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LITHIUM HYDROXIDE (LİTYUM HİDROKSİT)

SYNONYMS:Lithium hydrate; Lithine hydrate; Lithium hydroxide; Lithium hydroxide, LiOH;
Lithium hydroxide; 1310-65-2; Lithium hydrate; LiOH; Lithium hydroxide anhydrous; Lithium hydroxide (Li(OH)); Lithiumhydroxid; lithiumhydroxide; Lithium hydroxide, anhydrous; Lithium hydoxide; Lithium hydroxide, 98%, pure, anhydrous; Lithine; lithium hydroxid; lithium hyroxide; litium hydroxide; lithium hydorxide; Li.HO; Lithium (2H)hydroxide; lithium hydroxide, solution; Lithium hydroxide powder, reagent grade; Lithium hydroxide, reagent grade, 98%; LITHIUM-6 HYDROXIDE MONOHYDRATE; Lithium hydroxide, monohydrate or lithium hydroxide, solid [UN2680] [Corrosive]; Lithium hydroxide, powder, reagent grade, >=98%; Lithium hydroxide, solution [UN2679] [Corrosive]; Lithium hydroxide, solution [UN2679] [Corrosive]; Lithium hydroxide, monohydrate or lithium hydroxide, solid; Lithium hydroxide, monohydrate or lithium hydroxide, solid [UN2680] [Corrosive]CAS NO: 1310-65-2; EC NO:215-183-4; lithium hydroxide; lithium hydroxide monohydrate; lithium hydroxide, 6Li-labeled; lithium hydroxide; 7Li-labeled; Lithium hydroxide; 1310-65-2; LiOH; Lithium hydroxide (Li(OH)); Lithium hydroxide anhydrous; UNII-903YL31JAS; EINECS; 215-183-4; UN2679; UN2680, Lithium hydroxide, anhydrous; MFCD00011095; Lithiumhydroxid; Lithine; lithiumhydroxide; lithium hyroxide; Lithium hydoxide; Li.HO; U - 4-Chloroaniline; Lithium (2H)hydroxide; Lithium hydroxide, solution; Lithium hydroxide powder, reagent grade; Lithium hydroxide, solution [UN2679] [Corrosive]; Lithium hydroxide, solution [UN2679] [Corrosive]; LİTYUM HİDROKSİT; lityum hidroksit; lithium hidroksit; lityum hydroxide; lityum hydoxıde; lityum hydroxide; hidroksit; lityum

 

 

 

Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH. It is a white hygroscopic crystalline material. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol, and is available commercially in anhydrous form and as the monohydrate (LiOH.H2O), both of which are strong bases. It is the weakest base among the alkali metal hydroxides.
Production and reactions
Lithium hydroxide is produced in a metathesis reaction between lithium carbonate and calcium hydroxide:[5]

 

 

Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 › 2 LiOH + CaCO3
The initially produced hydrate is dehydrated by heating under vacuum up to 180 °C.

 

In the laboratory, lithium hydroxide arises by the action of water on lithium or lithium oxide. The equations for these processes follow:

 

2 Li + 2 H2O › 2 LiOH + H2
Li2O + H2O › 2 LiOH
Typically, these reactions are avoided.

 

 

Lityum hidroksit ağırlıklı olarak lityum gres üretiminde tüketilmektedir. Popüler bir lityum gres, suya karşı yüksek dayanıklılığı ve yüksek ve düşük sıcaklıktaki kullanışlılığından ötürü genel amaçlı bir yağlayıcı lityum stearattır.
Küçük renksiz kristaller. Sudan daha yoğun. Temas, cildi, gözleri ve mukoza zarlarında ciddi tahrişe neden olabilir. Yutma, solunum ve deri emilimiyle zehirlidir.
KULLANIMI
Adsorbanlar ve emiciler
Ara ürünler
İyon değişim ajanları
Yağlayıcılar ve yağ katkıları
Oksitleyici / indirgeyici ajanlar
Elektrikli ve Elektronik Ürünler
Yağlayıcılar ve Gresler
Oyuncaklar, Çocuk Bahçesi ve Spor Ekipmanları

 

 

 


Lithium hydroxide is mainly consumed for the production of lithium greases. A popular lithium grease is lithium stearate, which is a general-purpose lubricating grease due to its high resistance to water and usefulness at both high and low temperatures.
Small colorless crystals. Denser than water. Contact may cause severe irritation to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption.
USES
Adsorbents and absorbents
Intermediates
Ion exchange agents
Lubricants and lubricant additives
Oxidizing/reducing agents
Electrical and Electronic Products
Lubricants and Greases
Toys, Playground, and Sporting Equipment

 

Although lithium carbonate is more widely used, the hydroxide is an effective precursor to lithium salts, e.g.

LiOH + HF › LiF + H2O.

 

Gas phase chemistry
The acidity of LiOH has been measured in the gas phase. The oxidolithium anion, LiO-, was produced by successive decarboxylation and decarbonylation of monolithium oxalate anion, LiO(C=O)(C=O)O-, by collision-induced dissociation and was identified by its exact mass. The gas-phase acidity of LiOH was inferred from the experimentally determined electron affinity of LiO• and previously known heats of formation to give a value of 426 ± 2 kcal/mol. This is considerably higher than the gas-phase acidity of water (390 kcal/mol) and even exceeds that of methane (417 kcal/mol). Thus, LiOH is a very weak acid and is in fact the weakest acid yet measured in the gas phase.[6]

 

 

Applications
Lithium hydroxide is mainly consumed in the production of lithium greases. A popular lithium grease thickener is Lithium 12-hydroxystearate, which produces a general-purpose lubricating grease due to its high resistance to water and usefulness at a range of temperatures.

 

 

Carbon dioxide scrubbing
Further information: carbon dioxide scrubber
Lithium hydroxide is used in breathing gas purification systems for spacecraft, submarines, and rebreathers to remove carbon dioxide from exhaled gas by producing lithium carbonate and water:[7]

 

 

2 LiOH•H2O + CO2 › Li2CO3 + 3 H2O
or

 

 

2 LiOH + CO2 › Li2CO3 + H2O
The latter, anhydrous hydroxide, is preferred for its lower mass and lesser water production for respirator systems in spacecraft. One gram of anhydrous lithium hydroxide can remove 450 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas. The monohydrate loses its water at 100-110 °C.

 

 

Other uses
It is used as a heat transfer medium and as a storage-battery electrolyte. It is also used in ceramics and some Portland cement formulations. Lithium hydroxide (isotopically enriched in lithium-7) is used to alkalize the reactor coolant in pressurized water reactors for corrosion control.

 

 

Chemical formula LiOH
HS Code 2825 20 00
EC number 215-183-4
Molar mass 23.95 g/mol
CAS number 1310-65-2
Solubility 71 g/l (20 °C)
Melting point 462 °C
Density 2.54 g/cm3
Bulk density 550 kg/m3
pH value 12 (50 g/l, H2O, 50 °C)
Hazard Statement(s) H301: Toxic if swallowed.
H314: Causes severe skin burns and eye damage.
Density 1.5 g/cm3
Melting Point 423 °C
pH value 12 (50 g/l, H²O, 50 °C)
Bulk density 550 kg/m3
Solubility 110 g/l

 

 

Hazard Statement(s) H302: Harmful if swallowed.
H314: Causes severe skin burns and eye damage.
Precautionary Statement(s) P280: Wear protective gloves/ protective clothing/ eye protection/ face protection.
P301 + P330 + P331: IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.
P305 + P351 + P338: IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P308 + P310: IF exposed or concerned: immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/ physician.
Signal Word Danger
Storage class 8B Non-combustible, corrosive hazardous materials
WGK WGK 1 slightly hazardous to water
Disposal 13
Bases and alcoholates should be diluted if necessary by carefully stirring them into water and then neutralized (protective gloves, fume cupboard!) with hydrochloric acid (Cat. No. 100312). Before placing in container D, check the pH with pH universal indicator strips (Cat. No. 109535).

 

 

Ürün Teknik Özellikleri
Ürün Adı
Lityum Hidroksit Hammadde - Lithium Hydroxide
SinonimleriLithium hydrate; Lithine hydrate; Lithium hydroxide; Lithium hydroxide, LiOH
CAS Numarası1310-65-2
FormülüLiOH

 

Lithium hydroxide, solution appears as a clear to water-white liquid which may have a pungent odor. Contact may cause severe irritation to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. It may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption. It is used to make other chemicals.

 

Property Name Property Value
Molecular Weight 24 g/mol
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count 1
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count 1
Rotatable Bond Count 0
Exact Mass 24.018743 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass 24.018743 g/mol
Topological Polar Surface Area 1 A^2
Heavy Atom Count 2
Formal Charge 0
Complexity 2
Isotope Atom Count 0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count 0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count 0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count 0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count 0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count 2
Compound Is Canonicalized Yes

 

 


Physical Description HelpNew Window
Lithium hydroxide, solution appears as a clear to water-white liquid which may have a pungent odor. Contact may cause severe irritation to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. It may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption. It is used to make other chemicals.
Melting Point HelpNew Window
450-471 °C
Solubility HelpNew Window
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20 °C: 12.8 (good)
Density HelpNew Window
2.54 g/cm³
Vapor Pressure HelpNew Window
Vapor pressure, Pa at 20 °C: (negligible)
Decomposition HelpNew Window
924 °C
Related Compounds HelpNew Window
Same Connectivity 3 Records
Mixtures, Components, and Neutralized Forms 2 Records
Similar Compounds 7 Records

 

 

Industry Uses HelpNew Window
Adsorbents and absorbents
Battery Manufacturing
Dyes
Intermediates
Lubricants and lubricant additives
Processing aids, not otherwise listed

 

 

Consumer Uses HelpNew Window
Batteries
Electrical and electronic products
Lubricants and greases
Metal products not covered elsewhere
Paper products

 

 

General Manufacturing Information HelpNew Window
Industry Processing Sectors
All other basic inorganic chemical manufacturing
All other basic organic chemical manufacturing
All other chemical product and preparation manufacturing
Construction
Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing
Miscellaneous manufacturing
Paper manufacturing
Petroleum lubricating oil and grease manufacturing
Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing
Synthetic dye and pigment manufacturing

 

 

rd Statements 
Aggregated GHS information provided by 24 companies from 2 notifications to the ECHA C&L Inventory. Each notification may be associated with multiple companies.

 

Reported as not meeting GHS hazard criteria by 1 of 24 companies. For more detailed information, please visit ECHA C&L website

Of the 1 notification(s) provided by 23 of 24 companies with hazard statement code(s):

H301 (100%): Toxic if swallowed [Danger Acute toxicity, oral]

H314 (100%): Causes severe skin burns and eye damage [Danger Skin corrosion/irritation]

H331 (100%): Toxic if inhaled [Danger Acute toxicity, inhalation]

Information may vary between notifications depending on impurities, additives, and other factors. The percentage value in parenthesis indicates the notified classification ratio from companies that provide hazard codes. Only hazard codes with percentage values above 10% are shown.

 

Precautionary Statement Codes 
P260, P261, P264, P270, P271, P280, P301+P310, P301+P330+P331, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P310, P311, P321, P330, P363, P403+P233, P405, and P501

 

(The corresponding statement to each P-code can be found at the GHS Classification page.)

 

Health Hazard HelpNew Window
Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. (ERG, 2016)

 

 

Fire Hazard HelpNew Window
Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. For electric vehicles or equipment, ERG Guide 147 (lithium ion batteries) or ERG Guide 138 (sodium batteries) should also be consulted. (ERG, 2016)

 

 

First Aid HelpNew Window
Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]: Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim calm and warm. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. (ERG, 2016)

 

 

Inhalation First Aid HelpNew Window
Fresh air, rest. Half-upright position. Artificial respiration may be needed. Refer immediately for medical attention.

 

 

Skin First Aid HelpNew Window
Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower for at least 15 minutes. Refer immediately for medical attention.

 

 

Eye First Aid HelpNew Window
Rinse with plenty of water (remove contact lenses if easily possible). Refer immediately for medical attention.

 

 

Ingestion First Aid HelpNew Window
Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Give one or two glasses of water to drink. Refer immediately for medical attention.

 

 

Fire Fighting HelpNew Window
Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]: SMALL FIRE: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. LARGE FIRE: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire-control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. FIRE INVOLVING TANKS OR CAR/TRAILER LOADS: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. (ERG, 2016)

 

 

Accidental Release Measures HelpNew Window
9.4.1Isolation and Evacuation HelpNew Window
Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]: As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. SPILL: Increase, in the downwind direction, as necessary, the isolation distance shown above. FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. (ERG, 2016)

 

 

Spillage Disposal HelpNew Window
Personal protection: chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Sweep spilled substance into covered plastic containers. Carefully collect remainder. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations.

 

 

Nonfire Spill Response HelpNew Window
Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. (ERG, 2016)

 

 

Safe Storage HelpNew Window
Separated from food and feedstuffs, strong oxidants and strong acids. Store only in original container. Dry. Well closed. Store in an area without drain or sewer access.

 

 

Inhalation Risk HelpNew Window
Evaporation at 20 °C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly when dispersed.

 

 

Effects of Short Term Exposure HelpNew Window
The substance is corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Corrosive on ingestion. Inhalation may cause lung oedema, but only after initial corrosive effects on eyes and/or airways have become manifest.

 

 

Exposure Prevention HelpNew Window
PREVENT DISPERSION OF DUST! AVOID ALL CONTACT! IN ALL CASES CONSULT A DOCTOR!

 

 

Inhalation Prevention HelpNew Window
Use local exhaust or breathing protection.

 

 

9.6.5Skin Prevention HelpNew Window
Protective gloves. Protective clothing.

 

 

9.6.6Eye Prevention HelpNew Window
Wear face shield or eye protection in combination with breathing protection.

 

 

9.6.7Ingestion Prevention HelpNew Window
Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work.

 

 

Protective Equipment and Clothing HelpNew Window
Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. (ERG, 2016)
Air and Water Reactions HelpNew Window
Dilution with water may generate enough heat to cause steaming or spattering.
Reactive Group HelpNew Window
Bases, Strong

 

 

Water and Aqueous Solutions
Reactivity Alerts HelpNew Window
Known Catalytic Activity

 

 

Reactivity Profile HelpNew Window
LITHIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION neutralizes acids exothermically to form salts plus water. Reacts with certain metals (such as aluminum and zinc) to form oxides or hydroxides of the metal and generate gaseous hydrogen. May initiate polymerization reactions in polymerizable organic compounds, especially epoxides. May generate flammable and/or toxic gases with ammonium salts, nitrides, halogenated organics, various metals, peroxides, and hydroperoxides. May serve as a catalyst. Reacts when heated above about 84°C with aqueous solutions of reducing sugars other than sucrose, to evolve toxic levels of carbon monoxide [Bretherick, 5th Ed., 1995].

 

This substance may be hazardous to the environment. Special attention should be given to aquatic organisms.

 

Properties of LiOH and Related Thermodynamics
Lithium hydroxide is generated by the reaction of lithium metal or LiH with H2O, and the stable chemical form at room temperature is nondeliquescent monohydrate LiOH.H2O. It loses crystalline water to form anhydride LiOH almost over 423 K (150 °C) by heating and then it melts at 735 K (462 °C), which is higher than the melting temperature of NaOH or KOH. However, only LiOH decomposes to oxide (Li2O) and H2O by further heating differently from other alkaline hydroxides. The overall chemical properties of LiOH are relatively mild and somewhat similar to alkaline earth hydroxides than other alkaline hydroxides. Therefore, the handling LiOH is rather not difficult, although it strongly absorbs CO2 in the air. Standard Gibbs free energy changes of the reactions concerning LiOH and LiH are shown in Table 22.6. Although the values of standard Gibbs free energy changes are different when LiOH is molten or dissolved, the differences are not large and may be not so important for qualitative discussion.

 

 

Lithium Hydroxide
Lithium hydroxide is used mainly to produce lubricating grease that can withstand extreme temperature and load conditions. Approximately 70% of lubricating greases produced in the world contain lithium. Lithium hydroxide is also used in batteries and colorants.

 

SQM produces lithium hydroxide in its Salar del Carmen plant, close to Antofagasta, Chile, from lithium carbonate that is produced at the same plant.

 

Rechargeable batteries
Lubricating grease
Colorants
Battery grade, crystals
Industrial grade, crystals
Technical grade, crystals

 

 

Product Name 
Lithium Hydroxide

 

 

Other Name
Lithium hydroxide hydrate,lioh h2o
CAS No. 1310-66-3
Molecular Formula Li.HO.H2O
Molecular Weight 41.96 g·mol-1
Purity ?56.5%
Na+K ?0.02%
Ca ? 0.025%
Fe ? 0.0015%
Cl- ? 0.015%
CO32- ? 0.70%
SO42- 
? 0.020%

 

 

HCI insoluble 
? 0.005%

 

 

Water insoluble ? 0.010%
Storage Keep container closed. 
Store away from acids and water

 

 


Figure 1: (A) A simple equivalent circuit for the development of a voltage pulse at the output of a detector. R represents the resistance and C the capacitance of the circuit; V(t) is the time (t)-dependent voltage produced. (B) A representative current pulse due to the interaction of a single quantum in the detector. The total charge Q is obtained by integrating the area of the current, i(t), over the collection time, tc. (C) The resulting voltage pulse that is developed across the circuit of (A) for the case of a long circuit time constant. The amplitude (Vmax) of the pulse is equal to the charge Q divided by the capacitance C.
READ MORE ON THIS TOPIC
radiation measurement: Radiation interactions in matter
For the purposes of this discussion, it is convenient to divide the various types of ionizing radiation into two major categories: those...
At the most fundamental level, matter is composed of elementary particles, known as quarks and leptons (the class of elementary particles that includes electrons). Quarks combine into protons and neutrons and, along with electrons, form atoms of the elements of the periodic table, such as hydrogen, oxygen, and iron. Atoms may combine further into molecules such as the water molecule, H2O. Large groups of atoms or molecules in turn form the bulk matter of everyday life.

 

Depending on temperature and other conditions, matter may appear in any of several states. At ordinary temperatures, for instance, gold is a solid, water is a liquid, and nitrogen is a gas, as defined by certain characteristics: solids hold their shape, liquids take on the shape of the container that holds them, and gases fill an entire container. These states can be further categorized into subgroups. Solids, for example, may be divided into those with crystalline or amorphous structures or into metallic, ionic, covalent, or molecular solids, on the basis of the kinds of bonds that hold together the constituent atoms. Less-clearly defined states of matter include plasmas, which are ionized gases at very high temperatures; foams, which combine aspects of liquids and solids; and clusters, which are assemblies of small numbers of atoms or molecules that display both atomic-level and bulklike properties.

 

00:00
02:38

 

However, all matter of any type shares the fundamental property of inertia, which-as formulated within Isaac Newton's three laws of motion-prevents a material body from responding instantaneously to attempts to change its state of rest or motion. The mass of a body is a measure of this resistance to change; it is enormously harder to set in motion a massive ocean liner than it is to push a bicycle. Another universal property is gravitational mass, whereby every physical entity in the universe acts so as to attract every other one, as first stated by Newton and later refined into a new conceptual form by Albert Einstein.

 

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Although basic ideas about matter trace back to Newton and even earlier to Aristotle's natural philosophy, further understanding of matter, along with new puzzles, began emerging in the early 20th century. Einstein's theory of special relativity (1905) shows that matter (as mass) and energy can be converted into each other according to the famous equation E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light. This transformation occurs, for instance, during nuclear fission, in which the nucleus of a heavy element such as uranium splits into two fragments of smaller total mass, with the mass difference released as energy. Einstein's theory of gravitation, also known as his theory of general relativity (1916), takes as a central postulate the experimentally observed equivalence of inertial mass and gravitational mass and shows how gravity arises from the distortions that matter introduces into the surrounding space-time continuum.

 

The concept of matter is further complicated by quantum mechanics, whose roots go back to Max Planck's explanation in 1900 of the properties of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a hot body. In the quantum view, elementary particles behave both like tiny balls and like waves that spread out in space-a seeming paradox that has yet to be fully resolved. Additional complexity in the meaning of matter comes from astronomical observations that began in the 1930s and that show that a large fraction of the universe consists of "dark matter." This invisible material does not affect light and can be detected only through its gravitational effects. Its detailed nature has yet to be determined.

On the other hand, through the contemporary search for a unified field theory, which would place three of the four types of interactions between elementary particles (the strong force, the weak force, and the electromagnetic force, excluding only gravity) within a single conceptual framework, physicists may be on the verge of explaining the origin of mass. Although a fully satisfactory grand unified theory (GUT) has yet to be derived, one component, the electroweak theory of Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, and Steven Weinberg (who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physics for this work) predicted that an elementary subatomic particle known as the Higgs boson imparts mass to all known elementary particles. After years of experiments using the most powerful particle accelerators available, scientists finally announced in 2012 the likely discovery of the Higgs boson.

For detailed treatments of the properties, states, and behaviour of bulk matter, see solid, liquid, and gas as well as specific forms and types such as crystal and metal.

 

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor.
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Figure 1: (A) A simple equivalent circuit for the development of a voltage pulse at the output of a detector. R represents the resistance and C the capacitance of the circuit; V(t) is the time (t)-dependent voltage produced. (B) A representative current pulse due to the interaction of a single quantum in the detector. The total charge Q is obtained by integrating the area of the current, i(t), over the collection time, tc. (C) The resulting voltage pulse that is developed across the circuit of (A) for the case of a long circuit time constant. The amplitude (Vmax) of the pulse is equal to the charge Q divided by the capacitance C.
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matter, material substance that constitutes the observable universe and, together with energy, forms the basis of all objective phenomena.
At the most fundamental level, matter is composed of elementary particles, known as quarks and leptons (the class of elementary particles that includes electrons). Quarks combine into protons and neutrons and, along with electrons, form atoms of the elements of the periodic table, such as hydrogen, oxygen, and iron. Atoms may combine further into molecules such as the water molecule, H2O. Large groups of atoms or molecules in turn form the bulk matter of everyday life.

 

Depending on temperature and other conditions, matter may appear in any of several states. At ordinary temperatures, for instance, gold is a solid, water is a liquid, and nitrogen is a gas, as defined by certain characteristics: solids hold their shape, liquids take on the shape of the container that holds them, and gases fill an entire container. These states can be further categorized into subgroups. Solids, for example, may be divided into those with crystalline or amorphous structures or into metallic, ionic, covalent, or molecular solids, on the basis of the kinds of bonds that hold together the constituent atoms. Less-clearly defined states of matter include plasmas, which are ionized gases at very high temperatures; foams, which combine aspects of liquids and solids; and clusters, which are assemblies of small numbers of atoms or molecules that display both atomic-level and bulklike properties.

However, all matter of any type shares the fundamental property of inertia, which-as formulated within Isaac Newton's three laws of motion-prevents a material body from responding instantaneously to attempts to change its state of rest or motion. The mass of a body is a measure of this resistance to change; it is enormously harder to set in motion a massive ocean liner than it is to push a bicycle. Another universal property is gravitational mass, whereby every physical entity in the universe acts so as to attract every other one, as first stated by Newton and later refined into a new conceptual form by Albert Einstein.

Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate is a highly water insoluble crystalline Lithium source for uses compatible with higher (basic) pH environments. Hydroxide, the OH- anion composed of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, is commonly present in nature and is one of the most widely studied molecules in physical chemistry. Hydroxide compounds have diverse properties and uses, from base catalysis to detection of carbon dioxide. In a watershed 2013 experiment, scientists at JILA (the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics) achieved evaporative cooling of compounds for the first time using hydroxide molecules, a discovery that may lead to new methods of controlling chemical reactions and could impact a range of disciplines, including atmospheric science and energy production technologies. Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards. Typical and custom packaging is available. Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as is a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.

 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
5
Appearance White Crystals
Molecular Formula LiOH
Molecular Weight 41.96
Available lithium hydroxide 57.4 typical
56.5 minimum
Bulk Density Loose 0.9 g/cm3
Tap 1.0 g/cm3
Typical particle size > 20 mesh less than 3%
Water Solubility 10.7% LiOH at 0oC
10.9% LiOH at 20oC
14.8% LiOH at 100oC

 

 

Transport classification :
8, Corrosive, Packing Group II
Storage:
Keep containers sealed and closed. Store away from acids and water.
Typical Shipping containers (Net package):
100 kg in a polyethylene lined fiber drum
25 kg bags, 40 per pallet (1 MT per pallet)
50 lb bags, 40 per pallet (2,000 lb per pallet)

 

 

Corrosive lithium hydroxide dust
Incompatible materials - Acids, aluminum & zinc
Not an Oxidizer
Noncombustible
Does not polymerize
Does not auto-ignite
Not sensitive to static discharge
Does not biodegrade

 

 

Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate is
stable under normal storage and
temperature conditions.
Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate is
incompatible with acids,
aluminum and zinc

 

 

Corrosive to the eyes (may cause blindness), skin, nose and throat.
Continuous inhalation exposure may cause lung damage.
Use local exhaust ventilation to reduce airborne concentrations.

 

 

Eye and Skin Contact: corrosive
Skin Absorption: corrosive
Ingestion: Oral LD50 = 210 mg/kg (rat) (LiOH, anhydrous)
Inhalation: LC50 > 2.0 mg/L (rat) (LiOH, monohydrate)
Acute Effects: Corrosive to the eyes (may cause blindness), skin, upper
respiratory track
Chronic Effects: Continuous inhalation exposure may cause lung damage
Carcinogenicity: Not considered a carcinogen under OSHA
Mutagenicity/Reproductive Toxicity: Not mutagenic or genotoxic

 

 

Ecotoxicological toxicity testing has not been carried out.
The hydroxyl ion may affect the pH of water.
Lithium Hydroxide exists as the inorganic ions lithium
and hydroxide in aqueous solutions.
Lithium Hydroxide is NOT:
- biograded
- bioaccumulated
- photodegraded

 

 

Avoid contamination with incompatible materials
Product should be kept cool and dry
5 year shelf life if stored properly
Avoid spills

 

 

Eyes and Face:
Safety goggles
Respiratory:
When adequate ventilation is not available, wear a NIOSH/MSHA
respirator approved for protection against inorganic dust.
Protective Clothing:
Rubber gloves and apron
Work Hygienic Practices:
Quick-drench eyewash and safety shower

 

 

Store in a cool, dry location
Keep containers closed and sealed
Do not storage close to acids or water

 

 

Process Hazards Review on product use is required.
Compatible materials of construction for equipment
in contact with product, or a diluted or dissolved mixture.
Contamination sources:
- Need to be identified
- Protected against
Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate dust :
- Corrosive to the eyes (may cause blindness), skin, nose, and throat.
- Exposure may cause breathing difficulty and continuous inhalation
exposure may cause lung damage.
- Use local exhaust ventilation to reduce airborne concentrations

 

 

Proper Shipping Name Lithium hydroxide
Classification 8, Corrosive
UN Number UN2680
Packing Group II
Marine Pollutant No
Post Not acceptable
Parcel, Air Restricted Quantities
Sea Class 8 (IMDG)
Road, Rail Class 8.41b (RID/ADR)
For shipments within Europe labeling for supply requirements are
C Corrosive
R&S phrases see SDS
Responsible Care initiatives dictates that all shipments
of lithium chemicals must be transported in a
DOT approved vehicle in a responsible manner

 

 

Eyes:
Immediately flush with water for a minimum of 15 minutes.
See medical doctor or ophthalmologist immediately.
Skin:
Immediately flush with plenty of water.
Remove contaminated clothing, wash with soap and water.
Ingestion:
Rinse mouth with water. Dilute by giving 1-2 glasses of water.
Do not induce vomiting. See a medical doctor immediately.
Inhalation:
Remove to fresh air. If breathing difficulty occurs and persists,
see a medical doctor. If breathing has stopped give artificial respiration.

 

 


Dry chemical, CO2, water spray, or regular foam
Wear full protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus
(SCBA) for fire fighting.
- This is necessary to protect against the hazards of heat, products of
combustion and oxygen deficiency.
Water based fire systems:
Must be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25
Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire
Protection Systems.
Manual fire-fighting equipment:
In the form of portable water extinguishers or water hose reel stations
provided in accordance with NFPA requirements

 

Targray is a leading supplier of high purity Lithium Hydroxide for Li-ion battery precursor manufacturers. Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH. It is a white hygroscopic crystalline material. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol. It is available commercially in anhydrous form and as the monohydrate (LiOH•H2O), both of which are strong bases.

 

Targray has partnered with one of the world's leading mining and chemical industry suppliers to develop its battery grade Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate (LiOH•H2O) product portfolio. Several grades of LiOH•H2O are optimized and made available to Cathode and Electrolyte precursor materials manufacturers, Additional information is provided in the table below:
APPLICATION
Manufacture of lubricating greases
Electrolyte component in alcaline storage batteries
Starting material for other lithium compounds
Chemical agent, for example for esterifications

 

Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound that is completely soluble in water and has the highest absorption percentage. It is commercially produced in anhydrous as well as monohydrate (LiOHH2O) form. Both of these lithium hydroxide forms are strong bases.

In most cases, the lithium hydroxide molecule is formed by the lithium cation Li+ and the hydroxyl group OH. It is the only alkali hydroxide that does not has polymorphism, and its lattice has a tetragonal structure.

The overall chemical properties of LiOH are relatively mild and somewhat similar to alkaline earth hydroxides than other alkaline hydroxides. Lithium hydroxide is versatile to use in organic synthesis due to its stronger base property. It can even react with water and dioxide at room temperature easily.

With our well-equipped manufacturing unit, we have carved a distinct niche as a trustworthy organization engaged in offering the highest quality Lithium Hydroxide. Our lithium hydroxide is stringently monitored on varied quality parameters before supplying to the clients. To meet the wide needs of our clients, we offer this chemical in a range of packaging options.

Our lithium hydroxide can be used to produce soaps, greases and lubricants through the esterification of fat promoted by the LiOH basic character. Moreover, our high grade lithium hydroxide is used in spacecraft and submarine vehicle's gas purification systems to remove carbon dioxide from exhaled gases.

The other common uses of Lithium hydroxide are:

 

As a heat transfer medium and as a storage-battery electrolyte In ceramics and some Portland cement formulationsLithium hydroxide (isotopically enriched in lithium-7) is used to alkalize the reactor coolant in pressurized water reactors for corrosion controlLithium Ion batteries and Solar Panels Grease and LubricantsDerived special applications based on aboveManufacturing of Grease and Lubricants due to its high resistance to waterFor purification of gases and air (as a carbon dioxide absorbent)
Agile Nobel offers the best quality LiOH from the best mined ores and processing facilities. Both High Purity critical applications and low purity normal industrial application grades are available from resources across the world.

 

Grades Offered

 

Industry Grade,Battery grade,Grease Grade,High Purity Grade.
ChemicalEdit
Lithium hydroxide is corrosive and will attack glass. It will react with carbon dioxide from air to form lithium carbonate.

 

 

2 LiOH + CO2 › Li2CO3 + H2O
Because of its low density and it's ability to absorb it's weight of carbon dioxide, anhydrous lithium hydroxide is used as a chemical scrubber on submarines and space vehicles.

 

 

PhysicalEdit
Lithium hydroxide is a a white hygroscopic solid. It is the weakest alkali metal hydroxides. The density of LiOH is 1.46 g/cm3 (anhydrous) and 1.51 g/cm3 (monohydrate). It is soluble in water and slightly less in ethanol. Lithium hydroxide melts at 462 °C.

 

 

AvailabilityEdit
Corroded lithium batteries contain a mixture of lithium oxide, lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate. Adding a solution of calcium hydroxide will convert the carbonate to hydroxide.

 

Lithium hydroxide is sold by chemical suppliers.

 

PreparationEdit
Lithium hydroxide can be prepared by mixing two solutions of lithium carbonate and calcium hydroxide.

 

 

Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 › 2 LiOH + CaCO3
Lithium oxide will slowly convert to lithium hydroxide in moist air.

 

 

2 Li2O + 2 H2O › 2 LiOH
The presence of carbon dioxide in moist air will result in lithium carbonate.

 

Another way is to simply add lithium metal extracted from alkali batteries in water.

 

2 Li + 2 H2O › 2 LiOH + H2
However this method consumes the expensive metal.

 

 

ProjectsEdit
Make lithium chloride
HandlingEdit
SafetyEdit
Lithium hydroxide is corrosive to all tissues and it must be handled with proper protection for alkali hydroxides.

 

 

StorageEdit
In closed thick PE bottles, away from corrosive vapors and moisture.

 

 

DisposalEdit
Best to try to recycle it.

 

 

 

 

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