psyllium seed powder, carrot root powder, alfalfa leaf meal and wheat bran. Supplements of the known nutrients had little if any protective effect. Supplements of purified cellulose were without protective effect for the rats fed tartrazine

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure/ ...Tartrazine and carmoisine were administered orally in two doses, one low and the other high dose for 30 days followed by serum and tissue sample collection for determination of /alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase/, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose in serum and estimation of /glutathion/, catalase, /superoxide dismutase/ and /malone dialdehyde/ in liver tissue in male albino rat. .../The/ data showed a significant increase in /alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase/, urea, creatinine total protein and albumin in serum of rats dosed with tartrazine and carmoisine compared to control rats and these significant change were more apparent in high doses than low, /glutathione, superoxide dismutase/ and catalase were decreased and /malone dialdehyde/ increased in tissue homogenate in rats consumed high tartrazine and both doses of carmoisine. .../It was/ concluded that tartrazine and carmoisine affect adversely and alter biochemical markers in vital organs e.g. liver and kidney not only at higher doses but also at low dose.

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ ... 22 male Wistar rats at weaning were assigned to a control group to receive a mineral water for ten months (46 weeks) and 23 to a treatment group. The treatment group received 7.5 mg/kg bw Tartrazine daily in mineral water offered ad libitum. In the 46th week the animals were killed and necropsied, removing the esophagus-gastro-duodenal segment, subsequently opened through the greater curvature and processed according to a standardized procedure for a histological examination. For each of four regions: squamous gastric fundus, glandular fundus, body and antrum, the number of mitosis, the presence of atypia and atrophy, the number of eosinophils and lymphocytes, and the number of argentaffin granular cells were observed. One animal from each group died before the 40th week. The cause of death for the control animal was not identified; for the treated group animal, the cause was undifferentiated round cell malignancy, involving the intestinal wall and pancreas. The statistically significant differences between the treatment and control group were in the higher number and extent of lymphocytes infiltrates (p<0.01) and number of eosinophils (p<0.05) in the antral mucosa of treated animals. Mild atypia predominated in most of the animals from both groups, but in 3 control rats there was no atypia whatsoever whereas 3 treated rats showed foci of moderate to severe atypia (p<0.05). ... No carcinogenic changes in any gastric area were observed...

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ Four groups of rats (15 of each sex) were given diets with 0, 0.03, 0.3, or 1.5 % Tartrazine (equivalent to 0, 15, 150, or 750 mg/kg bw/day) for 64 weeks. The dye had no effects on mortality, food intake, growth, organ weights, histopathology, blood picture or tumor incidence ... (NOAEL) of 750 mg/kg bw/day (being the highest dose level tested) ... European Food Safety Authority (EFSA); Scientific Opinion of the ANS Panel on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102) Published: 12 November 2009 Available from, as of June 28, 2011: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/publications.htm from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ Ten rats were exposed to diets containing 0.2 % Tartrazine (equivalent to 100 mg/kg bw/day) for 417 days. After observation periods of up to 922 days no tumors were observed. ... European Food Safety Authority (EFSA); Scientific Opinion of the ANS Panel on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102) Published: 12 November 2009 Available from, as of June 28, 2011: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/publications.htm from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ In rats fed 4 % Tartrazine in their diets (equivalent to 2000 mg/kg bw/day) for approximately 18 months, discoloration of the stomach, small intestine and colon was observed; tumors were not observed. ... European Food Safety Authority (EFSA); Scientific Opinion of the ANS Panel on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102) Published: 12 November 2009 Available from, as of June 28, 2011: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/publications.htm from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ A total of 117 male and female mice received a daily diet containing 1 mg Tartrazine per animal (equivalent to approximately 2.5 mg/kg bw/day) (duration of exposure not stated). After 500 and 700 days tumor incidence was not significantly increased compared to controls. ... European Food Safety Authority (EFSA); Scientific Opinion of the ANS Panel on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102) Published: 12 November 2009 Available from, as of June 28, 2011: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/publications.htm from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ FD&C Yellow No. 5 was admixed with the feed at concentrations of 0, 1, or 2% of the diet and fed for two years to two Beagle dogs/sex/group. Hematologic examinations were made periodically. At the end of 2 years, the dogs were sacrificed and histological exams performed. There were no clinical observations, hematology changes, or gross lesions due to tartrazine. The only data presented were organ weights. An incidence of pyloric gastritis in one high dose female was considered an equivocal treatment related effect. California Environmental Protection Agency/Department of Pesticide Regulation; Toxicology Data Review Summarieson Acid Yellow 23(1934-21-0) p2 (Janurary 25, 2002). Available from as of March 15, 2004. http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/risk/toxsums/toxsumlist.htm from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ FD&C Yellow No. 5 (no purity stated) was admixed with the feed at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, or 5% and fed for two years to 12 Osborne-Mendel rats/sex/group. Rats in the 5 and 2% groups experienced diarrhea, incidence not reported. Small amounts of whitish-tan gritty material were found in the renal pelvis of one 1% and three 5% male rats and regarded by the authors as possibly significant. The incidence of nephritis was not dose-related in incidence or severity. The incidence of tumors was not treatment-related. California Environmental Protection Agency/Department of Pesticide Regulation; Toxicology Data Review Summarieson Acid Yellow 23 (1934-21-0) p2 (Janurary 25, 2002). Available from as of March 15, 2004. http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/risk/toxsums/toxsumlist.htm

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ The carcinogenicity of tartrazine (C. I. Food Yellow No. 4, FD & C Yellow No. 5), a food, drug and cosmetics coloring, was examined in F344 rats. Tartrazine was dissolved in distilled water at levels of 0, 1 or 2%, and groups of about 50 male and 50 female rats were given one of these solutions ad lib. as their drinking-water for up to 2 yr. No toxic lesions specifically caused by tartrazine were detected in any treated group of either sex. Many tumors developed in all groups including the control group, and the organ distribution of these tumors and their histological characteristics were similar to those of the spontaneous tumors that are known to occur in this strain of rats. Except for mesothelioma in males and endometrial stromal polyp in females, there were no significant increases in the incidences of any tumors over those in the corresponding control group. In males, mesotheliomas were found only in the group given 1% tartrazine and the incidence of this lesion was statistically significant (Fisher's exact test) in comparison with the other two groups (P<0.02). The incidence of endometrial stromal polyp was also significantly higher among females given the 1% dose than in the controls (P<0.05). However, no positive trend was noted in the occurrence of these two tumors using an age-adjusted statistical analysis. Mesothelioma and endometrial stromal polyp are frequently observed spontaneous tumors in this strain of rats, and their incidences in our historical controls are 4.1 and 21.9%, respectively. However in the present study mesothelioma occurred in none of the male control rats and the incidence of endometrial stromal polyp was only 10.6% in the female control group. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the control and treated groups in hyperplastic or pre-neoplastic changes in the mesothelium or endometrium. From these findings, we concluded that the significant increases in the incidences of mesothelioma and endometrial stromal polyp that occurred in the groups given 1% tartrazine were not attributable to tartrazine administration. Thus, it is concluded that tartrazine was not carcinogenic in F344 rats when administered continuously at doses of up to 2% in the drinking-water for up to 2 yr.

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Neurotoxicity/ Rat dams were exposed to the artificial food color tartrazine (FD&C Yellow no. 5) at dietary levels of 0, 1, and 2% during gestation and lactation. ...The only effect on postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS) was a small transient change in neuromotor clinging ability of female offspring. The limited effect of tartrazine on the CNS was further evidenced by the facts that (1) the neurobehavioral profiles of the experimental weanlings revealed no significant abnormalities, and (2) morphochemical analysis of brain tissue, as well as brain weights, revealed no abnormalities.

/DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY/ Tartrazine was given in the diet to provide levels of 0% (control), 0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.45% (approximately 83, 259, 773 mg/kg/day, respectively) from five weeks of age of the F0 generation to nine weeks of age of the F1 generation in mice, and selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured. In movement activity of exploratory behavior in the F0 generation, number of vertical activity was significantly increased in the middle-dose group in males. There were no adverse effects of tartrazine on either litter size, litter weight and sex ratio at birth. The average body weight of male offspring was significantly increased in the high-dose group and that of female offspring was significantly increased in the middle-dose group at birth. In behavioral developmental parameters, surface righting at /postnatal day/ 4 was significantly accelerated in the high-dose group in male offspring, and those effects were significantly dose-related in a trend test (P<0.01). Cliff avoidance at /postnatal day/ 7 was significantly accelerated in the middle-dose group in male offspring. Negative geotaxis at /postnatal day/ 4 was significantly delayed in the high-dose group in female offspring. Other variables measured showed no significant adverse effects in either sex in the lactation period. In movement activity of exploratory behavior in the F1 generation, number of movement showed a significant tendency to be affected in the treatment groups in male offspring in a trend test (P<0.05). The dose level of tartrazine in the present study produced a few adverse effects in neurobehavioral parameters during the lactation period in mice. Nevertheless, the high-dose level were in excess of the /average daily intake/ of tartrazine (0-7.5 mg/kg bw), and the actual dietary intake of tartrazine is presumed to be much lower. ...

/BEHAVIORAL STUDIES/ Tartrazine was given to mice in the diet at levels of 0 (control), 0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.45% from 5 weeks of age of the F(0) generation to 9 weeks of age of the F(2) generation, and selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured. In the F(1) generation, the development of swimming direction at postnatal day (PND) 7 was accelerated significantly in male offspring in a dose-related manner. Surface righting at PND 7 was affected significantly in female offspring in dose-related manner. Several variables in exploratory behavior showed significant tendencies to be affected in the treatment groups in male offspring at 3 weeks of age. In the F(2) generation, the development of swimming direction at PND 7 was accelerated significantly in the high-dosed group in male offspring. Time taken of olfactory orientation at PND 14 was accelerated significantly in male offspring in a dose-related manner. Several variables in exploratory behavior showed significant tendencies to be affected in the treatment groups in male offspring at 3 weeks of age, and in males at 8 weeks of age. The dose levels of tartrazine in the present study produced a few adverse effects on neurobehavioral parameters throughout generations in mice.

/GENOTOXICITY/... Genotoxicity of Tartrazine /was studied/ in the gut micronucleus assay in mice after administration by oral gavage of 20, 200 or 1000 mg/kg bw twice at 24-hour intervals, and examination 24 hours later. ... The genotoxic effects /were/ assessed by recording the frequency of micronucleated cells and cell toxicity by identification of the apoptotic and mitotic cells. ... Acute oral exposure to Tartrazine did not induce genotoxic effect in the micronucleus gut assay at doses up to 2000 mg/kg bw. Food dye administration increased the mitotic cells at all dose levels when compared to controls. ...

 

12.2Ecological Information HelpNew Window
12.2.1Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary HelpNew Window
Tartrazine's production and use as a dye for wool and silks, and as a colorant in food, drugs and cosmetics may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams; its use as an aquatic algaecide/herbicide will result in its direct release to the environment. If released to air, tartrazine will exist solely in the particulate phase in the atmosphere since it is a salt and will be nonvolatile. Particulate-phase tartrazine will be removed from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition. Tartrazine may be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight; after exposure to sunlight, tartrazine in distilled water exhibited a first order rate constant of 2.31X10-3 per day, corresponding to a half-life of 300 days. If released to soil, tartrazine is expected to be mobile since this compound is expected to exist almost entirely in anion form in the environment and anions generally do not adsorb more strongly to soils containing organic carbon and clay than their neutral counterparts. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process because the compound exists as an anion and anions do not volatilize. If released into water, tartrazine is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon this compound's ionic nature in the environment. Tartrazine passed through pilot scale treatment activated sludge processes relatively unchanged, indicating that biodegradation is not expected to be an important environmental fate process. Tartrazine will exist almost entirely in the anion form at pH values of 5 to 9 and therefore volatilization from water surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process. Measured BCF values of <0.29 and <3.0 in carp suggests bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low. Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions. Occupational exposure to tartrazine may occur through dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where tartrazine is produced or used. Use data indicate that the general population may be exposed to tartrazine via ingestion of food, beverages, and drug products that contain this color additive, and dermal contact with wool, silks and cosmetics that use this compound. (SRC)

 

 

from HSDB
12.2.2Artificial Pollution Sources HelpNew Window
Tartrazine's production and use as a dye for wool and silks, as a colorant in food, drugs, cosmetics and in biochemistry as an adsorption-elution indicator for chloride estimations(1) may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams(SRC). Its use as an aquatic algaecide/herbicide(2) will result in its direct release to the environment(SRC). 
(1) O'Neil MJ, ed; The Merck Index. 14th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc. p. 1558 (2006) (2) USEPA/OPPTS; Reregistration Eligibility Decisions (REDs) Database for Erioglaucine and Tartrazine (Aquashade). Sept 23, 2005. Available from, as of Dec 9, 2011: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/status.htm

 

 

from HSDB
12.2.3Environmental Fate HelpNew Window
TERRESTRIAL FATE: Tartrazine may be expected to be mobile in soil(SRC); this compound is expected to exist almost entirely in anion form in the environment and anions generally do not adsorb more strongly to soils containing organic carbon and clay than their neutral counterparts(1). Volatilization from moist soil is not expected because the compound exists as an anion and anions do not volatilize. Tartrazine is not expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces because it is a salt, and salts do not volatilize(SRC). Tartrazine passed through pilot scale treatment activated sludge processes relatively unchanged(2), indicating that biodegradation in soil is not expected to be an important environmental fate process(SRC).

 

 

from HSDB
AQUATIC FATE: Tartrazine is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment(SRC). This compound will almost entirely exist in anion form in the environment and anions generally do not adsorb more strongly to soils containing organic carbon and clay than their neutral counterparts(1). Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected(2) based on its expected ionic character in the environment. According to a classification scheme(3), measured BCF values of <0.29 and <3.0 for carp(4), suggest bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC). Tartrazine may be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight; after exposure to sunlight, tartrazine in distilled water exhibited a first order rate constant of 2.31X10-3 per day, corresponding to a half-life of 300 days(5). Tartrazine passed through pilot scale treatment activated sludge processes relatively unchanged(6), indicating that biodegradation in water is not expected to be an important environmental fate process(SRC).
(1) Doucette WJ; pp. 141-188 in Handbook of Property Estimation Methods for Chemicals. Boethling RS, Mackay D, eds. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publ (2000) (2) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington, DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 15-1 to 15-29 (1990) (3) Franke C et al; Chemosphere 29: 1501-14 (1994) (4) NITE; Chemical Risk Information Platform (CHRIP). Biodegradation and Bioconcentration. Tokyo, Japan: Natl Inst Tech Eval. Available from, as of May 17, 2011: http://www.safe.nite.go.jp/english/db.html (5) Tarimci N et al; Fabad Farm Bilimler Derg 12: 289-95 (1987) (6) Shaul GM et al; Chemosphere 22: 107-19 (1991)

 

 

from HSDB
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), tartrazine is expected to exist solely in the particulate phase in the ambient atmosphere because it is a salt, and salts do not volatilize(SRC). Particulate-phase tartrazine may be removed from the air by wet or dry deposition(SRC). Tartrazine may be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight; after exposure to sunlight, tartrazine in distilled water exhibited a first order rate constant of 2.31X10-3 per day, corresponding to a half-life of 300 days(2).

 

 

from HSDB
12.2.4Environmental Biodegradation HelpNew Window
AEROBIC: Tartrazine, spiked at 1 and 5 mg/L, passed, relatively unchanged, through pilot scale treatment activated sludge processes with a solids retention time of 7 days(1), indicating that biodegradation is not an important environmental fate process(SRC).
from HSDB
12.2.5Environmental Abiotic Degradation HelpNew Window
Tartrazine is not expected to undergo hydrolysis in the environment due to the lack of functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions(1). Tartrazine may be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight; after exposure to sunlight, tartrazine in distilled water exhibited a first order rate constant of 2.31X10-3 per day, corresponding to a half-life of 300 days(2).
from HSDB
12.2.10Probable Routes of Human Exposure HelpNew Window
NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 318,163 workers (157,622 of these are female) are potentially exposed to tartrazine in the US(1). Occupational exposure to tartrazine may occur through dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where tartrazine is produced or used(SRC). The general population may be exposed to tartrazine via ingestion of food and medications, and dermal contact with this compound via consumer products containing tartrazine(SRC).
Simultaneous determination of color additives tartrazine and allura red in food products by digital image analysis.
PMID 29674083; Talanta 2018 Jul; 184(?):58-64
Name matches: allura red; e129 e102; tartrazine
Lack of genotoxicity in vivo for food color additive Allura Red AC.
PMID 28458012; Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 2017 Jul; 105(?):308-314
Name matches: allura red ac tartrazine
Determination of allura red in some food samples by adsorptive stripping voltammetry.
PMID 16385987; Journal of AOAC International 2005 ; 88(5):1387-1393
Name matches: allura red e102
Ponceau 4R.png
Ponceau 4R
CID 17466
58 articles
Tartrazin
Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi
Gezinti kısmına atlaArama kısmına atla
Tartrazin (E 102) ve (E 102a), yiyecek ve içeceklere sarı renk vermek için yararlanılan bir katkı maddesidir. Alkolsüz içecekler, dondurma, şekerlemeler, puding ve spagetti başlıca bulunduğu besinlerdir. Deri döküntüleri ve astım krizlerine yol açarlar.[1] Dünya kuruluşları tarafından hiçbir yan etkisi yoktur ve tüm dini kuruluşlar tarafından kabul görmektedir diyor.
Azo boya veya azorenkleri diye tanınmaktadır. Astım, bulanık görme, cilt hastalığı alerjik reaksiyonlara sebep olabilir.

 

Almanya'da 20.07.2010 dan sonra,Çocuk aktivitesini ve dikkatini azaltabilir, etkileyebilir yazılması şart koşulmuştur. (E 210) veya Aspirine karşı alerjisi bulunanlara uzak durulması tavsiye edilmektedir. Bitkisel veya hayvansal kökenli olabilir.

 


İçindekiler
1 Tartrazin içeren ürünler
1.1 Gıdalar
1.2 Kişisel bakım ve kozmetik ürünleri
2 Kaynakça
3 Dış bağlantılar
Tartrazin içeren ürünler
Gıdalar
Birçok gıdalar, üreticiye veya gıdayı hazırlayan kişiye göre değişen oranlarda tartrazin içerir; bununla birlikte son trend olarak, annatto, malt rengi veya betakaroten gibi sentetik olmayan bir boyama maddesinin yerini almasıdır.
Tartrazin, yiyeceklerde olduğu zaman, yargı alanına ve geçerli etiketleme yasalarına bağlı olarak tipik olarak "renk", "tartrazin" veya "E102" olarak etiketlenir.

 

Tartrazin içeren ürünler yaygın olarak suni sarı veya yeşil renge sahip işlenmiş ticari gıdalar veya tüketicilerin kahverengi veya kremsi görünmesini beklemektedir. Fırında pişmiş mallardaki "limon" taklitinin parlak sarı renkte sıklıkla kullanılmıştır. Aşağıdakiler tartrazin içerebilecek gıdaların bir listesidir:

 

Tatlılar ve şekerlemeler: dondurma, buz patlamaları ve şeker, şekerleme ve sert şekerleme (jöleli ayıcık, "Cik!" şekerleri, marshmallow, vb.), pamuk şeker, pudingler ve jelatin (Jelly-O gibi), pasta karışımları, hamur işleri, muhallebi tozu, badem ezmesi, bisküvi ve kurabiye.[2]
İçecekler: alkolsüz içecekler (Mountain Dew gibi), enerji ve spor içecekleri, toz içecek karışımı (Kool-Aid gibi), meyve özlü içecekler ve aromalı / karışık alkollü içecekler.
Atıştırmalıklar: Doritos, nachos gibi aromalı mısır cipsileri, sakız, patlamış mısır (hem mikrodalga hem de sinema patlamış mısırı) ve patates cipsi.
Baharat ve yayılmalar: reçel, jöle (naneli jöle dahil), marmelat, hardal, yaban turbu, turşu (tartar sos ve dereotu turşusu gibi turşu içeren diğer ürünler) ve işlenmiş soslar.[3]
Diğer işlenmiş gıdalar: tahıl (mısır gevreği, müsli gibi), anlık veya "küp" çorba), pirinç, risotto gibi pirinçler, erişte (bazı çeşit Kraft Yemekleri gibi), püre meyve ve turşu biberi, açık yeşil renkli deniz yosunu salatası Wakame.
Kişisel bakım ve kozmetik ürünleri
Bir dizi kişisel bakım ve kozmetik ürünü, genellikle aşağıdakileri içeren CI 19140 veya FD & C Yellow 5 olarak etiketlenen tartrazin içerebilir:[4]
Sıvı ve kalıp sabunlar, yeşil el sabanı giderici, nemlendiriciler ve losyonlar, ağız yıkayıcıları, parfümler, diş macunları ve şampuanlar, kremler ve diğer saç ürünleri.
Göz farı, allık, yüz tozu ve temel, ruj gibi kozmetik ürünler - başta pembe veya mor olanlar. Genellikle makyaj üreticileri, ürün çizgisindeki tüm tonlar için bir etiket kullanır.[5]
Tırnak cilası, oje çıkarıcı, geçici dövmeler ve bronzlaşma losyonları.
Ürün Adı: Tartrazine (Sarı)
Menşei: Hindistan
Ürün Kodu: E102
Fiziksel Yapısı: Toz
Çözünürlük: Su
Tartrazine; sentetik toz gıda boyasıdır. Sarı rengini verir. Genellikle gıda boyası (Allura Red (Bayrak Kırmızısı) E129, Brilliant Blue (Parlak Mavi) E133, Carmoisine (Vişne Kırmızı) E122, Chocolate Brown (Kahverengi) E155, Dark Brown (Koyu Kahverengi) E155, Pea Green (Yeşil) E142, Ponceau 4R (Kırmızı) E124, Sunset Yellow (Turuncu) E110, Titanyum Dioksit (Beyaz) E171 gibi) olarak kullanılır.

 

Fiziksel yapısı toz'dur. Suda çözünür.

Sarı (Tartrazine) Toz Gıda Boyası; gıda katkı maddeleri arasında E102 kodu ile yer almaktadır.

 

Keyifli Alışverişler
Tartrazin (E102)
Gezinti kısmına atlaArama kısmına atla
Tartrazin.png
Tartrazin ya da Avrupa Birliğinin verdiği adıyla E102 gıda sanayinde renklendirici olarak kullanılan sentetik bir boyadır. İlk olarak Alman Kimyager J. H. Ziegler tarafından 1884 yılında kömür katranından izole edilerek tanımlanmıştır. Ticari olarak petrol ürünlerinden kimyasal sentez ile üretilen tartrazin açık portakal renkli toz ya da granül haldedir. Suda çözünürlüğü çok yüksek bir bileşik olan tartrazin sıcaklık, ışık ya da oksijenden etkilenmez ve gıdaların bileşiminde kararlıdır. Çeşitli gıdaların üretiminde yaygın olarak kullanılan tartrazin ürüne sarı ya da yeşil tonları renk verir. Türk Gıda Kodeksinde tartrazinin kullanımına yönelik olarak ürün bazında miktar sınırlaması yapılmıştır ve FAO/WHO (Birleşmiş Milletler Gıda ve Tarım Örgütü/Dünya Sağlık Örgütü) tarafından oluşturulmuş Gıda Katkı Maddeleri Ortak Uzman Komitesi insan sağlığına olumsuz etki yapmadan tartrazinin maksimum günlük alım miktarını 7,5 mg/kg vücut ağırlığı olarak belirlemiştir.

 

 

İçindekiler
1 Tartrazin Hakkında Bilgiler
2 Canlılarda Tartrazin
3 Tartrazinin Kullanım Amacı
4 Tartrazin Helal midir
5 Tartrazinin Sağlığa Etkileri
6 Tartrazin Nasıl Üretilir
7 İlgili Maddeler
8 Kaynakça
Tartrazin Hakkında Bilgiler
Tartrazinin Diğer İsimleri: Asit sarı 23
Tartrazinin Avrupa Birliği Kodu: E102

 

Tartrazinin Kimyasal Formülü: C16H9N4Na3O9S2

Tartrazinin İngilizcesi: Tartrazine

 

Canlılarda Tartrazin
Tartrazin canlılarda doğal olarak bulunmayan sentetik bir renklendirici maddedir. Gıdalarla beraber vücuda alındığında tartrazinin çok az bir kısmı bağırsak mikroflorası tarafından parçalanarak emilirken; büyük kısmı herhangi bir değişikliğe uğramadan idrar ile atılır. [1]

 

 

Tartrazinin Kullanım Amacı
Gıda sanayinde pek çok ürün formülasyonunda renklendirici olarak kullanılan tartrazin gıdaya sarı ya da başka renklendiricilerle beraber yeşil tonları verir. Yaygın kullanıldığı gıda maddeleri arasında içecekler, puding, şekerleme, unlu mamüller, süt ürünleri, et ve balık ürünleri sayılabilir.[2] Tartrazin ayrıca sabun, şampuan, nemlendirici, ağız suyu, diş macunu ve saç bakım ürünleri ile çeşitli ilaçlarda renklendirici olarak kullanılmaktadır.

 

 

Tartrazin Helal midir
Sağlığa zararı fazla olduğundan bazı helal sertifikasyon kuruluşları tartrazin kullanımına onay vermemektedir.

 

 

Tartrazinin Sağlığa Etkileri
Toplumdaki insanların bir kısmı tartrazin tüketimine hassastır ve içeren gıdaların tüketilmesi durumunda deri döküntüleri, dil ve dudaklarda şişme ya da nefes alma zorlukları şeklinde ortaya çıkan alerjik reaksiyonlar görülebilir. Aspirini tolere edemeyen insanlarda ve astımlılarda tartrazin hassasiyeti daha fazla görülmektedir. Tartrazin hassasiyeti olanların içeren gıdalardan uzak durması tavsiye edilir.
Bazı çocuklarda tartrazin içeren gıdaların tüketimi hiperaktivite ve konsantrasyon kaybı gibi olumsuz etkilere yol açabilmektedir. Yapılan araştırmalarda özellikle tartrazin ve sodyum benzoatın (E211) beraber bulunduğu gıdaların bazı çocuklarda bu etkiye neden olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Her ne kadar konuyla ilgili bilimsel kanıtlar kesin değilse de Avrupa Birliği Ülkelerinde tartrazin içeren gıdaların etiketinde çocuklarda hareket ve dikkat üzerine olumsuz etkileri olabilir uyarısı bulunmak zorundadır.[3]. Ayrıca hiperaktivite tanısı konulan çocuklarda tartrazin kullanılarak renklendirilen gıdaların yenmesi durumunda uyku problemleri ve huzursuzluk şeklinde ortaya çıkan etkiler görülebilmektedir. Bazı ülkelerde tartrazinin gıda katkı maddesi olarak kullanımı yasaklanmıştır.
Tartrazin Nasıl Üretilir
Tartrazinin üretimi: Petrol yan ürünü olan 4-amino benzen sülfonik asitin çeşitli bileşiklerle reaksiyona sokulmasıyla elde edilen tartrazin saflaştırıldıktan sonra sodyum tuzu olarak elde edilir.
Sinsi düşman TARTRAZİNE
Sinsi düşman TARTRAZİNE
Tartrazine marketlerden aldığımız hazır yiyecek ve içeceklerin, hatta eczaneden aldığımız ilaçların içeriğinde dahil bulunan bir maddedir. Tartrazin (E 102 veya E 102a) gıdalara sarı renk vermek için kullanılan katkı maddesidir. Katkı maddesi fiziksel sağlık sorunlarından zihinsel ve ruhsal sağlık sorunlarına kadar bir çok rahatsızlıkların tetikleyicisi ve sürdürücüsü olarak bilinmektedir (FDA,2010)

 

 

DEHB (Dikkat eksikliği ve hiperaktivite bozukluğu)
Migren
Uyku Bozukluğu
Anksiyete bozukluğu
OKB
Depresyon
Davranış bozuklukları
Kalp çarpıntısı
Egzema ve deri döküntüleri
Astım atakları, nefes alamama
Bulanık görme
Öksürük
Kusma, mide bulantısı
Tiroide bağlı rahatsızlıklar ve s.
1989 yılında yapılan bir çalışmada İngiltere'deki ilaç formülasyonlarında renklendiriciler ve koruyucuların yaygınlığının değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmış ve ilaç üreticilerinden ilaç formülasyonları, özellikle renklendiriciler ve koruyucular hakkında bilgi vermeleri istenmişti. Bu süreçte toplamda, 2204 ilaç formülasyonu analiz edildi. Bunların 419'nun değişik katkı maddeleri içerdikleri saptandı. Araştırmaya göre bir çok ilacın yan etkilerinin asıl nedeni renklendirici ve koruyucularla ilişkilendirildi (Pollock et. al, 1989).

 

 

Yapılan farklı bir araştırma tartrazin içeren ilaçlarla tedavi edilen 2210 kişiden 83'nün tartrazin maddesine karşı alerjisi olduğu ortaya çıkardı. Alerjiye sebep olan ilaçlar durdurulduktan sonra, semptomlar 24-48 saat içinde azalarak kayb oldular. Ayrıca bu maddeye karşı alerjik tepki gösteren kişilerin hiçbirisi aynı ilacın, tartrazin içermeyen markalarına karşı alerjik reaksiyon göstermediler (Bhatia, 2000).
2009 ve 2010 yılında fareler üzerinde 2 küçük ön çalışma tartrazin maddesinin hızlı olmayacak şekilde sperm hücrelerini öldürdüğünü ortaya koydu (Live Science, 2009; 2010)
Gebelik dönemi dahil mide bulantısı için reçete edilen ilaçlar, ağrıkisiciler ve s. bu veya başka katkı maddeleri, koruyucu ve renklendiriciler içermektedirler. (Lütfen, hekiminizin reçete ettiği ilaçları hekiminize danışmadan kesmeyiniz!. Eğer kullandığınız ilacın tartazin içerdiğini düşünüyorsanız, hekiminizden tatrazin içermeğen farklı bir marka ile değişmesini isteyebilirsiniz).
Yetişkin bir insan bünyesinin bu tip maddeleri kaldıramaması ve bir sürü yan etkilerle karşılaşması olasılığı varken, anne rahminde olan fetusun gelişim aşamasında bu tür katkı maddeleri içeren yiyecek, içecek ve ilaçların kullanilmasi ne kadar doğru olur sorgulamamız gerekir.

 

 

İçeriği sarıya boyanmış tüm yiyecek, içecek, ve hatta ilaçlar tatrazin içermektedirler. Bazı ilaçlar farklı renklerle boyanmış olsa da, prospektüsünde tartrazin yani E-102, E-102a içerdiğini okuyabilirsiniz. Ayrıca marketlerde satılan bir çok ürünün tatrazin içerdiği üzerinde yazmaz.
Toxicity of tartrazine
Scientific review report

 

 

1 February 2014
Version history
Version Description of change Author Effective date
V1.0 Original publication Office of Scientific Evaluation Feb 2014
Copyright
© Commonwealth of Australia 2014
This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for internal use within your organisation, but only if you or your organisation do not use the reproduction for any commercial purpose and retain this copyright notice and all disclaimer notices as part of that reproduction. Apart from rights to use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968 or allowed by this copyright notice, all other rights are reserved and you are not allowed to reproduce the whole or any part of this work in any way (electronic or otherwise) without first being given specific written permission from the Commonwealth to do so. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights are to be sent to the TGA Copyright Officer, Therapeutic Goods Administration, PO Box 100, Woden ACT 2606 or emailed to .

 

 

1. Introduction
The TGA and MedSafe are engaged in several ANTZPA harmonisation activities under the Common Regulatory Framework Programme. One of these involves the development of a common list of colouring substances allowed for use in medicines. A comparison of the two lists of colouring substances allowed in Australia and New Zealand revealed that the New Zealand list contains tartrazine allowed for both oral and external use in New Zealand but is only allowed for external use in Australia. When used in products for internal use in New Zealand, the product label has to state that the product contains tartrazine. Tartrazine is a permitted food colour in both Australia and New Zealand.
In the interest of harmonisation, a proposal was put forward to the ANTZPA Trans-Tasman Senior Officials Group (TTSOG) that: "Australia should consider adding tartrazine to its list of colours allowed in medicines for oral use and, consistent with international practice, require the medicine label to state that the product contains tartrazine".

 

 

In response to this proposal, this review of tartrazine was undertaken by the TGA.
2. Historical background in Australia
In 1983, in response to media reports and published papers, the then Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) recommended a ban on the use of tartrazine for oral ingestion due to potential hypersensitivity reactions. At its 109th meeting (1983/2), ADEC recommended that no new applications for products containing tartrazine should be accepted (Res No 2374B). Since that time it has been the policy of the TGA not to accept such products.
The restriction was not extended to topical or lipstick products because of the relative lack of absorption through the skin. At the time, there were no animal toxicity data on the subject. A detailed literature search failed to reveal any convincing clinical or scientific evidence to support a ban for topical products. The use in sunscreens and 'chapsticks' and the very low level of reported incidences of sensitivity added support to ADEC's decision.

 

3. Review criteria and search terms

 

With the help of the TGA library, the TGA undertook a thorough search of the literature from the 1970s to the present for peer-reviewed publications dealing with the toxicity of tartrazine and consumption of tartrazine and its possible correlation with hyperactivity and behavioural changes. The search included both animal and human studies.
The review is based on several published papers (up to May 2013), as well as on reviews of international authorities in the public domain as listed in the Bibliography. The following databases were searched: TOXLINE, TOXNET, PUBMED, Medline, Embase, Biosis, and a Dialog search on a large number of medical and pharmaceutical databases.

 

 

4. Use in other products
Many processed foods contain the dye, including dairy products, juices, pickles, candies and cake mixes, as well as cosmetics and toiletries. It is also found in many drug products that were approved prior to ADEC's 1983 recommendation. The amounts range between 0.001 to 2.5 mg.
Tartrazine is included in the Food Standards Code; Schedule 4 of Standard 1.3.1 Food Additives. Schedule 4 allows tartrazine in certain foods and beverages up to maximum 0.29 mg/g and 0.07 mg/mL, respectively. It also states that certain beverages (such as carbonated, mineralised and soda waters specified in Schedule 1) are exempted from this quantity restriction.

 

The acceptable daily intake (ADI) is the amount of a substance that can be taken every day for an entire lifetime without any adverse effect. Tartrazine has an ADI of up to 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight, which was established by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in1964. Recent reviews have concluded that a revision of the ADI based on the available data is not warranted. A dietary exposure assessment predicted that tartrazine consumption for children aged between 2 and 16 years in Australia, even at the highest daily consumption, would be between 0.21 and 0.38 mg/kg bodyweight (which corresponds to between 3 and 5% of the ADI). Elhkim et al. (2007) recently conducted a toxicological assessment and their bibliographical review of animal studies confirmed the initial hazard assessment conducted by JECFA (1964) and the ADI of 7.5 mg/kg bw. They calculated that in France the estimated maximum theoretical intake of tartrazine in children is 37.2% of the ADI at the 97.5th percentile.

 

5. International regulatory status
Colouring agents have a unique status as pharmaceutical excipients and most regulatory agencies hold lists of colours that may be used in medicinal products. Restrictions or bans on the use of some colouring agents have been imposed in some countries, while the same colours may be permitted for use in a different country. As a result, the same colour (including tartrazine) may have a different regulatory status in different territories of the world.
5.1 European Union
Tartrazine (E 102) is authorised as a food additive in the EU1 and is allowed to be used in medicines for oral use. The primary legislation governing colouring agents that may be used in medicinal products is Council Directive 78/25/EEC of 12 December 19772. This Directive links pharmaceutical requirements with those of foods in the EU. There is a clause in EEC Directive 78/25 that states, "Experience has shown that on health grounds there is no reason why the colouring matters authorized for use in foodstuffs intended for human consumption should not also be authorized for use in medicinal products." The Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices (SCMPMD) on 21 October 1998 alluded to this clause in respect of other colourants; there is no specific opinion of the this committee (SCMPMD) on the use of tartrazine. But the European Commission has provided guidance on cross references to the current food colour legislation as contained in Council Directive 94/36/EC3.
In the EU, Directive 89/107/EEC as well as Regulation (EC) 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on food additives, which has applied from 20 January 2010, require that food additives must be monitored and re-evaluated whenever necessary in the light of new scientific information. Accordingly, a re-evaluation of tartrazine (E102) was undertaken by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) in 2009.

 

 

5.2. UK
Tartrazine is permitted for use in oral medicines and must always be declared on the label.
5.3. Canada
Permitted in drugs for internal and external use (Food and Drug Regulations [C.R.C., c 870, Section C.01.040.2])4
5.4. USA
In the USA, 21 CFR 74.1505, 82.51 and 82.705 clearly state that "FD&C Yellow #5 (and associated lakes) may be safely used for coloring drugs generally, including drugs intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice."
There is a restriction in 21 CFR 74.1505 for prescription drugs that states that the labels for these products must bear the following warning statements: "This product contains FD&C Yellow #5 (tartrazine) which may cause allergic-type reactions (including bronchial asthma) in certain susceptible persons. Although the overall incidence of FD&C Yellow #5 (tartrazine) sensitivity in the general population is low, it is frequently seen in patients who also have aspirin hypersensitivity".

 

 

6. Toxicological assessment in animal studies
There have been several comprehensive reviews of the safety of tartrazine. The first risk assessment of tartrazine was conducted by JECFA followed by at least three evaluations by the EU Scientific Committee on Food (SCF, now known as EFSA) in 1975, 1984 and 2009 (EFSA 2009; EFSA 2010). Independently, reviews were also conducted by the National Health and Welfare Canada (Khera & Munro 1979) and by the Nordic Council of Ministers (2002) in Europe. The sections below are a brief summary of salient features of the toxicology profile of tartrazine from a variety of animal studies.
6.1. Toxicokinetics

 

 

The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of tartrazine have been studied in animals and humans. The majority of these studies were originally evaluated by JECFA (1966). Except for a few studies describing azoreduction by intestinal bacteria, no new data has been published since the JECFA review. At a range of doses, absorption of orally administered intact tartrazine in humans and laboratory animals is less than 5%. The absorbed tartrazine is secreted in urine largely, unchanged. The remaining tartrazine is extensively metabolised by intestinal microflora; of which some metabolites are absorbed through the intestine. (JECFA 1964; Khera & Munro, 1979; reviewed by Elhkim et al. 2007, Watabe et al., 1980, EFSA 2009). Of these metabolites, sulfanilic acid is predominantly secreted by urine. Kuno & Mizutani (2005), using bovine liver microsomes that mimic human liver microsomes, showed that tartrazine is not a substrate for CYP2A6 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase.
6.2. Acute and chronic toxicity
Acute oral toxicity was assessed in rodents. In mice, the LD50 value was determined to be 12750 mg/kg bw (EFSA 2009; JECFA 1966) and in rats it was >2000 mg/kg/bw (EFSA 2009; Sasaki et al., 2002).
Several short-term and sub-chronic toxicity studies in rats, cats and dogs were reviewed by JECFA (1966). No tartrazine-related effects were reported for doses up to 500 mg/kg bw. A more recent rat study by Abdel-Zahab et al. 1997 (reviewed by EFSA 2009) examined the effects of two mixtures of colouring agents (up to 800 mg/kg/ bw), including tartrazine. However, the composition of the mixtures were not reported due to commercial-in-confidence issues. The EFSA panel concluded that it was difficult to assess the results of this study as the exposure of the animals to the individual food colours could not be determined.

 

Tartrazine was reported to produce neurotoxicity and deficits in learning and memory in animals (Gao 2011) at doses in excess of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of tartrazine (0-7.5 mg/kg/day). However, it could not be excluded that exposure to tartrazine together with other dyes exerted toxicity by mechanisms involving synergistic process.

Long-term toxicity studies in rodents were reviewed by JECFA (1966). As confirmed by EFSA (2009), these studies were all conducted prior to the introduction of OECD guidelines and the establishment of Good Laboratory Practice. In the majority of these studies, when examined, there were no consistent or dose-related effects on behaviour, morbidity, mortality, haematology or the general physical observations.

 

6.3. Genotoxicity
Available evidence shows that tartrazine has no mutagenic potential in the majority of studies (reviewed by EFSA 2009; Elhkim et al, 2007; JECFA 1966; Rafii et al., 1997). However, other studies demonstrated that tartrazine has potential clastogenic activity. It was shown to induce chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster (Ishidate et al., 1981, 1984) and rat (Giri et al., 1990) somatic cells, but not in mice (Durnev et al., 1995). Sasaki et al. (2002), using the Comet assay, showed that tartrazine may induce transient DNA damage in the colon of mice at doses slightly above ADI. EFSA (2009) reviewed these latter studies and concluded that the transient DNA damage observed could be partly attributed to local cytotoxicity of the dye. However, in a more recent study, tartrazine did not reveal any genotoxic effect in the micronucleus assay in mice at doses up to 2000 mg/kg bw (Poul et al., 2009 reviewed by EFSA 2009).
The biological significance of the positive genotoxicity results is uncertain in view of the negative carcinogenicity studies.

 

 

6.4. Carcinogenicity
No evidence of carcinogenicity was observed in studies reviewed by JECFA (1964) nor in recent studies conducted in mice and rats (Borzelleca & Hallagan 1988; Maekawa et al., 1987; Moutinho et al., 2007).
Tartrazine in drinking water (1-2%) showed no carcinogenic effects in two-year toxicity study of rats (Maekawa et al., 1987). In the studies reported by JECFA (1964), tartrazine was administered orally at doses up to 5% of the diet to rats and 1% to mice. Maekawa et al. (1987) administered tartrazine ad libitum in the drinking water at levels ranging from 0.1% to 2% for as long as two years while those described by Borzelleca & Hallagan (1988) mice were exposed to dietary levels of 0-5%.

 

 

6.5. Reproductive toxicity
Reproductive studies show that tartrazine does not have teratogenic effects on rats or rabbits and no adverse effects on reproductive parameters were recorded in one-generation studies at doses up to 2% in the diet (JECFA 1964; reviewed by Elhkim et al., 2007; Tanaka 2006). Behavioural development of offspring was not affected in any of these studies. The No Adverse Effect Level in rats was 5% tartrazine in the diet (2641 and 3348 mg/kg/day in male and female rats, respectively; Borzelleca & Hallagan 1988b) and 1000 mg/kg/day in rabbits (FDA 1972 in Collins et al. 1990).
Reproductive parameters were also examined in the chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies referred to above and reviewed by EFSA (2009). No treatment-related effects were observed.

 

 

Top of page
7. Hypersensitivity and intolerance in humans
7.1. History
The major controversy in the field of artificial food colours is the suggestion first made in the 1920s that artificial food colours and additives, including tartrazine, may have detrimental effects on children inducing 'hyperactivity' (Burrows 2009, cited by Arnold et al., 2012). A specific hypothesis relating to this relationship was developed in 1973 by Feingold (1975) who proposed that hyperactivity and learning problems in children were due to certain foods and food additives as well as foods containing natural salicyclates. The work was criticised by the medical profession. However, his hypothesis was accepted by many parents following media reports (comprehensively reviewed by Arnold et al., 2012).
Subsequent investigations failed to demonstrate a link with hyperactivity due to deficiencies of many of these studies (Arden & Ram, 2001; Arnold et al., 2012; Conners et al., 1976; Dipalma 1990; Khera & Munro 1979; Levy et al., 1978; Rowe 1988; Settipane 1977). In trying to identify the biological process(es) underlying this potential relationship, several hypotheses were put forward based on neurochemical, genetic or allergic/immunological mechanisms. However, no definitive biological process was established (reviewed by FDA/CFSAN 2011).

 

Over the years, interest waned but was revived in 2004 with a study published by Schab & Trinh (2004; see below).

 

7.2. Recent human studies
The following are brief summaries of reviews or studies conducted during the last 12 years.
In 2001, Ardern & Ram reviewed 18 relevant studies in humans, but found they were inconclusive as none of them conducted tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet nor did they significantly alter asthma outcomes. Schab & Trinh (2004) conducted a meta-analysis of findings from previously conducted clinical trials that attempted to show a definitive relationship between consumption of artificial food colours, including tartrazine, and behavioural changes in children. The study was, however, deficient in analysing objective measures of behaviour such as clinical/psychological evaluations, activity monitoring or behavioural testing; and was universally criticised for its emphasis on behaviour ratings as reported by parents, teachers or clinicians (Arnold et al., 2012; Elhkim et al., 2007; FDA/CSAN 2011; Watson 2008).

 

Thus, no clear relationship between ingestion of food colours (including tartrazine) and the development of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children (Arnold et al., 2012) or development of intolerance reaction (Elhkim et al., 2007) was established. The use of non-standardised diagnosis, questionable sample selection, imperfect blinding and non-standardised outcome measures utilised by previous investigators may have been key factors contributing to the ambiguity surrounding tartrazine consumption and these reactions.

Interest in the relationship between food colours and hyperactivity in children was revived again in 2007 when McCann et al. (2007) published a study conducted at the Southampton University. The study implied that mixtures of certain artificial food colours and sodium benzoate could increase the mean level of hyperactivity profile behaviours in two age groups of children (3-4 years old and 8-9 years old) from the general population. However, lack of consistency in the results with respect to the age and sex of the children and the type of observer (parent, teacher, or independent assessor); the unknown clinical relevance of the effects measured; the use of mixtures in the study and lack of information on dose-response resulted in the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) rejecting suggestions of a direct link between artificial food colours and hyperactivity (Watson 2008).

Furthermore, in response to a petition from the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI 2008) arising from the Southampton study, the FDA also conducted a thorough review of the McCann et al. 2007 study as well as publications of previously conducted clinical trials (33 trials), including the 2004 meta-analysis by Schab and Trinh (2004).

The concerns of the FDA neurotoxicology/toxicology panel were in line with the previously identified deficiencies of McCann et al. 2007 study by the EFSA (Watson 2008). Thus, the FDA concluded that a causal relationship between exposure to tartrazine (and other colour additives) and hyperactivity in children in the general population could not established.

Neither EFAS nor the FDA found any compelling evidence to alter current regulations on acceptable daily intakes of tartrazine in foods, drugs and cosmetics.

 

Top of page
8. Conclusions and recommendations
From a toxicological point of view, tartrazine does not appear to represent a risk for the consumer. It is recommended that the TGA allow the use of tartrazine for oral use and to label those products as to tartrazine content in line with New Zealand.
Tartrazine, FD&C yellow No.5

 

 

A synthetic yellow azo dye found in fruit squash, fruit cordial, coloured fizzy drinks, instant puddings, cake mixes, custard powder, soups, sauces, ice cream, ice lollies, sweets, chewing gum, marzipan, jam, jelly, marmalade, mustard, yoghurt and many convenience foods together with glycerine, lemon and honey products. It can also be found in the shells of medicinal capsules. It can also be used with Brilliant Blue FCF, (E133) to produce various green shades e.g. for tinned processed peas.
Tartrazine appears to cause the most allergic and/or intolerance reactions of all the azo dyes, particularly amongst those with an aspirin intolerance and asthmatics. Other reactions can include migraine, blurred vision, itching, rhinitis and purple skin patches, (because of this more use is now being made of Annatto (E160b). In conjunction with Benzoic acid (E210) tartrazine appears to create an over-activity in children.

 

 

Physical Description
Tartrazine is a lemon-yellow dye that provides a yellow to orange shade in applications. Tartrazine is principally the trisodium salt of 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl) 4- [4-sulfophenyl-azo] -1H-pyrazole -3-carboxylic acid. It is soluble in water and sparingly soluble in ethanol. The chemical name is 5-oxo-1-(p-sulfophenyl)-4- [(p-sulfophenyl)azo]-2-pyrazoline-3- carboxylic acid, trisodium salt
Common Uses
Tartrazine provides a pleasing lemon-yellow color when used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. For food, it is used to color confections, cereals, snack foods, beverages, condiments, baked goods, powdered mixes, gelatine products, icings, jellies, spices, dressings, sauces, and yogurt.
Codex Provisions
The Codex Alimentarius Commission has finalized authorization of The Side Effects of Tartrazine
By Sarah Olson | July 12, 2010
Certain food additives are dangerous to our children, but who would have thought that the dyes used would be dangerous? I grew up using food coloring in frosting, decorating cookies and cakes...I don't even know what else my mother used it on. So the fact that artificial coloring is so dangerous to our health was a surprise.
Of course, the food coloring that we all grew up using isn't the same thing as the artificial colors used in processed foods. Tartrazine, also known as FD&C Yellow #5 or E102, is one of these artificial coloring additives. This is one we don't want to give to our kids, so avoid it like it's the plague!

 

Tartrazine doesn't even sound appetizing when you learn what it's made from! As with most artificial colors, it is manufactured from coal tar; hmmm, yummy! BLECH!

I keep mentioning the fact that ADHD is not a disease, it's merely caused by a poor diet loaded with all kinds of nasty, dangerous additives. I've told you how pesticides, MSG, BHA & BHT and refined sugar are all contributing to the fact that our children are hyperactive. Well, guess what? Now there's another additive causing hyperactivity in our children: Tartrazine.

Sadly, this isn't the only side effect that FD&C Yellow #5 has...it has also been linked to asthma, migraines, thyroid cancer, anxiety, clinical depression, blurred vision, purple spots on your skin and unexplainable itchy skin.

Do I really have to tell you WHY it's used when the food industries are aware of its side effects? OK, I will, Tartrazine is still used because it's cheap. Beta Carotene could be used to achieve the same color results as Tartrazine, but it's more expensive. Bottom line: as with all other harmful food additives, the food industry continues to use this harmful artificial coloring because it is CHEAP.

Tartrazine is found in a LOT of products, cereals, desserts, snack foods, shampoos and even cosmetics can all contain this harmful colorant. All you have to do is check the labels before you buy!

 

Avatar Pudget on July 28, 2017 at 7:25 am
Great info, I will definitely cross-reference my post on tartrazine with yours if that's ok. I recently bought some vitamins that are dyed with tartrazine, for a week I was feeling numb arms and trembling hands. It drove me crazy as I thought my Sjogren's was getting worse out of the blue. Too fast even for a chronic disease. So when I stopped the vitamins and read the excipients list I realised tartrazine was there, which is really bad. I ceased taking those tablets two days ago and I have been feeling much better now. Numbness of the arms is gone and the trembling is just very occasional twice in 48 hours . I submitted an adverse event report to the pharmaceutical company so they know. Avatar Pudget on July 28, 2017 at 7:27 am However, on the ADHD part of your post, I must disagree. Even though ADHD is overdiagnosed it is still a disorder one can be born with. So I' definitely correct that statement for the sake of not spreading poor information. Avatar Tamara Downey on July 29, 2017 at 12:54 am People live on Kraft Dinner, and Kraft Dinner has Tartrazine in it. I don't know that I'm buying this hook line and sinker. I would need to see medical research from a reputable source that states it is as dangerous as suggested here. A specific red dye that Smarties used many moons ago was band in the US/Canada. That's why the company created the "do you eat the red ones last" commercials. They changed the dye, but drew attention to the red ones at the same time to put people at ease after the red dye food scare. Avatar Daniel on August 21, 2017 at 3:38 am I thought of Looking at the meaning of Tartrazine on in product in Nigeria, ((Viju milk drink); Just surprise at what am seeing and comments from others. It just best for us to eat fresh and non-processed foods. Avatar Nathalie on August 21, 2017 at 12:56 pm Anything in moderation; key word "moderation" Avatar Allen Puckett on September 2, 2017 at 11:09 am I see some people doubt the effects of FDC Yellow #5 . well you will find it in everything from yellow cake to pickles. I have to carry an epie pen and inhaler. If I ingest yellow #5 I have antiphalactic seizure . it should be banned! Thank you for the great info. Avatar Richard Royal on September 2, 2017 at 4:21 pm Makayla, Marc, and other GOVT. MOLES: You need to stop fighting the truth-tellers!!! There will come a day for those who hate all mankind, and a very old book says: "...men will seek death and not find it..." (That's you haters of all truth-tellers & haters/deniers of Yeshua). Avatar Emma on September 28, 2017 at 12:57 pm 
I think that ADHD is definitely over ‘diagnosed'. I believe that in reality a lot of the behaviour displayed by some children is as a result of the additives in foods given to them. They are then medicated (generating profit for pharmaceutical companies) to counteract or ‘correct' this behaviour.
Artificial colours are cheaper than natural ones, pharma gains financially through medication sales, so I can't see either situation changing any time soon.

 

The biggest kick in the teeth, is the presence of artificial colours and other additives in some unavoidable childrens medicines such as paracetamol or antibiotics. They are permitted excipients in the UK. There has been no alternative antibiotic available, without lurid colouring, for my child when I have requested it. Calpol, a heavily promoted and leading brand of paracetamol suspension in the UK, has a list of additives too. It is nigh on impossible to find either medicine without additives. No wonder they seem to ‘work wonders' and the kids are up and bouncing about after having these medications.... I dread my kids getting ill. Their behaviour is altered and it's not their fault. I feel like it's a double edged sword, administering these drugs to them. The drug element helps them, but the additives do them such a disservice. Avatar E on October 2, 2017 at 8:38 pm

What is wrong with you people? What you put in your body does not cause ADHD and I most certainly didn't give my son ADHD because of the food I consumed either. Please do your research before you post information. It is hereditary, it isn't caused by food dyes and toxins. Both my son and I eat very well, yeah sometimes we eat things with food dye but who doesn't? And I can tell you now I know tons of people who pump their bodies full of toxins and junk and they are fine and so are their children. Eating junk isn't good for anyone and too much food dye and toxins are obviously not good for you but it most certainly doesn't cause ADHD. There is no real research that can back up claims that your diet is linked to ADHD. Yeah too many toxins or dyes or sugars may make children hyperactive but that doesn't mean they have ADHD. It's passed down through genes. You are all very naïve. Avatar kikiTee on October 10, 2017 at 4:25 am I have to avoid tartrazine like the plague. It causes me migraine. After returning to the UK from a holiday in north America, I can stop checking the majority of labels. It felt like EVERYTHING in NA has tartrazine in it, even supposedly ‘natural' lemonade. Surely the fact it hurts people should be enough to remove it from the food chain regardless of the price. Avatar Sophie on October 10, 2017 at 1:55 pm Is there a place that I can find your sources for this article?? Avatar Robin Cook. on January 17, 2018 at 4:53 pm I can say that I am 65 and I have suffered from Migraine all my life they come in many forms some I can say are caused by stress, others are caused by food and drinks ,when i got married in the 1980 my wife was very careful about my food and migraines disapered , we noticed that when our Children had food out of our control they sometimes became Hyperactive and with made cow disease so we became very careful about our diets ,we were the nutty people but I dont think we were . People seem to be ill with things we never herd of 30 years ago . Just think about the people you know and make your own mind up.

 

Avatar Kelee on February 17, 2018 at 11:08 am
I was severely allergic to Tartrazine as a child, caused migraines, vomiting, stomach cramps, hives etc...every food had to be checked. For me it's something that should never be used if anything. Avatar Nicole on February 24, 2018 at 4:09 am I have a child clinically diagnosed ADHD along with a few other disorders. Yes I did a lot of research with food and ingredients and we tried it first but his brain is wired different from others like everyone else in the world ?he was completely compulsive and getting into trouble at school in kindergarten and then he was so upset with himself after. When your 6 year old looks you in the eyes saying I don't want to be bad anymore, Mom intuition knows that it's not the breakfast so yes he is able to control and learn in school yet I was still testing out the dyes in food. I'm completely convinced that with my child the red dye will increase his hyperactive tendencies so I don't have anything to do with it, he is 13 now and it's still a process. My point being that until you have a child with anything you think is just "parenting " or food please don't judge others for the choice because as a parent it's a 24/7 worry about the choices we have to make especially when it comes to the brain. Rant over ???? Btw my son is a twin and she would eat the same thing and she is not hyper and never was. I have 2 older boys, none of them were hyperactive, so how would someone explain that to me if it's just the food ??? Avatar Nance Welsh on April 2, 2018 at 4:00 pm Thank you for this information! I thru the Jello powder out as it has this nasty tartrazine in it! I'm glad I read labels now & avoid chemicals as best I can! Best to just eat healthy Veggies, fruit & protein! Avatar Mark on April 20, 2018 at 2:48 am I've suffered for years with migraines and the doctors are pretty useless, just giving me pill after pill. To cut it short, after doing my own investigations I found that the worst triggers were anything artificial. This included sweetners, colours etc. Also, we discovered that anything that made me have a migraine also made our sons ADHD worse. From further studies I find I'm not alone. Why are food companies allowed to add the chemicals to our food and drinks? By watching our diets, life is much easier, I also found that a 15mg Zinc suppliment a day helps my migraines. Avatar Dee on May 2, 2018 at 11:54 am I must say thank you for this valuable information, I was at clinic few weeks ago, the nurse told me that the spots on my kid face, white spots so I believe this information . Avatar Corey Yates on May 13, 2018 at 12:40 pm You seem like you have it all figured out. Sure, I don't disagree with the hyperactivity of kids coming from the foods they consume. However, to downplay ADHD like you did in your article is laughable. You have no clue what someone with ADHD goes through. It's not brought on by foods. It's a chemical imbalance in your brain. It's not a disease. It's an imbalance. A disease is something that riddles your body it breaks down your body composite. Avatar Kerry on May 30, 2018 at 11:51 am I have found that our daughter presents with asthma like symptoms and may be told she has a "cold" but it ONLY happens when she ingests a food with tartrazine. We completely removed it frothier diet and she NEVER has a "cold" or breathing issues no matter what time of year it is. As soon as she mistakenly has something with Tartrazine in it, she coughs and gets a runny nose. These artificial food dyes are extremely harmful and I bet many children that are in a constant "cold" cycle can directly relate it back to the food they ingest! If parents took time to food journal and match it to symptoms, they could eliminate a lot of "sickness" Avatar Myron on June 18, 2018 at 9:10 am I am now throwing out an unopened bottle of Régale brand mustard. Manufactured in the USA it is marketed in Canada by Dollarama. Avatar dkaj on June 23, 2018 at 1:56 am There is information on pubmed about the effects of tatrazine and how it affects people specifically who has allergies and asthma and effects of hyperactivity in children. This is a listing of various studies for those of you who are wanting more specific study info for proof. https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search2/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+1934-21-0. Avatar Peter on September 15, 2018 at 10:44 am

 

 

How something sounds doesn't tell you anything about potential interactions within the body, neither does "what it is made from". Vitamin C from an orange is chemically identical to vitamin C from tablets, regardless of what the raw materials are in its manufacture. There is no distinction between synthetic and natural in that sense because nature does not circumvent its own laws: nature also has to synthesize its substances and they do not appear out of nothingness. The point is that man can not properly examine what the interaction is in the body between all those substances that one ingests through food, supplements, etc. Then there is also the fact that no one substance does exactly the same all the time in everybody's body. Conclusion: it is not possible to state - in absolute terms - that this or that substance is always either beneficial or harmful, because it all depends on factors such as concentration, duration of exposure, route of exposure, etc., etc.Tartrazine in four food categories, as noted in the General Standard for Food Additives. Approximately 70 other applications of Tartrazine as a color additive in foods and beverages have been proposed and are pending authorization, following completion of the review and comments process. Most applications are at Step 7 of the Step Process with few at Step 4 of the Process. The MPL for most of these applications range from 200-500 ppm, with few exceptions of lower limits in selected types of foods. Regulatory Approvals USA: FD&C Yellow #5 is a color additive subject to certification and permanently listed for use in food (21 CFR 74.705), drugs (21 CFR 74.1705), and cosmetics (21 CFR 74.2705), including drugs and cosmetics for eye area at GMP, and its aluminum lake (21 CFR 82.705) EU: ADI of 0-7.5 mg/kg body weight; EFSA has also established MPLs for use of Tartrazine in foods and beverages in Europe JECFA: ADI of 0-10 mg/kg body weight (82nd meeting, 2016) Safety Assessment Tartrazine is an azo dye used as a synthetic color in the USA, EU, Japan, Canada, India, and other regions. JECFA re-evaluated the safety of tartrazine in 2017 and established an ADI of 0-10 mg/kg bw, on the basis of a NOAEL of 984 mg/kg bw per day in a long-term rat study based on reductions in body weight at the higher dose level (Borzelleca & Hallagan, 1988b), with application of a 100-fold uncertainty factor. The Committee withdrew the previous ADI of 0-7.5 mg/kg bw per day. The Committee noted that the dietary exposure estimate for European children aged 1-10 years was below the upper bound of the ADI (4-73%) and concluded that dietary exposure to tartrazine for the general population, including children, does not present a health concern.
Tartrazin, en yaygın kullanılan yapay besinler, ilaç ve kozmetik boyalarından biridir. Bu bir nitro türevidir ve bilinir astım ve ürtiker gibi alerjik reaksiyonlara neden olmak, ayrıca mutagenez ve gastrointestinal tarafından metabolize edildikten sonra aromatik amin sülfanilik asite dönüşümünden kaynaklanan karsinojenez mikroflora. Bir kontrol grubuna (A) veya bir tedaviye (B) 45 erkek Wistar sıçanı verilmiştir. Tedavi grubu alındı günlük içme suyunda 7,5 mg x kg (-1) x gün (-1) tartrazine, sütten kesilme yaşına kadar on ay boyunca ad libitum önerdi on iki ay. Mide antrum mukozasının lenfosit ve eozinofil sayısında belirgin bir artış vardı. Çalışma sırasında herhangi bir mide bölgesinde karsinojenetik değişiklik gözlenmedi. Tartrazine azo sınıfına ait olduğu için,hala olası bir gıda kanserojen. Farklı doz ve programlarla ilgili diğer çalışmalar,güvenli kullanımları tavsiye edilirse diğer kanserojenler yapılmalıdır. Bazı gıda katkı maddeleri bizim için tehlikeli Çocuklar, ama kullanılan boyaların tehlikeli olacağını kim düşünebilirdi? Buzlanmada gıda boyasını kullanarak büyüdüm, çerezleri ve pastaları süslemek... Annemin başka ne kullandığını bile bilmiyorum. Yani yapay renklendirme bu kadar gerçektir sağlığımız için tehlikeli bir sürprizdi. Elbette, hepimizin kullanarak ürettiğimiz gıda boyası, aynı şeyle aynı şey değil.işlenmiş gıdalarda kullanılan yapay renkler. FD & C Sarı # 5 veya E102 olarak da bilinen Tartrazine, bu yapaylardan biridir renklendirici katkılar. Bu, çocuklarımıza vermek istemediğimiz bir şeydir, bu yüzden de ondan vebadan kaçının! Tartrazine bile yok ne yaptığını öğrendiğin zaman iştah açıcı geliyor! Çoğu yapay renkte olduğu gibi, kömür katranından üretilmiştir; hmmm nefis! DEHB`nin bir hastalık olmadığı gerçeğinden de bahsetmeye devam ediyorum, sadece her çeşit yüklü zayıf diyetin neden olduğu kötü, tehlikeli katkı maddeleri. Size böcek ilacı, MSG, BHA & BHT ve rafine şekerin nasıl katkıda bulunduğunu anlattım. Çocuklarımızın hiperaktif olduğu gerçeği. Öyleyse tahmin et? Artık bizim için hiperaktiviteye neden olan başka bir katkı maddesi var. Çocuklar: Tartrazine.Sadly, bu FD & C Yellow # 5`in sahip olduğu tek yan etki değil... aynı zamanda astıma da bağlıydı, migren, tiroid kanseri, anksiyete, klinik depresyon, bulanık görme, cildinizde mor lekeler ve açıklanamayan kaşıntılı skin.Do Gerçekten size söylemek zorundayım NEDEN gıda endüstrileri yan etkilerinin farkında olduğunda kullanılır? Tamam yapacağım, Tartrazine hala kullanılıyor çünkü ucuz. Beta karoten, Tartrazine ile aynı renk sonuçlarını elde etmek için kullanılabilir. ama daha pahalı. Alt satır: Diğer tüm zararlı gıda katkı maddeleri ile olduğu gibi, gıda endüstrisi bunu kullanmaya devam ediyor zararlı yapay boyama çünkü CHEAP.Tartrazine ürünleri, tahıllar, tatlılar, aperatif yiyecekler bir çok bulunur, Şampuanlar ve hatta kozmetikler bu zararlı renklendiriciyi içerebilir. Tek yapmanız gereken satın almadan önce etiketleri kontrol etmektir! Bakkaldaki her şeyin etiketlerini kontrol ederken eşek ağrısı gibi görünebilir, ne kadar acıyı düşünün eşinizde çocuğunuzun hasta ve hastanede kalması ya da "teşhis" eden bir çocuğunuz varsa DEHB ile daha az hiperaktif bir çocuğa sahip olmak ne kadar güzel olacağını düşünün. Meyvelerinde sentetik sarı azo boyası bulunur squash, meyve samimi, renkli gazlı içecekler, hazır pudingler, kek karışımları, muhallebi tozu, çorbalar, soslar, dondurma, buz lollies, tatlılar, sakız, marzipan, reçel, jöle, marmelat, hardal, yoğurt ve birçok kolaylık ile birlikte gliserin, limon ve bal ürünleri. Ayrıca, tıbbi kapsüllerin kabuklarında da bulunabilir. Tartrazine neden gibi görünüyor tüm azo boyalarının en alerjik ve / veya hoşgörüsüzlük reaksiyonları, özellikle aspirin intoleransı olanlarda ve astımlılar. Çocuklar tarafından tüketilmesi tavsiye edilmez. Hiperaktif Çocuk Destek Grubu bir bağlantının varlığına inanır. Çocuklarda bu katkı ve hiperaktif davranış bozuklukları arasında .Trazrazin (E 102) sarı, suda çözünebilen bir mono-Azo rengi esas olarak sodyum tuzu olarak kullanılır, aynı zamanda potasyum ve kalsiyum tuzları ve alüminyum bir göl olarak kullanılır. Tartrazin 4-amino benzensülfonik asitten diazotizasyon ve 4,5-dihidro-5-okso-1- (4-sülfofenil) -1H- ile birleştirme ile üretilir. Pirazol-3-karboksilik asit veya esterleri. Elde edilen renk sodyum, potasyum veya kalsiyum olarak saflaştırılmış ve izole edilmiştir. Tuz (EFSA, 2009d). İnsan metabolizmasında, bozulmamış Tartrazin sadece küçük miktarlarda emilir ve ağırlıklı olarak dışarı atılır. Böbrek ile değişmeden. Bununla birlikte, Tartrazinin gastrointestinal mikroflora tarafından sulfanilike metabolize olduğu görülmektedir. Muhtemelen ana bileşikten daha büyük bir ölçüde absorbe edilen asit ve a-amino-p-ketobutirik asit. O Tartrazin emiliminin olduğu anlaşılıyor.

 

Tartrazine is one of the most widely used artificial foods, drugs and cosmetic dyes. It is a nitrous derivative and is known to cause allergic reactions such as asthma and urticaria, as well as having been the focus of studies on mutagenesis and carcinogenesis due to its transformation into aromatic amine sulfanilic acid after being metabolized by the gastrointestinal microflora. 45 male Wistar rats were assigned to a control group (A) or a treatment one (B). The treatment group received 7.5 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) of tartrazine daily in drinking water offered ad libitum for ten months from weaning to the age of twelve months. There was a significant increase in the number of lymphocytes and eosinophils of the gastric antrum mucosa. No carcinogenetic changes in any gastric area were observed during the study. As tartrazine belongs to the azo class, it is still a possible food carcinogen. Other studies with different doses and schedules, observing their effects associated to other carcinogens should be carried out if their safe use is to be recommended. Certain food additives are dangerous to our children, but who would have thought that the dyes used would be dangerous? I grew up using food coloring in frosting, decorating cookies and cakes...I don`t even know what else my mother used it on. So the fact that artificial coloring is so dangerous to our health was a surprise. Of course, the food coloring that we all grew up using isn`t the same thing as the artificial colors used in processed foods. Tartrazine, also known as FD&C Yellow #5 or E102, is one of these artificial coloring additives. This is one we don`t want to give to our kids, so avoid it like it`s the plague! Tartrazine doesn`t even sound appetizing when you learn what it`s made from! As with most artificial colors, it is manufactured from coal tar; hmmm, yummy! BLECH!I keep mentioning the fact that ADHD is not a disease, it`s merely caused by a poor diet loaded with all kinds of nasty, dangerous additives. I`ve told you how pesticides, MSG, BHA & BHT and refined sugar are all contributing to the fact that our children are hyperactive. Well, guess what? Now there`s another additive causing hyperactivity in our children: Tartrazine.Sadly, this isn`t the only side effect that FD&C Yellow #5 has...it has also been linked to asthma, migraines, thyroid cancer, anxiety, clinical depression, blurred vision, purple spots on your skin and unexplainable itchy skin.Do I really have to tell you WHY it`s used when the food industries are aware of its side effects? OK, I will, Tartrazine is still used because it`s cheap. Beta Carotene could be used to achieve the same color results as Tartrazine, but it`s more expensive. Bottom line: as with all other harmful food additives, the food industry continues to use this harmful artificial coloring because it is CHEAP.Tartrazine is found in a LOT of products, cereals, desserts, snack foods, shampoos and even cosmetics can all contain this harmful colorant. All you have to do is check the labels before you buy! While checking the labels of everything at the grocery store may seem like a pain in the ass, think about how much of a pain in the ass it would be if your child were to end up sick and in the hospital or, if you have a child that has "diagnosed" with ADHD, think about how nice it would be to have a less hyperactive child. A synthetic yellow azo dye found in fruit squash, fruit cordial, coloured fizzy drinks, instant puddings, cake mixes, custard powder, soups, sauces, ice cream, ice lollies, sweets, chewing gum, marzipan, jam, jelly, marmalade, mustard, yoghurt and many convenience foods together with glycerine, lemon and honey products. It can also be found in the shells of medicinal capsules. Tartrazine appears to cause the most allergic and/or intolerance reactions of all the azo dyes, particularly amongst those with an aspirin intolerance and asthmatics.Not recommended for consumption by children.The Hyperactive Childrens Support Group belive that a link exists between this additive and hyperactive behavioural disorders in children.Tartrazine (E 102) is a yellow, water-soluble mono- azo colour mainly used as its sodium salt, but also as potassium and calcium salts and as an aluminium lake. Tartrazine is produced from 4-amino benzenesulfonic acid by diazotization and coupling with 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid or its esters. The resulting colour is purified and isolated as the sodium, potassium, or calcium salt (EFSA, 2009d). In human metabolism, intact Tartrazine is absorbed in small amounts only and predominantly excreted unchanged via the kidney. However, Tartrazine appears to be metabolized by the gastrointestinal microflora to sulfanilic acid and α-amino-β-ketobutyric acid, which are probably being absorbed to a greater extent than the parent compound. It appears that the absorption of Tartrazine following oral administration is negligible to low (< 5%). AsTartrazine can be found unchanged in the urine, the small amounts that are absorbed are not metabolized. However, some metabolic modifications occur by the intestinal microflora leading to breakdown of the colour to sulfanilic acid and aminopyrazolone, both of which show a higher rate of absorption than Tartrazine as such. Tartrazine is an azo dye, also known as FD&C Yellow No. 5 and is commonly used as a pharmaceutical colorant. It has been FDA-approved as a drug colorant for internal consumption, external use and around the eye area. In addition to use in pharmaceuticals as a dye, tartrazine is used as a food and cosmetic colorant. FD&C colors are the colors certified for use by the U.S. FDA, in the drug, food and cosmetic industry. Over-the- counter and prescription drugs that contain tartrazine shall bear statements on the label stating that the product contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) as a color additive or contains color additives including FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine). They may also state that FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) may cause allergic-type reactions (including bronchial asthma) in certain susceptible persons. Although the overall incidence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) sensitivity in the general population is low, it is frequently seen in patients who also have aspirin hypersensitivity. This warning statement shall appear in the "Precautions" section of the labeling. Tartrazine hypersensitivity reactions include headaches, asthma attacks, itching or hives, insomnia, and hyperactivity. Tartrazine is often associated with allergies and hypersensitivity reactions, particularly in patients with asthma or aspirin intolerance. Tartrazine hypersensitivity reactions include headaches, asthma attacks, itching or hives, insomnia, and hyperactivity. The avoidance of tartrazine to prevent allergic asthma in these patients is controversial. A Cochrane Review from 2006 suggests that exclusion of tartrazine from the diets of patients with asthma does not worsen or improve asthma symptoms.

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