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PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (FOSFATİDİLKOLİN)

PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE

SYNONYMS:Phosphatidylcholine,PC (soybean,hydrogenated); PC (soybean, hydrogenated); L-α-phosphatidylcholine (soybeanhydrogenated); Phosphatidylcholine; PC (soybean, hydrogenated); L-α-phosphatidylcholine (soybean, hydrogenated); Choline Glycerophospholipids; PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE; Choline Phosphoglycerides; Phosphatidyl Choline; Phosphatidyl Cholines; lecithin; Phosphatidylcholine; phosphatidic; phosphatidic acid; Phosphatidylcholine;phosphatidic acids; phosphatidyl; phosphatidyl-n-methylethanolamine n-methyltransferase; PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE; phosphatidylcholine-sterol o-acyltransferase; phosphatidylcholines; phosphatidylethanolamine; phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein; phosphatidylethanolamine n-methyltransferase; Biochemicals and Reagents; Glycerophosphocholines; Glycerophospholipids; Lipids; lecithin; 1-Stearoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine; Phosphatidylcholine(36:2); 1-Stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine; 1-octadecanoyl-2-[(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE; 1-stearoyl-(2-linoleoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine; 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine; 1-Stearoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine; Phosphatidylcholine(36:2); PC(18:0/18:2(9Z,12Z)); 1-Stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine; Phosphatidylcholine; CAS: 27098-24-4; SLPC; Phosphatidylcholine(18:0/18:2); Phosphatidylcholine(18:0/18:2n6); Phosphatidylcholine(18:0/18:2w6); 1-18:0-2-18:2-phosphatidylcholine; phosphatidylcholine (1-18:0-2-18:2); 1-octadecanoyl-2-(9Z,12Z-octadecadienoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; SLPTC; AC1O5VEK; 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-GPC; 1-Stearoyl-(2-linoleoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-GPC (18:0/18:2); 1-STERAOYL-2-LINOLEOYL-SN-GLYCERO-3-PHOSPHORYLCHOLINE; L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine powder; 1-octadecanoyl-2-(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE; 1-octadecanoyl-2-[(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; Kolin Gliserofosfolipitler; FOSFATİDİLKOLİN; Kolin Fosfogliseritleri; Fosfatidil Kolin; Fosfatidil Kolinleri; lesitin; Fosfatidilkolin; fosfatidik; fosfatidik asit; Fosfatidilkolin, fosfatidik asitler; fosfatidil; fosfatidil-n-metiletanolamin n-metiltransferaz; FOSFATİDİLKOLİN; fosfatidilkolin-sterol o-asiltransferaz; fosfatidilkolinler; fosfatidiletanolamin; fosfatidiletanolamin bağlayıcı protein; fosfatidiletanolamin n-metiltransferaz; Biyokimyasallar ve Reaktifler; Glycerophosphocholines; gliserofosfolipidler; Lipidler; lesitin; 1-stearozil-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine; Fosfatidilkolin (36: 2); 1-stearozil-2-linoleoil-sn-glisero-3-fosfatidilkolin; 1-oktadekanol-2 - [(9Z, 12Z) -octadecadienoyl] -sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin; FOSFATİDİLKOLİN; 1-stearoyl- (2-linoleoil) -sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin; 1-stearoil-2-linoleoil-sn-glisero-3-fosfatidilkolin; 1-stearoil-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine; 1-stearozil-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine; Fosfatidilkolin (36: 2); Bilgisayar (18: 0/18: 2 (9Z, 12Z)); 1-stearozil-2-linoleoil-sn-glisero-3-fosfatidilkolin; Fosfatidilkolin; CAS: 27098-24-4; -Slpc; Fosfatidilkolin (18: 0/18: 2); Fosfatidilkolin (18: 0/18: 2n6); Fosfatidilkolin (18: 0/18: 2W6); 1-18: 0-2-18: 2-fosfatidilkolin; fosfatidilkolin (1-18: 0-2-18: 2); 1-oktadekanol-2- (9Z, 12Z-octadecadienoyl) -sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin; 1-stearoil-2-linoleoil-sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin; SLPTC; AC1O5VEK; 1-stearoil-2-linoleoil-GPC; 1-Stearoyl- (2-linoleoil) -sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin; 1-stearoil-2-linoleoil-GPC (18: 0/18: 2); 1-STERAOYL-2-linoleoil-sn-glisero-3-fosforilkolin; L-alfa-fosfatidilkolin (Karaciğer, Sığır), toz; 1-oktadekanol-2- (9Z, 12Z) -octadecadienoyl-sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin; FOSFATİDİLKOLİN; 1-oktadekanol-2 - [(9Z, 12Z) -octadecadienoyl] -sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin; 1-stearoil-2-linoleoil-sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin, toz; 1-stearoil-2-linoleoil-sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin, kloroform; L-α-Fosfatidilkolin; D-α-Fosfatidilkolin; dipalmitoil; DL-α-Fosfatidilkolin; distearoil; Hidrojenlenmiş L-a-Fosfatidilkolin; Fosfatidilkolin; 1-Hekzadesil-2-asetil-sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin; 1-O-Palmityl-2-asetil-sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin monohidrat; Fosfatidilkolin; FOSFATİDİLKOLİN; 2-Asetil-1-heksadesil-sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin; 3-sn-fosfatidilkolin; 1-heksadesil-2-asetil; β-Asetil-γ-O-heksadesil-L-a-fosfatidilkolin hidrat; Fosfatidilkolin; β-asetil-γ-O-alkil-L-α-fosfatidilkolin; Lesitinaz C; Lipofosfodiesteraz I; PC-PLC; Fosfatidilkolin kolinfosfohidrolaz; Lesitinaz D; Fosfatidilkolin fosfatidohidrolaz; Lesitinaz A; PLA2; Fosfatidilkolin 2-asilhidrolaz; Lesitinaz C; Lipofosfodiesteraz I; PC-PLC; Fosfatidilkolin kolinfosfohidrolaz; Lesitinaz D; Fosfatidilkolin fosfatidohidrolaz; Fosfolipaz D; Lesitinaz D; PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE; Fosfatidilkolin fosfatidohidrolaz; Fosfatidilkolin fosfatidohidrolaz; Kolin fosfataz 1; Fosfatidilkolin-hidrolize edici fosfolipaz Dİ; Fosfolipaz D1; 1,2-dimiristoil-rak-glisero-3-fosfokolin; 1,2 distearoil-sn-glisero-3-fosfokolin; 1,2-Didodecanoyl-rak-glisero-3-fosfokolin; FOSFATİDİLKOLİN; Anti-STARD2; FOSFATİDİLKOLİN; Anti-fosfatidilkolin transfer proteini; Anti-GIII sPLA2; Dicaproyl-L-α-lesitin; 3-sn-Fosfatidilkolin Anti-Grup 3 salgılama fosfolipaz A2; Anti-Grup III salgılayıcı fosfolipaz A2; Anti-Fosfatidilkolin 2-asilhidrolaz;1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, powder; 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, chloroform; L-α-Phosphatidylcholine; D-α-Phosphatidylcholine; dipalmitoyl; DL-α-Phosphatidylcholine; distearoyl; L-α-Phosphatidylcholine, hydrogenated; Phosphatidylcholine; 1-Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; 1-O-Palmityl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine monohydrate; Phosphatidylcholine; PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE; 2-Acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; 3-sn-Phosphatidylcholine; 1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl; β-Acetyl-γ-O-hexadecyl-L-α-phosphatidylcholine hydrate; Phosphatidylcholine; β-Acetyl-γ-O-alkyl-L-α-phosphatidylcholine; Lecithinase C; Lipophosphodiesterase I; PC-PLC; Phosphatidylcholine cholinephosphohydrolase; Lecithinase D; Phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase; Lecithinase A; PLA2; Phosphatidylcholine 2-acylhydrolase; Lecithinase C; Lipophosphodiesterase I; PC-PLC; Phosphatidylcholine cholinephosphohydrolase; Lecithinase D; Phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase; Phospholipase D ; Lecithinase D; PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE;Phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase; Phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase; Choline phosphatase 1; Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D1; Phospholipase D1; 1,2-Dimyristoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine; 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; 1,2-Didodecanoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine; PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE; Anti-STARD2; PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE; Anti-phosphatidylcholine transfer protein; Anti-GIII sPLA2; Dicaproyl-L-α-lecithin; 3-sn-Phosphatidylcholine Anti-Group 3 secretory phospholipase A2; Anti-Group III secretory phospholipase A2; Anti-Phosphatidylcholine 2-acylhydrolase;

 

Overview Information
Phosphatidylcholine is a chemical contained in eggs, soybeans, mustard, sunflower, and other foods. It is found naturally in the body in all cells.The term "phosphatidylcholine" is sometimes used interchangeably with "lecithin," although the two are different. Choline is a component of phosphatidylcholine, which is a component of lecithin. Although closely related, these terms are not the same.There is some interest in using phosphatidylcholine to improve symptoms of ulcerative colitis in some people. Some scientific research supports this use.Because the body uses phosphatidylcholine to make a brain chemical called acetylcholine, there is also some interest in using it for treating "brain-centered" conditions such as memory loss, Alzheimer's disease, anxiety, manic-depressive disorders, and a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia. But there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses.Phosphatidylcholine is the primary active ingredient contained in cosmetic injection products used to "dissolve" fat. These products include Lipodissolve, Lipolight, Lipolyse, Lipotherapy, and others. Some cosmetic centers in several countries initially imported a prescription intravenous drug product from Germany known as Lipostabil. 
They used it subcutaneously for cosmetic purposes; however, the manufacturer of this product does not promote it for this use due to lack of reliable evidence. Some countries, such as Brazil, have banned importation of this product for cosmetic use. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also issued a warning to sellers of Lipostabil for making false and misleading claims and because it is an unapproved drug in the U.S.Phosphatidylcholine injections are now often compounded in pharmacies. However, in the U.S., phosphatidylcholine, when compounded and used as an injection, is considered an unapproved drug rather than a dietary supplement.

 

 


How does phosphatidylcholine work?
The body makes a brain chemical called acetylcholine from phosphatidylcholine. Acetylcholine is important for memory and other bodily functions. Since phosphatidylcholine might increase acetylcholine, there is interest in using it for improving memory and for conditions such as Alzheimer's disease.Some researchers think phosphatidylcholine acts like a detergent and breaks down fat. A certain form of phosphatidylcholine (polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine) might provide protection against liver fibrosis and liver damage caused by drinking alcohol, although the exact mechanisms are not completely understood. Phosphatidylcholine might also help to protect the wall of the large intestine in people with a condition known as ulcerative colitis.
Phosphatidylcholine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth, when injected just beneath the skin, or when applied on the skin short-term. The safety of long-term use is not known.When phosphatidylcholine is taken by mouth, it can sometimes cause excessive sweating, stomach upset, and diarrhea.Phosphatidylcholine injections can cause irritation, swelling, redness, itching, burning, bruising, and pain at the injection site. These side effects usually go away over a period of several days. Sometimes, phosphatidylcholine might cause gastrointestinal upset, like bloating, diarrhea, and nausea.If phosphatidylcholine is injected directly into a fatty growth (lipoma), it might cause an inflammatory reaction that could make the tumor more fibrous. In one reported case, the patient who had this done had to have the lipoma removed by surgery.
Phosphatidylcholine also plays a role in membrane-mediated cell signaling and PCTP activation of other enzymes. Phosphatidylcholine recent studies have examined potential benefits of phosphatidylcholine for liver repair. Results are mixed in animal models, and no clinical evidence shows a health benefit in humans. One study shows the healing effect of phosphatidylcholine in mice with hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. The administration of phosphatidylcholine for chronic, active hepatitis resulted in significant reduction of disease activity in mice. Phosphatidylcholine This phospholipid is composed of a choline head group and glycerophosphoric acid, with a variety of fatty acids. Usually, one is a saturated fatty acid (in the given figure, this can be palmitic or hexadecanoic acid, HC-(CH)-COOH; margaric acid identified by Gobley in egg yolk, or heptadecanoic acid HC-(CH)-COOH, also belong to that class); and the other is an unsaturated fatty acid (here oleic acid, or 9Z-octadecenoic acid, as in Gobley's original egg yolk lecithin). However, there are also examples of disaturated species. Animal lung phosphatidylcholine, for example, contains a high proportion of Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine phospholipase D catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to form phosphatidic acid (PA), releasing the soluble choline headgroup into the cytosol. A report in 2011 has linked the microbial catabolites of phosphatidylcholine with increased atherosclerosis in mice through the production of choline, trimethylamine oxide, and betaine. Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipids that incorporate choline as a headgroup. Phosphatidylcholine is a neutral lipid, but it carries an electric dipole moment of about 10 D. Vibrational dynamics of phosphatidylcholine and its hydration waters has been recently calculated from first principles. The name "lecithin" was originally defined from the Greek "lekithos" (λεκιθος, egg yolk) by Theodore Nicolas Gobley, a French chemist and pharmacist of the mid-19th century, who applied it to the egg yolk phosphatidylcholine that he identified in 1847. Gobley eventually completely described his lecithin from chemical structural point of view, in 1874. 
Phosphatidylcholines are such a major component of lecithin that in some contexts the terms are sometimes used as synonyms. However, lecithin extracts consist of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and other compounds. It is also used along with sodium taurocholate for simulating fed- and fasted-state biorelevant media in dissolution studies of highly lipophilic drugs. Phase IIa/b clinical trials performed at the Heidelberg University Hospital have shown that delayed release purified phosphatidylcholine is an anti-inflammatory agent, and a surface hydrophobicity increasing compound with promising therapeutic potential in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. They are a major component of biological membranes and can be easily obtained from a variety of readily available sources, such as egg yolk or soybeans, from which they are mechanically or chemically extracted using hexane. They are also a member of the lecithin group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues. Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (a.k.a. lecithin) is a major component of pulmonary surfactant and is often used in the L/S ratio to calculate fetal lung maturity. While phosphatidylcholines are found in all plant and animal cells, they are absent in the membranes of most bacteria, including Escherichia coli. Purified phosphatidylcholine is produced commercially.Phosphatidylcholine belongs to the class of glycerophoshpolipids and contains choline as the head-group.Choline is attached to the glycerol of fatty acids ester-bound to backbone. Phosphatıdylcholine is the major phospholipid found in eukaryotic organism.

 

 

Phosphatidylcholines are a class of phospholipids that incorporate choline as a headgroup. They are a major component of biological membranes and can be easily obtained from a variety of readily available sources, such as egg yolk or soybeans, from which they are mechanically or chemically extracted using hexane. They are also a member of the lecithin group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues. Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine is a major component of pulmonary surfactant and is often used in the L/S ratio to calculate fetal lung maturity. While phosphatidylcholines are found in all plant and animal cells, they are absent in the membranes of most bacteria, including Escherichia coli. Purified phosphatidylcholine is produced commercially. The name "lecithin" was originally defined from the Greek lekithos by Theodore Nicolas Gobley, a French chemist and pharmacist of the mid-19th century, who applied it to the egg yolk phosphatidylcholine that he identified in 1847. Gobley eventually completely described his lecithin from chemical structural point of view, in 1874.Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipids that incorporate choline as a headgroup. They are a major component of biological membranes and can be easily obtained from a variety of readily available sources, such as egg yolk or soybeans, from which they are mechanically or chemically extracted using hexane. They are also a member of the lecithin group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues. Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (a.k.a. lecithin) is a major component of pulmonary surfactant and is often used in the L/S ratio to calculate fetal lung maturity. While phosphatidylcholines are found in all plant and animal cells, they are absent in the membranes of most bacteria,including Escherichia coli.Purified phosphatidylcholine is produced commercially.The name "lecithin" was originally defined from the Greek lekithos (λεκιθος, egg yolk) by Theodore Nicolas Gobley, a French chemist and pharmacist of the mid-19th century, who applied it to the egg yolk phosphatidylcholine that he identified in 1847. Gobley eventually completely described his lecithin from chemical structural point of view, in 1874.Phosphatidylcholines are such a major component of lecithin that in some contexts the terms are sometimes used as synonyms. However, lecithin extracts consist of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and other compounds. It is also used along with sodium taurocholate for simulating fed- and fasted-state biorelevant media in dissolution studies of highly lipophilic drugs.Phosphatidylcholine is a major constituent of cell membranes and pulmonary surfactant, and is more commonly found in the exoplasmic or outer leaflet of a cell membrane. It is thought to be transported between membranes within the cell by phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP).Phosphatidylcholine also plays a role in membrane-mediated cell signaling and PCTP activation of other enzymes.
Structure and physical properties of Phosphatidylcholine : This phospholipid is composed of a choline head group and glycerophosphoric acid, with a variety of fatty acids. Usually, one is a saturated fatty acid (in the given figure, this can be palmitic or hexadecanoic acid, H3C-(CH2)14-COOH; margaric acid identified by Gobley in egg yolk, or heptadecanoic acid H3C-(CH2)15-COOH, also belong to that class); and the other is an unsaturated fatty acid (here oleic acid, or 9Z-octadecenoic acid, as in Gobley's original egg yolk lecithin). However, there are also examples of disaturated species.Animal lung phosphatidylcholine, for example, contains a high proportion of Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine.Phospholipase D catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to form phosphatidic acid (PA), releasing the soluble choline headgroup into the cytosol.Phosphatidylcholine is a neutral lipid, but it carries an electric dipole moment of about 10 D.Vibrational dynamics of phosphatidylcholine and its hydration waters has been recently calculated from first principles. Some drying medications are called anticholinergic drugs. Phosphatidylcholine might increase chemicals that can decrease the effects of these drying medications.

 

Some drying medications include atropine, scopolamine, and some medications used for allergies (antihistamines) and for depression (antidepressants). Phosphatidylcholine might increase a chemical in the body called acetylcholine. Medications for Alzheimer's called acetylcholinesterase inhibitors also increase the chemical acetylcholine. Taking phosphatidylcholine along with medications for Alzheimer's disease might increase effects and side effects of medications for Alzheimer's disease.

Some medications called acetylcholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (Aricept), tacrine (Cognex), rivastigmine (Exelon), and galantamine (Reminyl, Razadyne).Phosphatidylcholine might increase a chemical in the body called acetylcholine. This chemical is similar to some medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions. Taking phosphatidylcholine with these medications might increase the chance of side effects.

 

Some of these medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions include pilocarpine (Pilocar and others), and others.
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a phospholipid attached to a choline particle. Phospholipids contain fatty acids, glycerol, and phosphorous.The phosphorous part of the phospholipid substance - the lecithin - is made up of phosphatidylcholine. For this reason, the terms phosphatidylcholine and lecithin are often used interchangeably, although they're different. Foods that contain lecithin are the best dietary sources of phosphatidylcholine.Although phosphatidylcholine phosphatidylcholine is traditionally used to support brain health, it can also support liver function and keep cholesterol levels in check. Read on to learn what the research says about the benefits of this nutritional supplement.
According to a 1995 study on mice with dementiaTrusted Source, phosphatidylcholine supplementation can increase the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. Phosphatidylcholine may also improve memory. The study found that mice without dementia had no memory increase, despite the increase in acetylcholine levels.A 2001 study found feeding mice a diet rich in phosphatidylcholine and vitamin B-12 also had a positive impact on brain health. Although these results are promising, more study is needed.Research has continued, and a 2017 study has found that levels of phosphatidylcholine are directly related to Alzheimer's disease. A high-fat diet is known to negatively affect the liver. phosphatidylcholine may cause nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or cirrhosis of the liver. According to a 2010 study, phosphatidylcholine helped reduce lipids that can lead to a fatty liver (hepatic lipids) in mice fed a high-fat diet. Some medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can cause severe gastrointestinal side effects with extended use. This includes stomach pain, gastric bleeding, and intestinal perforation. According to a 2012 study Trusted Source, long-term NSAID use may disrupt a phospholipid layer of the gastrointestinal tract. This may cause gastrointestinal injury. Research has shown that Some medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can cause severe gastrointestinal side effects with extended use. This includes stomach pain, gastric bleeding, and intestinal perforation.According to a 2012 studyTrusted Source, long-term NSAID use may disrupt a phospholipid layer of the gastrointestinal tract. This may cause gastrointestinal injury. Research has shown that phosphatidylcholine may help prevent NSAID-related gastrointestinal damage. may help prevent NSAID-related gastrointestinal damage.Another study on mice reviewed whether bringing elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine back to normal helps prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The study found that it helped prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver. It did not, however, prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Lipolysis is the breakdown of fats in the body. Too much fat may cause lipomas to form. Lipomas are painful, benign fatty tumors. Most are removed surgically.According to a 2014 studyTrusted Source, injecting phosphatidylcholine into a lipoma can kill its fat cells and reduce its size. More study is needed to determine the long-term safety of this treatment. According to a 2003 study, phosphatidylcholine supplementation reduced cholesterol gallstone formation in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. The study found that when phosphatidylcholine levels increased, cholesterol saturation levels decreased.
Possible health benefits phosphatidylcholine
Senescence: A 2009 systematic review of clinical trials in humans found that there was not enough evidence to support supplementation of lecithin or phosphatidylcholine in dementia. The study found that a moderate benefit could not be ruled out until further large scale studies were performed.
Lipolysis: Though phosphatidylcholine has been studied as an alternative to liposuction, there are no peer-reviewed studies that have shown it to have comparable effects Injection of phosphatidylcholine in lipomas has been studied, though results have been mixed.
Ulcerative colitis: Treatment of ulcerative colitis with oral intake of phosphatidylcholine has been shown to result in decreased disease activity.
Possible health risks: A report in 2011 has linked the microbial catabolites of phosphatidylcholine with increased atherosclerosis in mice through the production of choline, trimethylamine oxide, and betaine.
Biosynthesis: Albeit there are more pathways for the biosynthesis of phoshpatidylcholine, one is predominant in eukaryotes. It involves a condensation reaction between diacylglycerol (DAG) and cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline or citicoline) mediated by the enzyme diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. Another notable pathway in some tissues (mostly liver) is through a step-wise methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine with S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) being the methyl group donor.
Phosphatidylcholine has been used:
to form a thin lipid film used in Kupffer cell depletion by liposome-encapsulated clodronate, as a component of assay buffer used in γ-secretase in vitro assay ,in the preparation of substrate mix for its use in HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) assay of 5-lipoxygenase enzyme activity 
Biochem/physiol Actions : Phosphatidylcholine is also acts as a source of lipid messengers/ bioactive lipids including: lysophosphatidylcholine, diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine, arachidonic acid and platelet activating factor. Phosphatidylcholine is produced in the liver by the CDP-choline (cytidine diphosphocholine) pathway.A major structural phospholipid in brain, comprising approx. 15% of total lipid; primarily localized to gray matter.
How to use : There are many brands of Phosphatidylcholine to choose from, but they're not all created equal. Because supplements aren't well-regulated, it can be challenging to know if you're getting a high-quality product.You should choose a brand that:

 

 


-is made in a GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) facility
-is made with pure ingredients
-contains few or no additives
-lists active and inactive ingredients on the label
-is tested by a third party

 

There's no standardized dosage recommendation for phosphatidylcholine for most conditions. A common dose is 840 milligrams up to twice daily, but you should always defer to the dosage provided on the product. Your doctor can also help you determine a safe dosage for you.To reduce your risk of side effects, start with the lowest dose possible and gradually work your way up to a full dose. Be sure to follow the manufacturer's guidelines or your doctor's instructions.Oral Phosphatidylcholine may cause excessive sweating, and taking more than 30 grams daily may cause: diarrhea ,nausea, vomiting. Injecting phosphatidylcholine directly into a fatty tumor may cause severe inflammation or fibrosis. It may also cause: pain, burning,itching ,bruising ,edema ,reddening of skin .Taking phosphatidylcholine with an AChE inhibitor, such as donepezil (Aricept) or tacrine (Cognex), may increase acetylcholine levels in the body. This may cause cholinergic side effects, including: seizures, muscle weakness, slow heartrate, breathing problems.Taking phosphatidylcholine with cholinergic or anticholinergic drugs may also impact their effectiveness.Phosphatidylcholine has not been proven safe for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, and it's therefore not recommended. Phosphatidylcholine helps support many of your body's functions, ranging from fat metabolism to maintaining cell structure. You can get enough from foods such as eggs, red meat, and whole grains, and food sources are the best first choice. Supplements are the second option. Choose your brand after doing research on reputation and quality, as supplements are not regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.Phosphatidylcholine supplements are available in capsule and liquid forms without a prescription. They're thought to be safe when used as directed for short periods of time. Injectable PC must be administered by a health professional.If you'd like to add phosphatidylcholine to your routine, talk to your doctor. They can walk you through your individual benefits and risks, as well as answer any questions you may have.


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