1-9 A-D E-G H-M N-P Q-S T-Z

SODIUM CUMENE SULPHONATE (SODYUM KÜMEN SÜLFONAT)

Synonyms
SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; Sodium cumene sulfonate; benzen sülfonik asit; izopropil benzen sülfonat; natrium kümen sülfonat; sodyum kümen sülfonat; kümen sülfonat; NATRİUM; natrium; natrium 2 izopropil benzol sulfonat; cümene; izopropil benzene; sodyum cumene; cumene; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; SOYUM KÜMEN SÜLFONAT; sodyum 2-izopropil benzen sulfonat; SODYUM KÜMEN; SODYUM CUMENE SÜLFONAT; KÜMEN; KÜMEN SÜLFONAT; SODYUM SÜLFONAT;benzenesulfonic acid; (1-methylethyl)-, sodium salt; benzenesulfonic acid; kümen monosülfo; 3-(1-methylethyl)-; sodium salt; cumene sulfonic acid sodium salt; methyl ethyl) benzene sulfonic acid sodium salt; sodium 3-(1-methylethyl)benzenesulfonate; sodium 3-isopropylbenzenesulfonate; sodium cumene sulfonate; sodium; 3-propan-2-yl benzenesulfonate; stepanate SCS; stepanate SCS-40; stepanate SCS-40-E; stepanate ; SCS-93Sodium o-cumenesulfonate; UNII-TQE0L6I6W8 ; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; Benzenesulfonic acid, (1-methylethyl)-; sodium salt; Sodium o-cumenesulfonate; Sodium o-cumenesulphonate ; Sodium 2-isopropylbenzenesulfonate; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; o-Cumenesulfonic acid; sodium salt; Sodium 2; isopropylbenzenesulphonate; o-Cumenesulphonic acid; sodium salt; Sodium cumenesulphonateC9H11O3S.Na SCHEMBL67965 ; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; CTK4G1284DTXSID30872318; GIPRGFRQMWSHAK-UHFFFAOYSA-M NOCAS_872318; Benzenesulfonic acid; 2-(1-methylethyl)-; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; sodium salt (1:1); AKOS015891134; RP27380 250-913-5; 2-Isopropylbenzènesulfonate; de sodium [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name] ; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; 32073-22-6 [RN]; Benzene, (1-methylethyl)-; monosulfo deriv; sodium salt; Benzenesulfonic acid; (1-methylethyl)-; sodium salt; benzenesulfonic acid; 2-(1-methylethyl)-; sodium salt; Benzenesulfonic acid, 2-(1-methylethyl)-, sodium salt (1:1) [ACD/Index Name]; Natrium-2-isopropylbenzolsulfonat ; [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]; sodium 2-(1-methylethyl)benzenesulfonate; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; sodium 2-(propan-2-yl)benzenesulfonate; Sodium 2-isopropylbenzenesulfonate [ACD/IUPAC Name]; Sodium cumenesulphonate; SODIUM O-CUMENESULFONATE ; (1-Methylethyl)benzenesulfonic acid; sodium salt [32073-22-6]71407-44-8 [RN]; CUMENE MONOSULPHO DERIVATIVE SODIUM SALT; cumene; monosulpho derivative; sodium salt cumene; sulfonic acid; sodium salt; MFCD00137274; NOCAS_872318; Sodium 2-(propan-2-yl) benzene; sulfonate; SODIUM 2-(PROPAN-2-YL)BENZENE-1-SULFONATE; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; sodium 2-propan-2-ylbenzenesulfonate; Sodium 4-propan-2-ylbenzenesulfonate; Sodium cumene sulfonate; Sodium cumenesulfonate; SODIUM MONO-ISOPROPYLBENZENESULFONATE; Sodium-4-(1 methyl ethyl) benzene sulfonate; Benzenesulfonic acid; (1-methylethyl)-;sodium salt; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; Sodium cumenesulphonate; ar-Cumenesulfonic acid, sodium salt; [ChemIDplus];Cumenesulfonic acid; sodium salt; Cumenesulfonate, sodium salt; Sodium cumene sulfonate; Benzenesulfonic acid (1 methylethyl) sodium salt; Methylethylbenzenesulfonate, sodium salt; [Reference #1] CumolsulfonsaeureNaSalz; Natriumcumolsulfonat; [IUCLID] ; SODIUM CUMENE SULPHONATE; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; sodium cumene sulfonate ; (1-methylethyl)-benzenesulfonicacid; sodiumsalt; Benzenesulfonicacid; (1-methylethyl)-; sodiumsalt; Sodium cumene sulphatee 40%; (1-METHYLETHYL)-BENZENESULPHONICACID; SODIUMSALT; Natriumcumolsulfonat; sodium 2-phenylpropane-2-sulfonate; CUMENE MONOSULPHO DERIVATIVE SODIUM SALT; cumene; monosulpho derivative; sodium salt cumene; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; sulfonic acid; sodium salt; MFCD00137274; NOCAS_872318; Sodium 2-(propan-2-yl) benzene; sulfonate; SODIUM 2-(PROPAN-2-YL)BENZENE-1-SULFONATE; sodium 2-propan-2-ylbenzenesulfonate; Sodium 4-propan-2-ylbenzenesulfonate; Sodium cumene sulfonate; SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE; Sodium cumenesulfonate; SODIUM MONO-ISOPROPYLBENZENESULFONATE; Sodium-4-(1 methyl ethyl) benzene sulfonate; Benzenesulfonic acid; (1-methylethyl)-;sodium salt; Sodium cumenesulphonate; ar-Cumenesulfonic acid, sodium salt;

 



Applications Sodium cumene sulfonate 
Hydrotropes are in sodium cumene sulfonate use industrially and commercially in cleaning and personal care product formulations to Sodium cumene sulfonate allow more concentrated formulations of surfactants. About 29,000 metric tons are produced (i.e., manufactured and imported) annually in the US.[4] Annual production (plus importation) in Europe and Australia is approximately 17,000 and 1,100 metric tons, respectively.Common products containing a sodium cumene sulfonate hydrotropes include laundry detergents, surface cleaners, dishwashing detergents, liquid soaps, shampoos and conditioners.[4] They are coupling agents, used at concentrations from 0.1-15% to stabilize the formula, modify viscosity and cloud-point, reduce phase separation in low temperatures, and limit foaming.
Environmental Considerations Sodium cumene sulfonate
Hydrotropes have a low bioaccumulation potential, as the octanol:water partition coefficient is <1.0.[4] Studies have found hydrotopes to be very slightly volatile, with vapor pressures <2.0x10-5 Pa.[4] They are aerobically biodegradable. Removal via the secondary wastewater treatment process of activated sludge is >94%.[8] Acute toxicity studies on fish show an LC50 >400 mg active ingredient (a.i.)/L. For Daphnia, the EC50 is >318 mg a.i./L. The most sensitive species is green algae with EC50 values in the range of 230-236 mg a.i./ L and No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOEC) in the range of 31-75 mg a.i./L.[8] The aquatic Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) was found to be 0.23 mg a.i./L.[7] The Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC)/PNEC ratio has been determined to be < 1 and, therefore, hydrotropes in household laundry and cleaning products have been determined to not be an environmental concern.Aggregate sodium cumene sulfonate sodium cumene sulfonate exposures to consumers (direct and indirect dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation) have been estimated to be 1.42 ug/Kg bw/day. Calcium xylene sulfonate and sodium cumene sulfonate have been shown to cause temporary, slight eye irritation in animals.[8] Studies sodium cumene sulfonate have not found hydrotropes to be mutagenic, carcinogenic or have reproductive toxicity. Cumene (isopropylbenzene) is an organic compound that sodium cumene sulfonate is based on an aromatic hydrocarbon with an aliphatic substitution. It is a constituent of crude oil and refined fuels. It is a flammable sodium cumene sulfonate colorless liquid that has a boiling point of 152 °C. Nearly all the cumene that is produced as a pure compound sodium cumene sulfonate on an industrial scale is converted to cumene hydroperoxide, which is an intermediate in the synthesis of other industrially important chemicals, primarily phenol and acetone. Commercial production of cumene is by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene with propylene. Cumene producers account for approximately 20% of the global demand for benzene.[4] The original sodium cumene sulfonate route for manufacturing of cumene was by alkylation of benzene in the liquid phase using sulfuric acid as a catalyst, but because of the complicated neutralization and recycling steps required, together with corrosion problems, this process has been largely replaced. As an sodium cumene sulfonate alternative, solid phosphoric acid (SPA) supported sodium cumene sulfonate on alumina was used as the catalyst. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been shown to be a hydrotrope able to prevent aggregation of proteins at normal physiologic concentrations and to be approximately an order of magnitude more effective than sodium xylene sodium cumene sulfonate sulfonate in a classic hydrotrope assay.[9] The hydrotrope activity of ATP was shown to be independent of its activity as an "energy currency" in cells.[9] Recently, ATP sodium cumene sulfonate function as biological hydrotope has been shown proteome-wide under near native conditions. Sodium Cumene Sulfonate CTFA Name Sodium Cumene Sulfonate SCS-40 CAS Number32073-22-6 Applications Detergent & Cleaners Tainolin SCS-40, dissolved in water can increase the solubility for low-soluble organic matter, lower down the cloud point of the aqueous formulated products, and reduce the viscousity of the aqueous products. The material sodium cumene sulfonate also shows detergency.STEPANATE SCS-40 is a solubilizer, coupling agent and cloud point depressant used in heavy duty cleaners, wax strippers and dishwashing detergents, oil field and metal working applications.
Application
Hand Dishwashing, sodium cumene sulfonate Heavy Duty Cleaning, Laundry Household, Light Duty Cleaning, Metalworking Cleaners
Chemical Description Sodium cumene sulfonate
SODIUM CUMENE SULFONATE
Chemical Groups Sodium cumene sulfonate
Sulfonates, Hydrotropic Sulfonates
Hydrotrope, solubilizer, coupling agent, cloud point depressant, viscosity reducer, an anti-caking agent in powdered detergent.Please note that Sigma-Aldrich provides this product to early discovery researchers as part of a collection of unique chemicals. Sigma-Aldrich does not collect analytical data for this product. Buyer assumes responsibility to confirm product identity and/or purity. All sales are final. Hydrotrope, solubilizer, coupling agent, cloud point depressant, viscosity reducer, an anti-caking agent in powdered detergent.
Appearance (1), white powder; (2), liquid.
Solubility soluble in water.
Stability stable.
Risk Solid form: Sodium cumene sulfonate flammable material; irritation, moderate irritation to skin, eye. Harmful products of combustion are CO, CO2 and so on. Contact with strong oxidants, can cause to burn.
Ecology may be hazardous to environment. Water body should be given special attention.
Biodegradability biodegradable.
Characteristics Sodium cumene sulfonate excellent hydrotropic, viscosity reducing, pour point depressing, anti-caking, dispersing, emulsifying abilities.
Synthesis
Currently, sulfonation reaction through sodium cumene sulfonate continuous reactor (such as: falling film reactor) is the most widely used method for preparing sulfonates.
Generally, cumene and sulfur trioxide react through reactor, then sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate neutralizes, finally obtain product.
US patent 8,921,588 (Process for preparing sulfates and/or sulfonates in a micro-reaction system) presents a sodium cumene sulfonate synthetic process. Conditions: mole ratio of sulfur trioxide and alkyl benzenes or other raw materials: 1:1; temperature: 30-60°C; reactor: falling film reactor.
Test Methods
(1), Actives
GB/T 5173 Sodium cumene sulfonate surface active agents and detergents-Determination of anionic-active matter by direct two-phase titration procedure
ISO 2271 Surface active agents -- Detergents -- Determination of anionic-active matter by manual or mechanical direct two-phase titration procedure
(2), pH
GB/T 6368 Surface active agents - Determination of pH of aqueous solution - Potentiometric method
ISO 4316 Surface active agents -- Determination of pH of aqueous solutions -- Potentiometric method
2, Hazardous substances indexes
Item Hazardous substances indexes
Liquid Solid
Test Methods
(1), Heavy metals (as Pb)
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30799 The test method of food detergents - Determination of heavy metals
(2), As
Safety and Technical Standards for Cosmetics (2015 Edition)
GB/T 30797 The test method of food detergents - Determination of total arsenic
3, Further explanation
(a), On sodium cumene sulfonate physical and chemical indexes: firstly, shall be indicated carbon atom distribution; secondly, shall be indicated average molecular weight.
(b), Used in cosmetics, should be test for harmful substances; or furtherly test for microorganisms.
Major Uses
1. Typical applications Sodium cumene sulfonate
Use as hydrotrope.
Use as auxilialy emulsifying agent, auxilialy dispersing agent.
2, Household detergents
Use as hydrotrope, anticoagulant, anti-caking agent. For example: washing powder.
3, Industrial cleaning agents
Use as hydrotrope, anticoagulant, anti-caking agent.
4, Personal care products
Use as hydrotrope.
5, Pets
Use as hydrotrope, sodium cumene sulfonate.Nandadeep Chemicals Private Limited was established in 1996. We are Manufacturer, Supplier and Exporter of Isopropyl Acetate, Isobutyl Acetate, Isoamyl Acetate, Dimethylamine Hydrochloride, Sodium P-Toluenesulfonate etc. With the help of cutting edge R&;D, we are able to manufacture best of class Purity in each of the product line. Continuously evolving technology with the help of on-going innovations makes us the most efficient manufacturer of high volume, low margin chemicals. We are lucky to have a wide range of sodium cumene sulfonate trusted customers. From Pharmaceutical MNCs to a local trader, we are able to supply the materials as per the specifications required by a particular Industry. Satisfying the customer needs is the goal of us. We are one of the India`s largest manufacturers of Para Toluene Sulfonic Acid (PTSA).
sodium cumene sulfonate Our PTSA has buyers from Foundry chemicals to perfumery manufacturers. We supply several grades of PTSA and XSA solutions. We are a leading manufacturer of Triacetin with purity of 99.5% or above. We have been serving in the esters market of India since 1996 and we produce C1 to C6 acetates. Each of the acetates has several grades for serving different industrial applications. We undertake the production of our quality range at our state-of-the-art facility equipped with latest-in-line sodium cumene sulfonate equipment and machines. The final products are tested on various parameters to ensure these are at par with expectations of the clients and varied industry standards. Further, sodium cumene sulfonate these are provided to the clients in various size packs for their convenience. Owing to these factors, we have been able to garner a huge client base across the length and breadth of the country. SCS-40Sodium cumene sulfate in solution form with the purity of 40% is manufactured by us with the specifications as required by the user.In addition, there are customer specific grades available too. Hydrotropes are special class of amphiphilic molecules that have an ability to solubilize the insoluble or sparingly soluble molecules in water. To find out the mechanism sodium cumene sulfonate of hydrotropic action of hydrotropes on hydrophobic molecules, we have carried out classical molecular dynamics simulation of hydrophobic solute di-t-butyl-methane (DTBM) and hydrotrope sodium cumene sulfonate (SCS) in water with a regime of SCS concentrations. Our study demonstrates that, above the minimum hydrotrope concentration (MHC), the self-aggregation of SCS starts, and it creates Sodium cumene sulfonate a micellar-like environment in which the hydrophobic tail part of SCS points inward while its hydrophilic sulfonate group points outward to make favorable contact with water molecules. The formation of Sodium cumene sulfonate the hydrophobic core of SCS cluster creates a hydrophobic environment where the hydrophobic DTBM molecules are encapsulated. Interestingly, the determination of average water-SCS hydrogen bonds further suggests that the aggregate sodium cumene sulfonate formation of SCS molecules has a negligible influence on it. Moreover, the calculations of Flory-Huggins interaction parameters also reveal favorable interactions between Sodium cumene sulfonate hydrotrope SCS and solute DTBM sodium cumene sulfonate molecules. The implications Sodium cumene sulfonate of these findings on the mechanism of hydrotrope assisted enhanced solubility of hydrophobic molecules are discussed. Hydrotropes Sodium cumene sulfonate are used as coupling agents to solubilize the water insoluble and often incompatible functional ingredients of household and institutional cleaning products sodium cumene sulfonate and personal care products. These hydrotropes are not surfactants but are used to solubilize complex formulations in water. They function to stabilize solutions, modify viscosity and cloud-point, limit low temperature phase separation and reduce foam. This assessment considers salts of toluene, xylene and cumene sulfonates. Hydrotropes are amphiphilic substances composed of both a hydrophilic and a Sodium cumene sulfonate hydrophobic functional group. The hydrophobic part of the molecule is a benzene substituted apolar segment. The hydrophilic, polar segment is an anionic sulfonate group accompanied by a counter ion (i.e., ammonium, calcium, sodium cumene sulfonate potassium or sodium). Hydrotropes are produced by sulfonation of an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent (i.e., toluene, xylene or cumene). The resulting aromatic sulfonic acid is sodium cumene sulfonate neutralized using an appropriate base (e.g., sodium hydroxide) to produce the sulfonate or hydrotrope. The hydrotropes are ‘pure` substances but are produced and transported in either aqueous solutions, typically at a 30-60% level of activity, Sodium cumene sulfonate or in granular solids typically at 90-95% level of activity. The other components of granular solids include sodium sulphate and water. The sodium cumene sulfonate consumption of hydrotropes in laundry detergent and household cleaning product applications is 17,000 Sodium cumene sulfonate tonnes in 2002 according to a survey of hydrotrope producers and formulators that are HERA members in Europe. This HERA-reported consumption is believed to account for at least 80% of total hydrotrope tonnages used in sodium cumene sulfonate HERA applications in Europe (the basis of the 80% default can be obtained from HERA). Important HERA application products are household laundry and cleaning products, such as laundry powders and liquids, liquid fabric conditioners, liquid and powder laundry bleach additives, hand dishwashing liquid, machine dishwashing liquid, liquid and gel toilet cleaners, and liquid, powder, gel and spray surface cleaners. This HERA assessment is based on the 17,000 tonnes consumption figure. For the purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that the entire 17,000 tonnes/year volume sodium cumene sulfonate is in products that are ultimately sodium cumene sulfonate released down-the-drain, and following wastewater treatment, the ingredient may be released into the environment. The present environmental risk assessment of hydrotropes is based on the revised HERA methodology document (HERA, 2002), which in its turn is based on the revised EU Technical Guidance Document (TGD, 2003). It makes use of the EUSES 2.02 programme (EUSES, 2005) which is sodium cumene sulfonate now compatible with the HERA Sodium cumene sulfonate detergent scenario. Hydrotrope concentrations modelled in the various environmental compartments were compared with extrapolations of sodium cumene sulfonate the available ecotoxicity data or modelled eco-toxicity values leading to PNEC values protective of each compartment. • The modelled hydrotropes concentration in raw sewage is 1.16 mg/l. Approximately 87% of hydrotropes are removed in activated sludge sewage treatment Sodium cumene sulfonate plants (STP) yielding a modelled effluent concentration of 0.147 mg/L. Hydrotropes are readily biodegraded under aerobic conditions. • Dilution of the STP effluent in the sodium cumene sulfonate receiving waters results in a local estimated concentration of 0.0205 mg/L hydrotropes. The corresponding regional surface water estimate is 0.006 mg/L. The hydrotropes used in the European market and covered in this focused risk assessment, are shown on sodium cumene sulfonate the list in Table 1. The HERA assessment focuses on levels of these substances in household detergent and cleaning products used in the European market and potentially reaching. Commercial sodium cumene sulfonate toluene sulfonates and cumene sulfonates consist of mixtures of 3 isomers (ortho-, meta- and para-). Commercial xylene sulfonates consist of mixtures of 6 isomers. Diagrams of sodium salts for each of the three hydrotropes (without isomer orientation) are depicted below. An ortho-isomer would have adjacent attachment points to the benzene ring; a para-isomer would have attachments at opposite ends of the benzene ring; and a meta-isomer would have sodium cumene sulfonate one open carbon between attachments on the benzene ring as depicted. In general, on the basis of the evidence documented here, the presence of one or two methyl groups or a methylethyl group on the benzene ring is not judged to have a significant influence on sodium cumene sulfonate chemical reactivity. Alkyl substituents are known to be weak ortho- and para-directing activators, and the difference between methyl and methylethyl will be negligible. On going from methylbenzene (toluene) to dimethylbenzene (xylene) and to methylethylbenzene sodium cumene sulfonate (cumene), the number of carbon atoms - and thus the organic character - increases. This will improve solubility in apolar solvents and reduce solubility in polar solvents like water. Hence, reactivity in aqueous solutions may differ somewhat for the hydrotropes. However, the decisive factor determining sodium cumene sulfonate water solubility of these compounds will be their ionic character, not the number and identity of the alkyl substituents on the benzene ring. The difference in counter ion (i.e., Na+ , NH4 + , Ca++, or K+ ) is expected to have some limited effect on the physical and chemical behaviour of the substances and their chemical reactivity. Generally speaking, sodium cumene sulfonate it is expected that these hydrotropes will behave similarly (predictably) in solution and that members from one sub-group (i.e., toluene, xylene and cumene sulphonates) may be useful for read across to other sub-groups sodium cumene sulfonate and to the overall group (category) as a whole. The hydrotropes demonstrate a low level of acute sodium cumene sulfonate aquatic toxicity to fish, invertebrates, algae and bacteria exhibiting EC50 and LC50 values > 100 mg/L (see Table 8). Green algae are considered the most sensitive species with EC50 values of 230-236 mg/L active sodium cumene sulfonate ingredient (a.i.) and No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) of 31-75 mg a.i./L when tested with the sodium and calcium salts of xylene sulfonate, sodium cumene sulfonate respectively. Xylene and cumene sulfonates (ammonium, calcium and sodium salts) had no acute toxicity towards fish and invertebrates at concentrations tested (>318 mg/L). However some sublethal effects were noted in two of the studies at the higher concentrations and included surfacing, loss of equilibrium, swimming on the bottom of the tank, sodium cumene sulfonate dark discoloration, labored respiration and quiescence in some fish. No terrestrial or sediment toxicity sodium cumene sulfonate data are reported for hydrotropes. Given the low potential for hydrotropes reaching the terrestrial and sediment compartments (EQC modelling results), the lack of persistence (ready biodegradability under aerobic conditions) or bioaccumulation (BCFWIN modelling results), and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil and sediments sodium cumene sulfonate (EQC modelling results), the lack of ecotoxicity data is not considered a deficiency. Aquatic toxicity sodium cumene sulfonate data are available for representative xylene and cumene sulfonates (including sodium, ammonium and calcium salts). While the toluene sulfonate is not represented in the available data set, the xylene and cumene sulfonate results are consistent and comparable, providing confidence in the ability to extrapolate to the toluene sulfonates. The acute aquatic ecotoxicity data given for the hydrotropes in Table 8 indicate that algae are the most sensitive species. Based on the acute data, using the lowest EC50 (230 mg/L) and dividing by an application factor of 1000 (TGD, 2003), the PNEC is 0.23 mg/L. The limited available chronic data support this PNEC. Taking the lowest algal NOEC (31 mg/L) and dividing by an application factor of 50 (TGD, 2003) gives a PNEC of 0.62 mg/L. Used as a coupling agent to solubilize water insoluble, sodium cumene sulfonate incompatible, and/or complex components of household and institutional cleaning products and personal care products; [Reference #1] Used in the textile processing and personal-domestic use industries, as a cleaning/washing agent, disinfectant, surface-active agent, and impregnating agent; [IUCLID] Permitted for use as an inert ingredient in non-food pesticide products; Hydrotropes sodium cumene sulfonates are mild eye irritants; Significant absorption sodium cumene sulfonate occurs after ingestion but not after skin application; Not skin sensitizers in animal testing; sodium cumene sulfonate Acute toxicity in animals includes decreased activity, prostration, increased salivation, diarrhea, and congestion of the liver; Negative carcinogenic data in dermal exposure studies; No developmental sodium cumene sulfonate toxicity to calcium xylene sulfonate in rats; [Reference #1] See "Sodium p-tolyl sulfonate."

 

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