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KALSİYUM STEARAT (CALCIUM STEARATE)

CALCIUM STEARATE

SYNONYMS:kalsiyum stearat; calcium stearate; kalsiyumstearat; calciumstearate; kalsiyum sterat; calcium stearat; calcium ctearat; Kalsiyum Stearat; Calcium Stearate; Kalsiyumstearat; Calciumstearate; Kalsiyum Sterat; Calcium Stearat; Calcium Ctearat; KALSİYUM STEARAT; CALCIUM STEARATE; KALSİYUMSTEARATE; KALSİYUM STERAT; CALCIUM STEARAT; CALCIUM CTEARAT; KALSIYUM STEARAT; kalsiyum distearat; calciumstearate; kalsiyum oktadekanoat; kalsiyum stearate; kalsiyumstearate; aluminum monostearate; aluminum tristearate; ammonium stearate; calcium stearate; magnesium stearate; octadecanoic acid; sodium stearate; stearic acid; zinc stearate; CALCIUM STEARATE; 1592-23-0; Calcium octadecanoate; Calcium distearate; Octadecanoic acid, calcium salt; Calcium bis(stearate); Calcium distearate, pure; Stearic acid, calcium salt; CalciumStearatePowder; Stearic acid calcium; CALCIUMSTEARATE; calcium dioctadecanoate; Hydrogenated tallow fatty acids calcium salts; Hydrogenated tallow fatty acids, calcium salt; Octadecanoic acid, calcium salt (2:1); Fatty acids, tallow, hydrogenated, calcium salt; Fatty acids, tallow,hydrogenated, calcium salts; Tallow fatty acids, hydrogenated, calcium salt, Fatty acids, tallow, hydrogenated, calcium salts; CALCIUM STEARATE; Calcium octadecanoate; Flexichem; alcium distearate; Octadecanoic acid, calcium salt; Aquacal; Calstar; Flexichem CS; Stavinor 30; Stearates; Calcium bis(stearate); Nopcote C 104; Witco G 339S; Stearic acid, calcium salt; Calcium distearate, pure; calcium dioctadecanoate; Calcium stearate [JAN]; CalciumStearatePowder; Stearic acid calcium; CALCIUMSTEARATE; Calcium Stearate NF/FCC; Hydrogenated tallow fatty acids calcium salts; Calcium stearate (JP17/NF); Calcium Stearate (technical grade); CALCIUM ; Fatty acids, tallow,hydrogenated, calcium salts; Pralmorelin Glyceryl monostearate Stearic acid CALCIUM Calcium nitrite Calcium stearate Barium stearate DL-α-Tocopherol CALCIUM PALMITATE CALCIUM; BUTYRATE CALCIUM; LAURATE CALCIUM CAPRYLATE; MONOHYDRATE ; calcium diiodostearate; POTASSIUM IODIDE WITH CA STEARATE; Calcium formate; Calcium hydroxide; Calcium acetate; Calcium carbonate; STEARIC ACID CALCIUM; SALTOCTADECANOIC ACID; CALCIUM SALTCALCIUM OCTADECANOATECALCIUM STEARATE; aquacal calciumdistearate calstar dibasiccalciumstearate flexichem flexichemcs g339s nopcotec104 stavinor30 stearatedecalcium witcog339/s witcog339s calcium distearate, pureCalcium Stearate (Light)CalciumstearateminCalciumstearatetechCalciuM Stearate, 95.0%(T)Calcium stearate 6.6-7.4% Ca basisCalcium stearate Vetec(TM) reagent gradeACRYL/BIS (37,5:1)Calcium stearate, 6.4 to 7.4% (Ca)calaiumstrarateCALCIUM STEARATSTEARIC ACID CALCIUM SALT 9.0-10.5%Calcium Stearate NFCalciumSulphate(Dihydrate)Gr(PrecipitatedPowd)CalciumStearatePureCALCIUM STEARATE (CEASIT)CALCIUM STEARATE, PHARMACalcium stearinateCalciumstearate,min.85%CALCIUMSTEARATE,FCCCalciumdistearatCalcium stearate dispersion liquidBis(octadecanoic acid)calcium saltBis(stearic acid)calcium saltBisstearic acid calcium saltDistearic acid calciumCalcium stearate, extra pure, Ph Eur, BP, NF, FCC, E 470Calcium Stearate (2 g) (AS)CalciuM Stearate (AS)CalciuM stearate NF/FCCCalcii stearasDeasit PCHyQualKemistab EC-F1592-23-0CaC17H35COO2CH3CH216COO2CaC18H36O212CaCH3CH216C00CaCaC36H70O4CaCH3CH216CO22C36H70O4Ca

STRUKTOL® CALCIUM STEARATE COMPOSITION STRUKTOL® Calcium Stearate is a high purity, non-wettable, calcium stearate powder manufactured with high quality stearic acid. During manufacture, the particle size, shape, bulk, and purity of STRUKTOL® Calcium Stearate are closely controlled to guarantee product uniformity. PROPERTIES TYPICAL VALUES Appearance Powder Ash (%, max.) 10.5 Free Fatty Acid (%, max.) 1.0 Point (oC) 150 Moisture (%, max.) 4.0 Particle Size (% thru 200 mesh) 90 Specific Gravity (g/cm3 1.01 Storage Stability Unlimited in a cool dry area Packaging 50 lb. paper bag RECOMMENDATIONS FOR APPLICATIONS STRUKTOL® Calcium Stearate is used by the rubber and plastic industries as an effective elastomer processing aid and release agent. The low chloride content of STRUKTOL® Calcium Stearate allows for complete product dispersion in elastomers. STRUKTOL® Calcium Stearate reduces extruder pressure build-up of rigid PVC compounds when used as a processing aid during the manufacture of pipe, siding and injection molded fittings. The low chloride content of STRUKTOL® Calcium Stearate meets the quality and processing demands of polyolefin, polystyrene and polyester manufacture. STRUKTOL® Calcium Stearate can also be used as a processing aid in wire drawing operations, and as an anti-caking additive in dry blending operations. Some of the benefits of using STRUKTOL®

Calcium Stearate are: - LOW IMPURITY Reduces extruder pressure build-up and minimizes fiber breakage during extrusion and spinning. - COLOR STABILITY High-purity and a unique manufacturing process give this product extreme heat resistance to prevent discoloration and haze formation. - over - Struktol Company of America 201 E. Steels Corners Road • P. O. Box 1649 • Stow, Ohio 44224-0649 Phone (330) 928-5188 • Fax (330) 928-0013 www.struktol.com • customerservice@struktol.com The information herein is believed to be reliable, but is presented without guarantee or warranty, express or implied. Nothing contained herein is to be construed as a recommendation for any use which is in violation of an existing patent. TECHNICAL DATA DOSAGE Injection Molding (Opaque) V-SS V-PEAS Calcium Stearate* 0.7 - 1.0 phr 0.3 - 0.5 phr 0.7 - 1.0 phr Extrusion (Opaque) V-SS V-PEAS Calcium Stearate 0.7 - 1.0 phr 0.3 - 0.7 phr 0.7 - 1.0 phr V-DSP 165 Wax Calcium Stearate* 0.7 - 1.2 phr 0.3 - 0.5 phr 0.5 - 0.7 phr V-DSP 165 Wax Calcium Stearate 0.7 - 1.2 phr 0.3 - 0.7 phr 0.5 - 1.0 phr V-HRW V-Peas or VLB-602 Oxidized HDPE Calcium Stearate* 0.7 - 1.5 phr 0.3 - 0.75 phr 0.07 - 0.15 phr 0.3 - 1.0 phr V-HRWV-Peas Oxidized HDPE Calcium Stearate 0.7 - 1.0 phr 0.3 - 0.75 phr 0.07 - 0.15 phr 0.3 - 1.0 phr *Note: Reduce Calcium Stearate as much as possible for improved flow. V-SSE VLB-602 Calcium Stearate 0.7 - 1.0 phr 0.4 - 0.8 phr 0.7 - 1.0 phr Calendering (Opaque) V-HRW VLB-602 Oxidized HDPE Calcium Stearate 0.7 - 1.5 phr 0.5 - 0.75 phr 0.07 - 0.15 phr 0.3 - 0.75 phr V-HRW V-Peas LA Oxidized HDPE Calcium Stearate 0.7 - 1.5 phr 0.3 - 0.6 phr 0.07 - 0.15 phr 0.3 - 0.75 phr FDA STATUS STRUKTOL® Calcium Stearate is sanctioned for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in a number of applications, listed in the following sections of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations: 173.340 175.105 175.300 175.320 176.170 176.210 Defoaming agents Adhesives Resinous and polymeric coatings Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films Components of paper and paperboard n contact with aqueous and fatty foods Defoaming agents used in coatings Defoaming agents used in the manufacture of paper and paperboard 177.1200 177.2260 177.2410 177.2600 178.2010 181.29 184.1229 Cellophane Filters, resin-bonded Phenolic resins in molded articles Rubber articles intended for re Calcium stearate Calcium stearate is obtained from the reaction of stearic acid and lime.

2 C17H35COOH + CaO → (C17H35COO)2Ca + H2O

It is a fine powder, white and silky to the touch, with the following properties:

 

It is very stable under high temperature conditions
It is non-toxic and is even used as a food additive, E470
It is highly resistant to water and has water-repellent properties
It serves as a lubricant, stabilizer and thickener in various processes.
You can buy 50% liquid calcium stearate emulsion, which makes even distribution, dosage and handling easier.

 

We also have a dust-free/granulated product which is very suitable for pneumatic conveyance; it has a more precise dose and is cleaner.

 

DUST-FREE STEARATE
In Mateos, S.L. we are able to produce calcium stearate free of fine particles - dust-free - with the following advantages for the customer: Cleaner handling of the product Easier transportation Better dosage, does not form mounds, does not cake, etc. Constant apparent density Customized particle size This stearate is perfect for applications where it is dosed by pneumatic transport systems. With the dust-free product, the stearate is prevented from ending up in the system's filters and remains in the chippings, pellets and ingredients, etc. Another advantage is that more accurate dosages can be obtained and more efficient use of the product. In addition to the material obtained by tumbling Big Bags by hand, or in open spaces, this is much cleaner as it contains no dust. Imagen Dust-free/perlado estearato de calcio Calcium Stearate: Advantages & Disadvantages Publié le 10 mai 2012 par susie111 Calcium stearate( C36H70CaO4) is a non-toxic, white powdery substance. It is a calcium salt derived from calcium oxide and stearic acid that is commonly found in cosmetics, plastics and food products. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has generally recognized it as safe when used as a food additive. Calcium stearate was first used in 1924 to improve the texture of bread dough and reduce dust levels in flour. Its unique properties made it useful in many other non-food industries. The substance reduces friction when added to substances, increasing flow rate and preventing caking. It may also be used in gels or to add bulk to cosmetic powders. In addition to its insolubility in water, it is also insoluble in acetone, ether, and cold alcohol.

 

One of the greatest advantages of calcium stearate is that it can be used in a variety of products to accomplish a number of different goals. In cosmetics, food and other products, it is used to prevent caking, improve texture and thicken materials. This substance is also used as a flow agent, which means that it reduces friction and facilitates the flow of other substances. The pharmaceutical industry uses this substance in many different medications, and the industrial industry uses it for its ability to waterproof various materials. When certain types of fatty acids are heated with an alkaline substance, the resulting salt is known as soap. Stearic acid is one of the most widely used components of soaps. Calcium stearate is a synthetic ingredient formed through a reaction when stearic acid and calcium oxide are heated together. It is the most important type of calcium salt. Yet due to its lack of solubility, the salt is not commonly used in soap in modern times, having been replaced by synthetic substances that are water soluble. Calcium stearate(CAS No. 1592-23-0) is frequently found in cosmetics, especially aerosol hair styling products. The substance is also found in cosmetic powders, ointments, and packaging. Despite a very low risk for dermal irritation, topical contact may cause redness, itching, and eye irritation. While calcium stearate is sometimes used in surfactants, there are some disadvantages of using it in soaps and other cleansers. When combined with water, this substance does not form a creamy lather. Instead, it creates a slimy substance known as soap scum. Soap scum will not only accumulate on tubs and showers, but it can also leave an unwanted film on the skin and hair. For these reasons, many manufacturers have begun using more effective surfactants in their products. Susie is the freelance writer for e-commerce website in the chemistry. Guidechem.com is just a place for you to look for some chemicals! Our guidechem provide the most convenient conditions for the international buyers and let these leads benefit all the business people.

Calcium Stearate Processing Executive Summary1 A petition is under consideration with respect to NOP regulations subpart G §205.605, governing the use of substances in products: Petitioned: Inclusion of calcium stearate on National List of nonagricultural substances allowed in or on processed products labeled as "organic" or "made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))." Calcium stearate is a compound of calcium with a mixture of solid organic acids obtained from edible sources. It is generally used as a solid-phase lubricant that reduces friction between particles of the substance to which it is added. The Petitioner's ntended use is "as a flow agent (anti-dusting agent)" to be used in dry flour based ingredients sold to bakeries (NOSB Petition). The NOP has no prior listing or ruling on the substance. All three reviewers agreed that the substance should be considered synthetic. The reviewers were divided over the use of calcium stearate in food labeled as "organic." Two of the reviewers felt it should not be allowed in these foods, while one reviewer felt it should be accepted. One reviewer who voted to restrict its use indicated that more information was needed on the nature of the substance and its potential applications, and the other reviewer felt that inclusion of a "synthetic" substance in organics runs contrary to consumer's expectations regarding organic products. All three reviewers agreed that the substance should be allowed in products labeled as "made with organic..." ingredients. One reviewer felt that these products should be accompanied by a label that states the potential animal sourcing of calcium stearate.

 

This Technical Advisory Panel (TAP) review is based on the information available as of the date of this review. This review addresses the requirements of the Organic Foods Production Act to the best of the contractor's ability, and has been reviewed by experts on the TAP. The substance is evaluated against the criteria found in section 2119(m) of the OFPA [7 USC 6517(m)]. The information and evaluation presented to the NOSB is based on the technical evaluation against those criteria, and does not incorporate commercial availability, socio-economic impact or others factors that the NOSB and the USDA may consider in making decisions. Summary of TAP Reviewer Analyses Products considered "organic" (>95%) Synthetic/ Nonsynthetic Allowed or Prohibited Notes/suggested annotations: Synthetic (3) Nonsynthetic (0) Allowed (1) Prohibited (2) Reviewer 1: Prohibited, no annotation. Reveiwer 2: Allowed, no annotation d, no a Reviewer 3: Prohibited, no annotation Products considered "made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))" (>70%) Synthetic/ Nonsynthetic Allowed or Prohibited Notes/suggested annotations: Synthetic (3) Nonsynthetic (0) Allowed (3) Prohibited (0) Reviewer 1: Allowed, no annotation Reveiwer 2: Allowed, no annotation d, no a Reviewer 3: Allowed, provided that its use and its potential animal sourcing are stated on the label. NOSB TAP Review Compiled by UC SAREP Calcium Stearate - Processing Page 2 of 11 Food category Weighted mean % Baked goods, baking mixes 1.03 Fats and oils 0.06 Meat products 0.02 Poultry products 0.02 Eggs, egg products 0.02 Fish products 0.02 Soft candy 0.92 Soups, soup mixes 0.02 Snack foods 0.02 Gravies, sauces 0.03 Hard candy 0.08 Seasoning and flavors 0.64 NAS 1972 Table 2. Sample Levels of Industry Additions of Calcium Stearate to Foods by Category Identification Chemical name: calcium stearate Other names: stearic acid calcium salt, octadecanoic acid calcium salt CAS Number: 1592-23-0 International Numbering System for Food Additives: Not listed Other: None found. Characterization : Ca(C18H35O2 )2 Physical Data: Molecular wt.: 607.03 Melting point: 179C Specific gravity: 1.04 Solubility: Practically insoluble in water (0.04g/L H2O @ 15C), ether, chloroform, acetone, and cold alcohol Slightly soluble in hot alcohol, hot vegetable and mineral oils Quite soluble in hot pyridine Stability: Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage Hazardous polymerization: Will not occur Properties: Calcium stearate is a metallic, water soluble stearate. It is a compound of calcium with a mixture of solid organic acids obtained from edible sources, and consists chiefly of variable proportions of calcium stearate and calcium palmitate (NAS 1996). It occurs as a fine, white to yellowish white, bulky powder having a slight, characteristic fatty odor.
Action:
Calcium stearate is a solid-phase lubricant that reduces friction between particles of the substance to which it is added. It functions by complexing with protein and starch (Kamel 1993). How Made: Traditionally, calcium stearate was made by reacting calcium chloride, sodium stearate, and other salts of mixed fatty acids in an aqueous solution, then isolating the precipitate (Kebrich and Petrot 1953). According to the Petitioner, this method is not practical for large-scale production, and instead the substance is derived from a dry fusion process in which palm-derived stearic acid is reacted with calcium oxide; no organic solvents are used in this process. Stearic acid is a naturally occurring saturated fatty acid present in the glycerides of animal fats and most vegetable oils, and is derived from palm oil, soybean oil, or edible tallow. The finished product is composed of calcium with variable proportions of stearic and palmitic acids, and contains the equivalent of 9-10.5% calcium oxide (Osol and Hoover 1975). It is available in powder, ground, or beaded form and is made from stearic acid of 50-90% composition (Kamel 1993). Calcium stearate is available in technical and food grades (Hawley 1977). Uses: Extremely low solubility makes calcium stearate a very versatile substance. It is mainly used as a dough conditioner and is commonly used with other dough softeners such as mono- and diglycerides (Kamel 1993). Food grade calcium stearate can also be used as an emulsifier, flavoring agent, anti-dusting agent, stabilizer, release agent, and/or thickening agent (Merck 2001). Other uses include waterproofing, as a releasing agent for plastic molding powders, as a stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride resins, lubricant, and as a conditioning agent in various pharmaceutical products (Merck 2001).
Status History of Use: Calcium stearate was first isolated for commercial use in 1924 (Harrison). Its use as a bread dough strengthener/crumb softener was identified by Dubois (1979). Its physical qualities and low toxicity make it a versatile additive in a wide range of products, some of which are listed in Table 2. NOSB TAP Review Compiled by UC SAREP Calcium Stearate - Processing Page 3 of 11 Functionality Calcium stearate is a nonagricultural product. It is virtually nontoxic, and its unctuous properties make it ideal for use in food products (Osol and Hoover, 1975). Commercially it is used in flour enrichment and dough conditioning products marketed to bakeries. The Petitioner's intended use is "as a flow agent (anti-dusting agent) to be used in flour enrichments which are added at flour mills, and also to be used as a flow agent or anti-dusting agent in dry flour-based ingredients containing enzymes which may be either added at the flour mill or at the bakery (dough improvers)" (NOSB Petition addendum). In this way, calcium stearate improves the manageability of dough and minimizes airborne bakery dust. According to the Petitioner, this is important for bakery workers who may experience harmful effects from inhalation of bakery ingredient dust. Some flour conditioners contain potentially allergenic enzymes, and dust from certain vitamins (e.g. thiamin, a vasodilator) can be harmful (NOSB Petition). USDA Final Rule The USDA has no prior ruling on the use/prohibition of calcium stearate, and currently there are no references to the substance in NOP regulations. NOP parameters specifically relating to the Petitioner's request are as follows: § 205.301 Product Composition. (b) Products sold, labeled, or represented as "organic." A raw or processed agricultural product sold, labeled, or represented as "organic" must contain (by weight or fluid volume, excluding water and salt) not less than 95 percent organically produced raw or processed agricultural products. Any remaining product ingredients must be organically produced, unless not commercially available in organic form, or must be nonagricultural substances or nonorganically produced agricultural products produced consistent with the National List in subpart G of this part. If labeled as organically produced, such product must be labeled pursuant to § 205.303. (c) Products sold, labeled, or represented as "made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))." Multiingredient agricultural product sold, labeled, or represented as "made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))" must contain (by weight or fluid volume, excluding water and salt) at least 70 percent organically produced ingredients which are produced and handled pursuant to requirements in subpart C of this part. No ingredients may be produced using prohibited practices specified in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of § 205.301(f). Nonorganic ingredients may be produced without regard to paragraphs (4), (5), (6), and (7) of § 205.301(f). If labeled as containing organically produced ingredients or food groups, such product must be labeled pursuant to § 205.304. Regulatory: Domestic certifiers: The OTA American Organic Standards defers to processing substances allowed by the NOP National List (§ 7.4.3.6). All Northeast Organic Farming Association (NOFA) chapters (MA, CT, NJ, NY, VT, RI) are in the advance stages of transitioning to the NOP National List, and none of them have a prior ruling on the use of calcium stearate. International certifiers: The UN/FAO Codex Alimentarius does not regulate calcium stearate, but it has registered several substances that are chemically and functionally similar (calcium stearoyl lactylate, calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate, calcium stearoyl lactate) under the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). IFOAM does not include calcium stearate on its List of Approved Additives and Processing Aids. Japanese Agricultural Standards have no ruling on the use of calcium stearate. FDA regulates calcium stearate under Title 21of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Table 1 summarizes these references. In addition, regulations require that fatty acids and oils used in production of stearic acids must be free of chick edema factor (Rossoff 1974). EPA List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients (2001) classifies calcium stearate on List 4B (Inerts which have insufficient data to substantiate they can be used safely in pesticide products). NIEHS National Toxicity Program (NTP) Database does not list any regulatory limits for calcium stearate (NTP 2002). OSHA classifies the substance as hazardous under the criteria of the Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) does not regulate the substance as a carcinogen.

 

 


Author's note: Evaluation criteria for inclusion on National List are given below.NOSB TAP Review Compiled by UC SAREP Calcium Stearate - Processing Page 4 of 11 Section 2119 OFPA U.S.C. 6518(m)(1-7) Criteria
1. The potential of substance for detrimental chemical interactions with other materials used in organic farming systems.
The intended use of the substance as a processing material precludes it from interacting directly with other materials used in
organic farming.
2. The toxicity and mode of action of the substance, its breakdown products or contaminants, and their persistence and
areas of concentration in the environment.
Calcium stearate is considered to be nontoxic (GRAS) when used in accordance with GMPs (FASEB 1975, ACT 1982). No
research was found regarding breakdown products, contaminants, or toxic interactions in the environment.
3. The probability of environmental contamination during manufacture, use, misuse, or disposal of the substance.
See processing Criteria 2, below.
4. The effect of the substance on human health
See Processing Criteria 3, below.
5. The effects of the substance on biological and chemical interactions in the agroecosystem, including the physiological
effects of the substance on soil organisms, crop, and livestock.
The Petition is for use as a processing material and thus are not applicable apply to agroecosystem interactions.
6. The alternatives to using the substance in terms of practices or other available materials.
See Processing Criteria 1 and 7, below.
7. Its compatibility with a system of organic agriculture.
See Processing Criteria 6, below.

 

 


Processing Criteria from the February 10, 1999 NOSB Meeting
1. The processing aid or adjuvant cannot be produced from a natural source and has no organic ingredients as substitutes No documentation was found referring to natural sources of food grade calcium stearate. Lecithin shares similar emulsification properties with calcium stearate, but may not be as versatile. Lecithin is a versatile surfactant composed primarily of phospholipids. Similar to calcium stearate, it is available as a course or fine powder and can be used in food products as a dough conditioner, mulsifier, or release agent. It also has the benefit of current approval on the National List (§205.606). No references were found that characterized lecithin as an anti dusting agent - the petitioner's primary intended purpose of calcium stearate -and its effectiveness in this regard is not established. Table 1. FDA References to Calcium Stearate 21 CFR Section Heading Annotation 169.179 Vanilla powder Optional adjuvant for use as an anticaking ingredient in vanilla powder mixtures, not to exceed two percent of powder mixture by weight. 172.863 Salts of fatty acids Lists parameters for use of salts of fatty acids in food components, including mixture composition and labeling of additives. 173.340 Defoaming agent Optional adjuvant for use as a defoaming agent in processing beet sugar and yeast. 175.300 Resinous and polymeric coatings Miscellaneous ingredient permitted for use in coating of food-contact surfaces of materials used in any aspect of processing or packing. 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles Optional adjuvant employed in the production of phenolic resins to confer lubricant qualities. 177.2600 Rubber articles intended for repeated use Optional adjuvant for use as a plasticizer, not to exceed thirty percent of rubber product by weight. 178.1010 Sanitizing solutions Optional adjuvant for preparation of sanitizing solution described in detail at (b)(41), not to exceed eight percent of preparation. 179.45 Packaging materials for use during the irradiation of prepackaged foods Optional adjuvant for use in polyethylene film, not to exceed one percent of the polymer by weight, prepared from basic polymer described in 21CFR177.1520(a), and subjected to irradiation dose described in (10)(c). 178.2010 Antioxidants and/or stabilizers for polymers Optional adjuvant for use as anitoxidant/stabilizer in polymers used in articles intended for use in all aspects of food processing and packing. 181.29 Stabilizers Classified as stabilizer, when migrating from food packaging material. 184.1229 Calcium stearate GRAS when used in accordance with GMPs. NOSB TAP Review Compiled by UC SAREP Calcium Stearate - Processing Page 5 of 11

2. Manufacture, use, and disposal do not have adverse effects on the environment and are done in a manner compatible with organic handling as described in section 6513 of the OFPA As stated above, calcium stearate is a nonagricultural product, and specific information on the modern manufacturing process is proprietary business information and is not available. The process involves a reaction of calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide and stearic acid (see "How Made", above). The Petitioner does not manufacture calcium stearate, but purchases it from another source. This source uses a confidential "non-aqueous fusion" process. No sources were found giving detailed information on this process. In response to an initial version of the TAP Review, the petitioner supplied SAREP with non-detailed manufacturing information from another supplier stating that "stearic acid reacts readily with many chemically basic metal reactants when given the proper temperature, catalysis, and mechanical energy input" (Petition addendum). To the best of the investigator's knowledge, calcium stearate has not been evaluated for its effects on the environment. Similarly, there is limited toxicity research on stearic acid, focusing mostly on toxicity effects in food and cosmetic ingredients (ACT 1982). Based on its low acute toxicity, it would likely present a low risk to the environment if spilled. Calcium stearate is mixed with dry flour based blends sold to bakeries. Breads and bakery goods are common organic products, and the Petitioner's intended use as a dry blend additive appears to be consistent with GMPs as they pertain to organic processing.

3. The nutritional quality of the food is maintained and the material itself or its breakdown products do not have adverse effects on human health as defined by applicable Federal regulations The only thorough toxicological evaluation of calcium stearate was conducted for its use in cosmetics (ACT 1982). The substance was tested with ten other metallic stearates for toxicity effects. Acute oral studies with rats indicated that the stearates are "practically nontoxic, and have low potential for acute dermal toxicity." Dermal irritation studies with rabbits showed that stearates are "only minimal to slight irritants at high concentrations." Acute Toxicity (Dugan 1996): Inhalation: May irritate respiratory tract. Symptoms may include coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat and runny nose. Avoid breathing dust. Use local ventilation if dusting is a problem. Provide respiratory assistance as needed. Ingestion: May cause gastroenteritis, with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Systemic effects may follow and may include ringing of the ears, dizziness, elevated blood pressure, blurred vision and tremors. If ingested, call a physician immediately. Skin contact: May cause irritation with symptoms of redness, swelling, itching and pain. Flush with water, wash clothing before reuse. Eye contact: May cause irritation with symptoms of redness, swelling, itching, tearing and pain. Flush with water for least 15 minutes. Calcium stearate is used in food in relatively small quantities (see Table 2, above), and the substance has not been shown to impact nutritional quality when used in accordance with GMPs (FASEB 1975). Calcium stearate is considered non-toxic (ACT 1982). To the best of the investigator's knowledge, the chemical, physical, and toxicological properties of calcium stearate have not been thoroughly examined. Stearic acid, the primary metabolite of calcium stearate, has the following toxicological properties: LD50= 21,500µg/kg (IV, rat) LD50= 23 mg/kg (IV, mice) LD50= >5 g/kg (dermal, rabbit) Dermal irritation Mild in humans following 75mg application over three days. Moderate in rabbits at 550mg/24hr. Several short term studies of stearic acid and animal tallow were performed that evaluated their health aspects as food ingredients. Day old chicks fed 5 percent stearic acid for 4 weeks exhibited no deleterious effects (Deichmann et. al 1958). Anorexia, constipation, and listlessness and fever were observed in dogs given a diet of 5 percent stearic acid (Wikoff et. al 1947). Rats kept on a diet of 0.3% stearic acid for 209 days did not develop gross or microscopic pathological lesions (Deichmann et. al 1958). The addition of corn oil to the diet of rats being fed high amounts of stearic acid markedly reduced mortality rates (Price et. al 1960). Stearic acid is considered non-carcinogenic in tests with mice (Van Duuren et. al 1972). In humans, digested fat glycerides are separated in the intestine and free fatty acids are absorbed through the intestinal wall. When labeled stearic acid is fed to rats, labeled carbon is found in the palmitic and oleic acid fractions of stomach bile (White et. al 1973). Tallow appears to be easily absorbed in livestock. Absorption of tallow in animal feed by chicks at eight weeks was the same as adult hens (Renner & Hill 1960). In calves, the digestibility of tallow was 87.6 percent when fed at a level of 5 percent in an all-concentrate diet (Raven 1969). In contrast, the digestibility of stearic acid appears to be NOSB TAP Review Compiled by UC SAREP Calcium Stearate - Processing Page 6 of 11 quite low. Stearic acid fed to adult rats as a mixture of calcium stearate and the free acid was less digestible than when fed the free acid in semi-synthetic rations (Cheng et. al 1949). Low digestibility of stearic acid was initially identified as a concern in the 1950s due to its potential links to cholesterol formation (Keys et. al 1957, 1965). There is some evidence that stearic acid is strongly thrombogenic (i.e., tending to attract clotting) when fed to rats at a rate of three to six percent (Renaud 1969). More recent studies in humans and animals suggest that ingestion of stearic acid has a neutral or cholesterol-lowering effect in contrast to lauric, myristic and palmitic acids (Monsma and Ney 1993). Humans commonly consume stearic acid as a glyceride component of fats in meat and table spreads. Concentrations in food range from 0.02% to 1%. In terms of actual intake, stearic acid supplies approximately 3-4% of the total calories in the U.S. diet (Pearson 1993; Kris-Etherton et. al 1993), with cocoa butter (typically consumed as chocolate) contributing proportionally the most stearic acid of commercially available fats. A survey of the food industry by a National Research Council subcommittee estimated 26,198kg of stearic acid were used by the food industry in 1970 (NAS 1972). Based on the numbers put forth in that report, estimates of intake of stearic acid are 0.35mg per capita daily.

4. Its primary purpose is not as a preservative or used only to recreate/improve flavors, colors, textures, or nutritive value lost during processing except in the latter case as required by law Registered uses of calcium stearate in food products are listed Title 21 CFR and are summarized in Table 1, above. The Petitioner's primary intended use is to minimize airborne dust, which can pose a health hazard for bakery workers. According to the petition, the substance is used "as a flow (anti-dusting) agent to be used in flour enrichments added at flour mills and... in dry flour-based ingredients containing enzymes which may either be added at the flour mill or at the bakery." The Petitioner markets additives that contain vitamins such as niacin and thiamin, which act as vasodilators and can cause adverse side effects if inhaled in sufficient quantities (NOSB Petition). Potential hazards of airborne bakery dust are a proven concern. Musk and Venables (1989) established a link between bakery dust and allergenic respiratory responses. In one study in the UK, flour/grain dust accounted for 8% of work related respiratory illnesses, with bakers ranking third among occupational groups in terms of increased asthma incidence (Meredith et. al 1989). Calcium stearate is also used to reduce airborne dust particles in some mining operations for similar health and safety concerns (EPA 1994). Calcium stearate does not appear to act as a preservative or add significant nutritional value to the products to which it is added (FASEB 1975). However, the substance is added to products that the Petitioner describes as "vitamin enrichments" and "dough improver products". The former may fall under the category of a substance that is used to recreate/improve nutritive value. Thus, the approval of calcium stearate may aid in the marketing of food additives and preservatives as certified organic. 5. It is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by FDA when used in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and contains no residues of heavy metals or other contaminants in excess of FDA tolerances Calcium stearate is considered GRAS as a multiple purpose ingredient with no use limitation other than current GMP (21 CFR 184.1229). It contains no heavy metal residues or other contaminants regulated by the FDA.

6. Its use is compatible with the principles of organic handling. The NOP has no prior position on the use of calcium stearate. The substance is blended into various dry blends, which are then sold to bakeries. This use does not incorporate processing methods "that compromise the integrity and quality of finished products," a principle of organic handling proposed by the NOSB. As stated above, the primary use of the substance is as a flow/anti-dusting agent to be used in flour enrichments added at mills and bakeries to reduce airborne dust. Calcium stearate also has a significant number of additional food uses based on its functionality as an emulsifier, surfactant, stabilizer, and release agent. A cursory internet search yielded extensive references regarding the use of calcium stearate in pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, and processed food packaging. Since a non-annotated approval of calcium stearate to the National List would effectively allow uses beyond the scope of the petitioner's intended use, the compatibility of other processing methods with organic standards remains in question.

7. There is no other way to produce a similar product without its use and it is used in the minimum quantity required to achieve the process. Calcium stearate is commonly used in the US at the level of 0.5% of flour weight (Kamel 1993). According to the Petitioner, their calcium stearate-enriched products "contain no more than 1% calcium stearate by weight. The actual enrichment product is added to the flour at the mill at ¼ ounce per hundredweight." At a maximum, this translates in to additions of 1/100th of 156ppm to the flour (NOSB Petition). There are numerous mono- and diglycerides used in bakery blends that act as crumb softeners/dough strengtheners and surfactants (AIB 1979). Lecithin is noted in this report as conferring similar dough conditioning properties as calcium stearate, and in addition it has current approval on the National List. Like calcium stearate, lecithin is used in baking NOSB TAP Review Compiled by UC SAREP Calcium Stearate - Processing Page 7 of 11 products at approximately 1% dry weight, and is marketed as dough conditioner, release agent, and emulsifier. Despite its functional similarity, its use specifically as an "anti-dusting" agent has not been demonstrated and so its efficacy in this regard is not established. TAP Reviewer Discussion Reviewer 1 [Ph.D., Agricultural & Environmental Chemistry; extension food toxicologist, emphasizing in naturally-occurring food toxins, western US] NOSB Processing Criteria Evaluation
1. It cannot be produced from a natural source and has no organic ingredients as substitutes The "How Made" discussion indicates that calcium stearate is synthesized from a reaction of calcium chloride, sodium stearate, and other salts of mixed fatty acids. All of these precursors for calcium stearate appear to be available from natural sources although their actual origins in the specific synthesis of calcium stearate are unknown. Interestingly, sodium stearate can be obtained from natural sources and may have its own use as a flow agent based upon its structural similarity to calcium stearate. As for other organic ingredients that could be used as substitutes, the UC SAREP review mentions lecithin as a potential substitute. Magnesium stearate has also been listed as a potential flow agent. While these substances may not achieve the specific efficacy as flow agents that calcium stearate could achieve, it is clear that organically-allowed substitutes are available. 2. Its manufacture, use, and disposal do not have adverse effects on the environment and are done in a manner compatible with organic handling as described in section 6513 of the OFPA. Calcium stearate does not appear to pose environmental concerns. 3. The nutritional quality of the food is maintained and the material itself or its breakdown products do not have adverse effects on human health as defined by applicable Federal regulations. I concur that the small amounts of calcium stearate should not have any significant impact upon the nutritional quality of the food in the amounts in which it is considered for use. 4. Its primary purpose is not as a preservative or used only to recreate/improve flavors, colors, textures, or nutritive value lost during processing except in the latter case as required by law. The draft review document lists several additional food additive functionalities of calcium stearate beyond its use as a flow agent, including emulsifier, anticaking agent, flavoring agent, stabilizer, release agent, and thickening agent. The Food Additives Handbook (page 114) also lists properties of binder and release agent for calcium stearate. While it seems clear that its primary use is as a flow agent, its properties as a flavoring agent should at least be considered when making the determination as to its applicability under NOSB criteria. 5. It is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by FDA when used in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and contains no residues of heavy metals or other contaminants in excess of FDA tolerances. Calcium stearate, when used in the proposed manner, is essentially innocuous and therefore presents no toxicological concern. Its manufacturing process should not result in heavy metal residues or other contaminants as it is produced and isolated as a non-water soluble precipitate. 6. Its use is compatible with the principles of organic handling. The use of calcium stearate as a flow agent for baking should not compromise the principles of organic handling. 7. There is no other way to produce a similar product without its use and it is used in the minimum quantity required to achieve the process. As discussed previously, sodium stearate is a naturally-occurring precursor for the synthetic production of calcium stearate and possesses its own flow agent properties. At least two other NOSB-approved substances also have been listed as flow agents. [The Reviewer did not reply directly to questions regarding additional references, substitutes, and alternative manufacturing processes] Recommendations to the NOSB:
a) Calcium stearate should be considered synthetic based upon its method of production.
b) Calcium stearate should be prohibited in processed products labeled "organic" on the basis of its chemical similarity to
magnesium stearate which is prohibited in agricultural products labeled "organic."
c) Calcium stearate should be allowed for use in processed products labeled as "made with organic (specified ingredients
or food group(s))" on the basis of its chemical similarity to magnesium stearate which is allowed in agricultural products
labeled as "made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))."
NOSB TAP Review Compiled by UC SAREP Calcium Stearate - Processing
Page 8 of 11
Reviewer 2 [Ph.D., Physical Chemistry, focus on grain science; specializing in colloids and interfacial chemistry;
relationships between grain composition and functionality; application of this knowledge to manipulation of
grain/flour properties in processing and breeding; Midwestern US]
NOSB Processing Criteria Evaluation
It cannot be produced from a natural source and has no organic ingredients as substitutes
Calcium stearate is a synthetic product and cannot be produced from a natural source. Its formula consists of one calcium atom attached covalently to two stearic acid chains. As far as I know, calcium stearate does not occur naturally although its main ingredient (stearic acid) can be derived from natural sources, animal and vegetable fat. Stearic acid is the main component obtained from natural fats with other fatty acids, principally palmitic acid, present in small amounts. As a result, the product sold as calcium stearate will contain a small amount of palmitic acid chains. Several methods are available for synthesizing calcium stearate. The one used by the supplier of the petition is the most acceptable environmentally. Its manufacture, use, and disposal do not have adverse effects on the environment and are done in a manner compatible with organic handling as described in section 6513 of the OFPA Calcium stearate is manufactured by a dry fusion process and does not involve organic solvents. Based on he evidence, use and disposal do not have any adverse effects on the environment. It is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by FDA. I am not aware of any reason to question this. Its use is compatible with the principles of organic handling. As far as I can surmise, its use is compatible with the principles of organic handling. A product is as "organic" if it contains not less than 95% organically produced product. The intended use of calcium stearate in flour is at an addition of the order of 150 parts per million or 0.015% flour weight. At this concentration, it should be allowed for use in flour without affecting labeling of the flour as "organic". 7. There is no other way to produce a similar product without its use and it is used in the minimum quantity required to achieve the process It is used in a very small amount which possibly is the minimum quantity required to achieve its purpose, although no evidence is provided with respect to this. In regard to similar products with the same effect, the one suggested, lecithin (phosphatidyl choline), is present in wheat flour. The lipid content of wheat flour is usually 1-2% by weight. About one fourth of this occurs within the starch granules and therefore should not exert an effect on flow properties. The non-starch lipid is a complex mixture, including lecithin which has been reported to comprise about 6% of the total lipid (MacMurray and Morrison 1970). Extraction of lipid from flour causes greatly increased dust levels from the flour (personal observation). This suggests that the natural flour lipids reduce dust levels from flours. However, if calcium stearate is effective at the level proposed, it might be that it would have a greater effect in reducing dust levels than that obtained by increasing the amount of one of the natural lipid components of flour. [The Reviewer did not reply directly to questions regarding substitutes and alternative manufacturing processes] Conclusion - Summarize why this material should be allowed or prohibited for use in organic systems. It is well accepted in the industry that dust from wheat flour can present problems, particularly in smaller bakeries, and can cause allergies and asthma. This can be accentuated when certain additives such as enzymes and vitamins are added to the flour. There is thus a justification for introducing a compound to reduce the dust level from flour. Calcium stearate is being proposed for this purpose in the present petition. It is to be used at very low levels. The enrichment product in which it is incorporated contains not more than 1% calcium stearate by weight so that its concentration in flour would equate to 1/100th of 156 ppm. No empirical evidence that calcium stearate is effective in reducing dust from flour is provided and I am not aware of any reported in the literature. The projected use is apparently based on its use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical ingredients unless the NOSB TAP Review Compiled by UC SAREP Calcium Stearate - Processing Page 9 of 11 company has results that are proprietary. It would seem that some simple tests could measure its effectiveness. One would be measurement of the angle of repose, a standard procedure used to evaluate powders in engineering departments but there are methods. The incidence of asthma and allergenic reactions is increasing in the community. Anecdotal evidence suggests that it is also becoming more widespread among bakery workers. Where fortification of flour with ingredients such as enzymes and certain vitamins is made before delivery to or at bakeries, there is justification for introduction of additives that can reduce the level of dust from the flour. Calcium stearate is proposed to achieve this although no experimental supporting evidence for its effectiveness is provided in this petition. The level of addition to flour that is proposed is in the order of 150 ppm or 0.015%. Therefore, at this concentration, it will not affect the product (flour) being labeled as "organic". There is no indication of any negative effects on human health or the environment and there appear to be no reasons for not allowing it as an additive in processed products labeled as "organic" such as wheat flour. NOSB Processing Criteria Evaluation
1. It cannot be produced from a natural source and has no organic ingredients as substitutes The first part of that sentence, "the substance cannot be produced from a natural source" is borne out in the materials provided by the petitioner as well a by a general search about the material. Calcium Stearate is synthesized in a dry fusion process and does not occur in nature. The second part of the sentence, "...and there are no organic substitutes", is less cut and dry. This material appears to be used in everything from mascara to plastics to bread. First of all, we need to examine the stated need by the petitioner: in item number 12 of the petition, they discuss why the is needed in organic production. The need is stated as a flow agent and anti-caking agent to facilitate the use of enzymes and vitamins in baked goods while protecting the workers who make the product. This presumes that organic consumers want baked goods fortified with enzymes and vitamins. To examine this premise, I went to 3 stores in [a West Coast city] (Safeway, United Market, and Whole Foods) and examined the ingredient panels of breads and cookies and crackers. Those products labeled "organic" consistently contained only basic ingredients, wheat flour, oil, salt, some sort of leavening and, in some cases, sweeteners. The "made with organic" category currently allows the use of most processing aids, perhaps that is sufficient. Finally, the conventional baked goods consistently contained lengthy ingredient list showing dough conditioners, etc. This ingredient difference, although not hard science, made the difference between the two categories of food fairly obvious. Further, the issue of substitutes is open to all classes of materials that act as anti-caking and / or flow agents. These include maltodextrin, which is available in an organically certified version, as well as various silicates. This leads to the conclusion that there are organic substitutes for the petitioned material. 2. Its manufacture, use, and disposal do not have adverse effects on the environment and are done in a manner compatible with organic handling as described in section 6513 of the OFPA The manufacturer of the particular brand used by the petitioner refused to fully explain their manufacturing technique. This excludes a conclusion on the above criteria. 3. The nutritional quality of the food is maintained and the material itself or its breakdown products do not have adverse effects on human health as defined by applicable Federal regulations The material reviewed in the petition and provided by the review agent, do not indicate any problems with the use of this material with reference to criteria 3. . Its primary purpose is not as a preservative or used only to recreate/improve flavors, colors, textures, or nutritive value lost during processing except in the latter case as required by law This statement appears to be true. Calcium stearate is consistently referred to as used for mechanical aspects of processing; ubrication, release agents, flow agents, etc. NOSB TAP Review Compiled by UC SAREP Calcium Stearate - Processing Page 10 of 11 5. It is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by FDA when used in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and contains no residues of heavy metals or other contaminants in excess of FDA tolerances. Calcium stearate is listed as a GRAS material. [In Criterion 6, the Reviewer chose to address both the criteria set forth under the Final Rule (§205.600) and under Section 2119 of the OFPA (7 U.S.C. 6518 (m)(1-7). 6. The substance is (a) essential for the handling of organically produced agricultural products (regulatory language) or is it (b) compatible (NOSB language) with organic handling practices. a) "Essentialness", as a criteria, is a matter of interpretation. In "100% organic" or "organic" (95%) labeled products, calcium stearate is not "essential" - baked goods can be manufactured without this processing aid. The petitioner provides bakery ingredients (dough conditioners); in a casual (though focused) visit to 3 stores in [Northern California], all of which carried "organic" baked goods, I observed no currently labeled products that contained enzymes or vitamins, so I will presume that there were no other conditioning agents in the bread - none appeared on the ingredient panels. I examined approximately eight (8) different brands and fifteen (15) different "organic" products. (b) "Compatibility" is a similar interpretive issue. In the most conservative view, no synthetic is "compatible" with organic handling practices. In the more moderate views, it may be. Again, I return to the expectation of the consumer - do they expect "organic" manufacturer's to use synthetic ingredients or processing aids? I don't believe they do. I do not believe this material is "compatible" with organic handling practices. 7. There is no other way to produce a similar product without its use and it is used in the minimum quantity required to achieve the process It is clear that there are both mechanical and material methods to achieve the controls desired by the petitioner. While there may well be a mechanical limitation on the petitioner due to the engineering of their plant, they may be able to adapt some type of cyclone process (or even more efficient dust masks) that allows them to control dust. Additionally, there is a clear need to explore other currently allowed materials to achieve the same end. It is a human tendency to depend on familiar processes. The nature of organic production thrives on creative problem solving. Do you have any additional references to provide? Due to the paucity of published information focusing on calcium stearate, I spoke with two (2) food technologists and one (1) environmental chemist. The chemist works for a company that produces bakery mixes and manufacturers and uses ingredients similar to those produced by the petitioner. All of the people consulted had similar reactions; calcium stearate is ubiquitous and benign in their experience. It has been in use for so long that they are very comfortable with it. There seems to be very little information regarding calcium stearate in food processing. Besides the Petitioner's stated intended use, in what other ways might the substance be used? Are there methods of potential use that are not compatible with the principles of organic handling? Calcium stearate is ubiquitous in processing - for food, cosmetics, and plastics. It has also been used in packaging. It truly does not appear to have adverse effects, however the issue of labeling to the organic consumer is of concern. Not only is it a synthetic but it is also derived from animal by products. This is a separate labeling issue, although one that effects retailers. Conclusion - Summarize why this material should be allowed or prohibited for use in organic systems. My conclusions about calcium stearate include that it is a synthetic material that should remain prohibited in the manufacture of "organic" and "100% organic" products. I would support its use in "made with organic" products provided that its use and its potential animal source are stated on the label.
Recommendations to the NOSB:
b) The substance should be listed as a synthetic on the National List
d) The substance should be prohibited for use in for use in products labeled as "organic" (≥95% organic ingredients).
e) The substance should be allowed for use in products labeled as "made with organic (specified ingredients or food
group(s))" (≥70% organic ingredients), provided that its use and its animal source are stated on the label.
* * *
Biblio
American College of Toxicology, 1982. Final Report of the Safety Assessment of Lithium Stearate, Aluminum Distearate,
Aluminum Stearate, Aluminum Tristearate, Ammonium Stearate, Calcium Stearate, Magnesium Stearate, Potassium
Stearate, sodium Stearate, and Zinc Stearate. J. of Am. College Tox., 1(2):143-177.
Cheng, A.L.S., Morehouse, M.G., Deuel, H.J., 1949. The effect of the level of dietary magnesium on the digestibility of fatty
acids, simple triglycerides and some natural and hydrogenated fats. J Nutr. 37:237-250.
Deichmann, WB, Radomski, JL, MacDonald, WE, Kasscht, RL, Erdmann, RL, 1958. The chronic toxicity of octadecylamine.
Arch. Industr. Health 18:483-487.
Dubois, DK, 1979. Dough Strengtheners and Crumb Softeners: I. Definitions & Classification. Technical Bulletin, v.1, Issue 5,
American Institute of Baking.
Dubois, DK, 1979. Dough Strengtheners and Crumb Softeners: II. Products, Types, & Functions. Technical Bulletin, v.1, Issue 6,
American Institute of Baking.
NOSB TAP Review Compiled by UC SAREP Calcium Stearate - Processing
Page 11 of 11
Dugan 1996. MSDS, www.hummelcroton.com/m_castea.html
Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 2001. 3rd ed., 11:161. Kirk-Othmer.
Environmental Protection Agency, 1994. Extraction and benefication of ores and minerals, v.2, §5.2.1. Office of Solid Waste,
Special Waste Branch. EPA Doc. No. 530-R-94-013.
Environmental Protection Agency, 2001. Office of Pesticide Programs, Inert Pesticide Ingredient List,
[www.epa.gov/opprd001/inerts/lists.html].
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 1975. Select Committee on GRAS Substances. Evaluation of the
health aspects of tallow, hydrogenated tallow, stearic acid, and calcium stearate as food ingredients. FDA Contract 233-
75-2004. Bethesda, MD.
Harrison, 1924. Biochem. J. 1222.
Hawley, G.G., 1977. The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 9th ed: 155. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.
Kamel, BS, 1993. Surfactants in Baking Foods. Technical Bulletin, v.15, Issue 7, American Institute of Baking.
Kebrich; Petrot, US 2650932 (1953 to National Lead).
Keys, A, Anderson, JT, Grande, F, 1957. Prediction of serum-cholesterol responses of man to changes in fats in the diet.
Lancet 1:959-966
Keys, A, Anderson, JT, Grande, F, 1965. Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet. Metabol. 14:776-787.
Kris-Etherton, PM, Mustad, V, Derr, JA, 1993. Effects of dietary stearic acid on plasma lipids and thrombosis. Nutr. Today
28(3):30-38.
MacMurray, T.A., and Morrison, W.R. 1970. Composition of wheat flour lipids. J. Sci. Food Agric. 21:520-528
Merck Index, 2001. p284. Rathway, New Jersey.
Meredith et al 1989.
Musk, AW, Venables, KM, 1989. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sensitization to flour in a British bakery. Br J Ind
Med 46(9): 636-42.
National Academy of Sciences Subcommittee on Review of the GRAS List (Phase II), 1972. A comprehensive survey of industry
on the use of food chemicals generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Committee on Food Protection, DHEW Contract FDA
70-22. Washington, D.C.
National Academy of Sciences Committee on Food Chemicals, 1996. Food Chemicals Codex, 4th ed., p74. National Academy
Press, Washington, D.C.
National Toxicity Program Database, 2002. [http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/].
Osol, A., and Hoover, J.E. (eds.) Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 15th ed., 1258. Mack Publishing Co., Easton,
Pennsylvania, 1975.
Pearson, TA, 1993. Metabolic consequences of stearic acid relative to long-chain fatty acids. Paper presented to conference
on metabolic consequences of stearic acid relative to other long-chain fatty acids. Atlanta, Ga.; 1993, Nov 5-6.
Price, GE, Beutner, RH, 1960. Stearic acid as a poison. Fed. Proc. Fed Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol. 19:388 (abstract).
Raven, A.M., 1969. Nutritional effects of including low levels of tallow and palm-kernel oil in all concentrate and
concentrate/hay diets for young cattle. Rec. Agr. Res. 17:173-179.
Renaud, S., 1969. Thromboic, atherosclerotic, and lipemic effects of dietary fats in the rat. Angiology 20:657-669.
Renner, R., Hill, F.W., 1960. The utilization of corn oil, lard, and tallow by chickens of various ages. Poultry Science 36:71-
75.
Rossoff, I.S., 1974. Handbook of Veterinary Drugs, p72. Springer Publishing Co., New York.
Van Duuren, B.L., Katz, C., Shimkin, M.B., Swern, D., Weider, R., 1972. Replication of low-level carcinogenic activity. Cancer
Res. 32:1037-1046.
Calcium Stearate Uses
Calcium stearate is a waxy white powder found in many surfactants and some lubricants. It is sold commercially in the form of a dried powder, spray, or one-half dispersion in water.

 

Some of the most common Calcium Stearate uses include:

 

Calcium Stearate in food as an additive (known as generic E number "E470")
Flow agent in powders
Hard candy surface conditioner
Waterproofing agent for fabrics
Crayon and pencil lubricant
Common industries of use:

 

Concrete industry: Calcium stearate is also utilized heavily in the concrete industry as an efflorescent agent to control cementitious products used to produce blocks and pavers, in addition to waterproofing.

Paper industry: Used as a lubricant to ensure adequate surface gloss, thereby preventing fold cracks and surface dusting.

Plastics industry: Used as an acid neutralizer, release agent, lubricant, and plastic colorant concentrator.

Pharma Industry: It is used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products as a gelling and antitack agent. In addition, calcium stearate often serves as a tablet mold release agent in these arenas.

Seidler Chemical is one of the leading calcium stearate suppliers. As a top E Number chemical powder distributor, we also provide the chemical in other forms for a wide variety of uses. Get a price quote for Calcium Stearate from Seidler Chemical today!

 


Calcium stearate
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Calcium stearate
Stearic Acid Calcium Salt Structural Formula V.2.svg
Infobox references
Calcium stearate is a carboxylate of calcium, classified as a calcium soap. It is a component of some lubricants, surfactants, as well as many foodstuffs. It is a white waxy powder.[1]

 

 

Production and occurrence
Calcium stearate is produced by heating stearic acid and calcium oxide:

 

 

2 C17H35COOH + CaO → (C17H35COO)2Ca + H2O
It is also the main component of soap scum, a white solid that forms when soap is mixed with hard water. Unlike soaps containing sodium and potassium, calcium stearate is insoluble in water and does not lather well.[2] Commercially it is sold as a 50% dispersion in water or as a spray dried powder. As a food additive it is known by the generic E number E470.

 

 

Applications
Calcium stearate is a waxy material with low solubility in water, unlike traditional sodium and potassium soaps. It is also easy and cheap to produce, and exhibits low toxicity. These attributes are the basis of many of its applications. Related applications exist for the magnesium stearate.[1]

 

 

Calcium stearate is used as a flow agent and surface conditioner in some candies such as Smarties, jawbreakers and Sprees.
It is a waterproofing agent for fabrics.
A lubricant in pencils and crayons.
The concrete industry uses calcium stearate for efflorescence control of cementitious products used in the production of concrete masonry units i.e. paver and block, as well as waterproofing.[3]
In paper production, calcium stearate is used as a lubricant to provide good gloss, preventing dusting and fold cracking in paper and paperboard making.[4]
In plastics, it can act as an acid scavenger or neutralizer at concentrations up to 1000ppm, a lubricant and a release agent. It may be used in plastic colorant concentrates to improve pigment wetting. In rigid PVC, it can accelerate fusion, improve flow, and reduce die swell.
Applications in the personal care and pharmaceutical industry include tablet mold release, anti-tack agent, and gelling agent.
Calcium stearate is a component in some types of defoamers.
Anticaking agent.[5]
Calcium Stearate 3701
Products Description
As It is being manufactured in different granule size It's also proper to be used at plastic and construction practices, Manufactured in form of dust and flakes according to the procedure that is going to be used.

 

 

2.3.6Wikipedia HelpNew Window
Calcium stearate

 

 

from Wikipedia
2.4Synonyms HelpNew Window
2.4.1MeSH Entry Terms HelpNew Window
aluminum monostearate

 

aluminum tristearate

 

ammonium stearate
2.3.4RTECS Number HelpNew Window
WI3000000

 

 

from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
2.3.5UNII HelpNew Window
776XM7047L

 

 

from FDA/SPL Indexing Data
2.3.6Wikipedia HelpNew Window
Calcium stearate

 

 

2.2.5 Calcium Stearate
Calcium stearate has been used by Hoechst since 1955 and by Montell since the late 1960s. The additive acts as a scavenger for residual catalyst components that can potentially corrode conversion equipment; calcium stearate also acts as a lubricant and a release agent [15]. The catalyst used by Celanese today has a higher activity than the one originally used for UHMWPE production. Thus, a larger quantity of UHMWPE can be synthesized with the same amount of catalyst, resulting in a lower residual catalyst concentration [1]. The trace element level of calcium in UHMWPE is directly proportional to the addition of calcium stearate, which is currently certified as food grade (Stein, personal communication, 1997). When calcium stearate is added to any UHMWPE resin, regardless of the manufacturer or catalyst technology used, the polymer particles are surface coated by the calcium stearate.

 

During the 1980s, the influence of calcium stearate on the properties and performance of UHMWPE total joint replacements was considered a controversial issue [16]. In several studies, the presence of trace calcium levels in UHMWPE has been associated with fusion defects and oxidation of UHMWPE [15,17-24]. Using high-resolution synchrotron infra-red spectroscopy, Muratoglu et al. [25] resolved the molecular vibrations associated with calcium stearate in the grain boundary layers of fusion defects in GUR 4150HP; examination of converted GUR 4050 and HIMONT 1900, in contrast, showed no evidence of calcium stearate. In an accelerated aging study by Swarts and colleagues [19], GUR 4150HP exhibited more oxidation than reduced-calcium stearate resins (GUR 4050 and Montell 1900H).

However, the mere presence of calcium stearate does not automatically imply poor consolidation and decreased fracture resistance in UHMWPE. For example, using the J-integral method, Baldini et al. [26] reported that the fracture resistance of GUR 1020 and 1120 were "comparable." Lykins and Evans [27] have suggested that fusion defects may result from inappropriate control of processing variables (e.g., temperature, pressure, time, heating rate) during conversion of resin to stock material. Thus, it remains to be established whether calcium stearate plays a role in the mechanical behavior of well-consolidated UHMWPE except at sufficiently high enough concentrations to interfere with the sintering of the powder.

Thus, research conducted during the 1990s indicated that calcium stearate may be present at the boundaries of fusion defects in UHMWPE, and that fusion defects may in turn deleteriously affect the fatigue and fracture behavior of UHMWPE. However, in the absence of fusion defects, the deleterious effects of trace levels of calcium stearate were not conclusively established. Furthermore, polymerization and processing technology had by the late 1990s evolved to the point that the additive was no longer necessary. Consequently, orthopedic manufacturers began switching to UHMWPE resins without added calcium stearate (e.g., GUR 1020 and 1050). By 2002, demand for the calcium stearate-containing resins (GUR 1120 and 1150) dropped to the point that Celanese discontinued their production.

 

PVC (FPC 616) 100
Stabilizer (TM181) 0.8
Lubricant (Paraffin 165) 0.8
Lubricant (PE AC 629A) 0.15
Lubricant (calcium stearate) 0.6
Filler (Omya UFT) 0.7
Processing aid (K-400) 6
Titanium dioxide 0.5
Blowing agent (Forte-Cell 247 Azo) 0.8
Siding composition. [Data from Lundquist, E G, Cho, J-Y, US Patent US8614268, Dec.24, 2013, Rohm and Haas.]

 

 

Cadmium and zinc chlorides
Figure 4.5 shows data obtained in a similar way as in Figure 4.4 but for zinc stearate. There is substantial difference between the two figures. In the case of calcium stearate experimental data form a linear relationship and their values are slightly lower than the values predicted from the equation. In Figure 4.5 experimental data follow a non-linear relationship and their values are lower than predicted from equation 4.2. There may only be one reason for this difference, namely that products of zinc stearate reaction with HCl have a catalytic influence on PVC dehydrochlorination rate. From the character of the experimental curve we may also conclude that this catalytic activity intensifies when concentration of stabilizer increases.

 

 

26.8.7 Consolidation Defects in Historical UHMWPE
In addition, oxidative degradation related to poor consolidation has been found in both in vivo and shelf-aged prostheses that were either gamma sterilized or EtO sterilized in the presence of calcium stearate [85,86]. When oxidation related to consolidation occurs, the oxidation profile through the cups section is inhomogeneous and the maximum oxidation is observed near the center of the prosthesis. It is worth mentioning that this consolidation-related oxidation mechanism is often accompanied by whitening of the material, visible to the naked eye.

 

The origins of consolidation-related oxidation are not clear yet, but the processing conditions of the UHMWPE bar or sheet, together with the influence of the machining of the prosthetic component, have been proposed as contributing factors. Poor consolidation of the UHMWPE powder during processing, followed by internal stresses induced by machining, have been hypothesized to lead to the formation of free volumes between individual resin powder particles. These intergranular voids are more easily permeated by oxygen, so that facilitated oxidative degradation can take place at the grain boundaries, even if the initiating radical mechanisms are still unclear.

Figure 26.3 shows a collection of FTIR spectra through the thickness of a shelf-aged, EtO sterilized cup in presence of calcium stearate, where bulk oxidation was evident. Gamma irradiation of the UHMWPE was ruled out by examination of the transvinylene region of the FTIR spectra. The absorption at 1718 cm-1 is attributed to ketones. In this case, the oxidation was associated with poor consolidation of the UHMWPE and has nothing to do with the sterilization process. Again, in vivo stresses can have a synergistic effect in enhancing oxidation.

 

2.2.32 OTHER PLASTICIZERS
The above groups contain plasticizers which have several representatives of similar chemical structure. There still are plasticizers in common use or that were invented for specific purposes. These can be grouped as follows: biphenyl derivatives,181,182 calcium stearate,183 carbon dioxide,184 difurans,185,186 fluorine-containing plasticizers,187 hydroxybenzoic acid esters,188 isocyanate adducts,189-195 malonates,196,197 multi-ring aromatic compounds,198-201 natural product derivatives,202-207 neopentylglycol derivatives,208 nitriles,209 siloxane-based,210,211 tar-based products,212 tetracarboxylic acid derivatives,213 thioeters,214 trimethylpropane derivatives,215 and blends.216-219 These less frequently used plasticizers are discussed in the above mentioned order.

 

 

2.2.32.1 Biphenyl derivatives
Alkylation of biphenyl with cyclohexene gives dicyclohexylbiphenyl, which can be used as a secondary plasticizer for PVC.181,182 Synthesis of this plasticizer uses Friedel-Crafts reaction with aluminum chloride employed as a catalyst. The application data shows that weight loss and the retention of mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation, and modulus) are greatly improved with this plasticizer.181 A mixture of di- and tri-alkyl (usually propyl) biphenyls is used as a plasticizer for polystyrene, butadiene rubber, epoxy resin, and polyurethane.182

 

 

2.2.32.2 Calcium stearate
Calcium stearate performs many functions in polymers. These include PVC costabilizer, lubricant of many polymers, release agent, etc. Polyamide-6, polyesters, polyethylene flow substantially better in the presence of calcium carbonate. Their mechanical properties (e.g., impact strength) are also improved, which seems to suggest that calcium stearate plays a role of plasticizer rather than that of lubricant.163

 

 

In another invention,217,218 plasticizers are prepared from a mixture of acids (acrylic, maleic, and fumaric) and alcohols having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. Mono and diesters are obtained during manufacturing process. The composition of stock is controlled to obtain plasticizer which has good electrical insulation properties, water extraction resistance, and fogging resistance.217,218
Calcium Stearate
Typical Product Characteristics
Ash content: 9.2 - 10.2 %
Free fatty acid: Max. 1.0 %
Moisture: Max. 3.0 %
Melting range: 150 - 160 °C
Calcium stearate is recognized as physiologically safe, and is insoluble in most solvents. Compared to waxes, it has a relatively high softening point, and, consequently, do not become greasy at higher temperatures.

 

Calcium stearate is primarily used as an acid scavenger, release agent and lubricant in the plastics industry, for waterproofing in construction, and as an anti-caking additive in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In addition, Baerlocher has developed special thermostable calcium stearate products designed to withstand exceptionally high temperatures.

 


Calcium stearate
Overview Barium stearate Anti-caking agent Wire drawing lubricants Identification test Content analysis Toxicity Limitation of utilization Chemical property Uses Production methods Category Toxicity grading Acute toxicity Flammability hazard characteristics Storage Characteristics Extinguishing agent Occupational standards
Calcium stearate
Calcium stearate structure 
CAS No.1592-23-0
Chemical Name:Calcium stearate
Synonymsg339s;HyQual;aquacal;calstar;flexichem;Deasit PC;stavinor30;witcog339s;flexichemcs;nopcotec104
CBNumber:CB0115597
Molecular Formula:C36H70CaO4
Formula Weight:607.02
MOL File:1592-23-0.mol
Request For Quotation
Properties Safety Price 5 Uses Suppliers 287 Spectrum
Calcium stearate
Calcium stearate Properties
Melting point:147-149°C
Density 1.08g/cm3
storage temp. Store at +5°C to +30°C.
Toxicity LD50 orally in Rabbit: > 10000 mg/kg 
Calcium stearate price More Price(5)
Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1087359 Calcium stearate United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard 1592-23-0 2g $348 2018-11-13 Buy
Alfa Aesar 039423 Calcium stearate 1592-23-0 1kg $41 2018-11-16 Buy
Alfa Aesar 039423 Calcium stearate 1592-23-0 5kg $138 2018-11-16 Buy
Strem Chemicals 93-2045 Calcium stearate, min. 85% 1592-23-0 100g $18 2018-11-13 Buy
Strem Chemicals 93-2045 Calcium stearate, min. 85% 1592-23-0 1kg $35 2018-11-13 Buy
Calcium stearate Chemical Properties,Uses,Production
Overview
Calcium stearate also known as calcium octadecanoic acid. Light white crystalline powder. Chemical formula (C17H35COO) 2Ca. The molecular weight is 607.00. Melting point 179~180 ℃, decomposed by heat. Insoluble in water, cold ethanol and diethyl ether, soluble in hot benzene, toluene, and turpentine, slightly soluble in hot ethanol and diethyl ether. It reacts with strong acid to be decomposed into stearic acid and corresponding calcium salt. Water absorption in the air. Intolerance lipolytic microorganisms. Pyrolysis to generate stearin ketones and hydrocarbons. Non-toxic. Industrial often mixed with the corresponding oleate.As stabilizers and lubricants of polyvinyl chloride; as halogen absorbent of polyethylene and polypropylene; as lubricants of polyolefin fibers and molded products; as lubricant and release agent of phenolic, amino and other thermosetting plastics; as intensifier of lubricating grease; as waterproofing agent of waterproof fabric; etc. Food grade Calcium stearate serves as an anti-caking agent. Dilute soap is made by the reaction of melt stearic acid and sodium hydroxide, reacting with calcium chloride, and Calcium stearate is obtained . 
It can be used as heat stabilizer of polyvinyl chloride, it has excellent lubricity. Thermal stability performance is general, and is less than barium stearate, lead stearate, tin stearate and cadmium stearate. But it is cheap, low toxicity, good processability. Combined with Zinc soap and an epoxy compound, it shows a synergistic effect, improving the thermal stability, and it is commonly used for requirements nontoxic soft products, such as food packaging films, medical instruments, etc. It combines with the base lead salts and lead soaps used for hard products, increasing the gelation speed. Calcium stearate is used for polyethylene and polypropylene, and it can eliminate the adverse effects of residual catalyst on the resin color and stability. This product is also widely used as lubricant and release agent of thermosetting plastics, such as polyolefin, polyester reinforced plastics, phenolic resin, amino resin, etc.
The disadvantage of Calcium stearate is initial color. When heating at above 100 ℃ with longer time, Calcium stearate will make the white PVC become a reddish color. Particularly when titanium dioxide exists in formula, coloring is particularly serious. At this point, if 0.06~0.12% Na2CO3 or 0.09~0.19 NaHCO3 are added, it can overcome this shortcoming. But because these substances are too alkaline, they are not used in practice. In addition, when the amount of this product is large, there is segregation scaling phenomenon.
Barium stearate
Barium stearate, also known as " barium octadecanoic acid ", chemical formula Ba (C18H35O2) 2. The molecular weight is 704.13. White fine powder. Melting point 160 ℃, relative density of 1.15. Insoluble in water, soluble in cold ethanol, soluble in hot ethanol, benzene, toluene, and other non-polar solvents, after heated and dissolved in an organic solvent , and cooled into jelly. Encountered strong acid, Barium stearate can be decomposed into stearic acid and corresponding barium salt. Water absorption in the air.Preparation method: Stearic acid reacts with barium carbonate or barium hydroxide, or sodium stearate solution reacts with dilute barium chloride solution, Barium stearate is obtained . Barium stearate can be used as waterproof products, alkali pump packing, and can also be used as high-temperature lubricants and fillers of machine; heat resistance and light fastness of stabilizers of polyvinyl chloride plastics, high temperature resistant powder mold of rubber products. Barium stearate is toxic, toxicity coefficient T = 2, the typical symptoms of poisoning are vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, increased blood pressure, pulse rate disorders, etc.
Anti-caking agent
Anti-caking agent, also known as caking inhibitor, is used to prevent the particles and powdered food from aggregation and agglomeration, maintaining its loose or free flowing substances. Its particles is tiny, loose porous and strong adsorption. It easily absorbs the water and oil which lead to the formation of agglomerates, making food to maintain a powder or granules state.
There are five species of anti-caking agent which are permitted to be used in China: potassium ferrocyanide, sodium aluminosilicate, tricalcium phosphate, silica and microcrystalline cellulose.
Anti-caking agents are varied, in addition to five kinds which are permitted in China, aluminum, silica, calcium silicate, Calcium stearate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium stearate, magnesium, magnesium phosphate, magnesium silicate, kaolin, talc and ferrocyanide are permitted to be used in Foreign. In addition, they have anti-caking effect, and some also have other effects, for example, calcium silicate and kaolin also has the function of filter aids, and Calcium stearate and magnesium stearate have emulsifying effect. And in addition that ferrocyanide has limited ADI value, security of other varieties are very good, ADI values are no provisions. Based on requirement, proper developments are still needed.
Wire drawing lubricants
During the process of the metal wire drawing, it sever as technological lubrication material. Its role is to form a lubricant film between the drawing metal and wire drawing die wall, reducing friction of interface, and preventing metal from bonding with wall because of heat, so as to reduce energy consumption and temperature when wire drawing, extend the service life of the die, ensure the surface quality of the product and make deformation uniform.
Steel wire drawing lubricants are classified into solid and liquid lubricants.
Solid lubricant is powder lubricant, used for dry wire drawing. Its constitution is a variety of single metal soap or metal soap which is added certain additives. Metal soap is a metal salt of fatty acids. Metallic soap as a lubricant is required to have a higher softening point and transition temperature (coefficient of friction is a sudden rise in temperature), good wear resistance and pressure resistance. Metal soap used as drawing lubricants commonly are sodium soaps and calcium soap. Sodium soda and sodium soaps are sodium stearate C17H35COONa which is chemical combination of caustic soda and saturated fatty acid glycerol C3H5 (C17H35COO), is water-soluble soap and easy to remove, applying to not too high speed and temperature of dry wire drawing. It can also be used to wet wire drawing of filament, or for drawing of steel wire with subsequent plated operations. Calcium soaps are Calcium stearate which are chemical combination of calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide and glyceryl stearate. Others include barium stearate, zinc stearate, aluminum stearate and other metal soaps. Calcium soap can form thick lubricating film with good elongation and lubrication, and therefore often it is the main component of the solid lubricant. Calcium soap is insoluble in water, easily washed clear, not applying to drawing of pre-coated steel wire.
As internal lubricant and non-toxic stabilizers of polyvinyl chloride, and as mold release agents of the foundry industry.
Anti-caking agent; adhesive; emulsifier; lubricants; mold release agents; stabilizers; thickeners; flavoring agents.
As stabilizers and lubricants of polyvinyl chloride, and as non-toxic food packaging, medical devices and other soft film containers. As halogen absorbent of polyethylene and polypropylene, it can eliminate residual catalyst in resin. As lubricant of resin colors and molding products, but also as release agents of phenolic, amino thermosetting plastic and plastics and lubricant of polyester reinforced plastic, as thickening agent of grease, waterproofing agents of textile and flatting agent of paint. Food grade Calcium stearate can serve as an anti-caking agent to prevent powdered or crystalline food from aggregation and agglomeration, keeping free-flowing. But China's GB2760-86 allowing the use of anti-caking agent is currently only potassium ferrocyanide which is used for salt. According to the FAO/WHO regulations, Calcium stearate can be used for coating glucose powder, sucrose powder and stock cube, etc. , the maximum allowable amount is15 g/kg.
As a waterproofing agent, lubricant and plastic additives. It is widely used in food, medicine, cosmetics, plastics and rubber industries, mainly used for lubricants, emulsifiers, stabilizers, release agents, accelerators, cosmetic base materials. In the rigid plastics, it can increase the speed of the condensate. It can also be used for food packaging, medical devices and other non-toxic flexible film, but also has the effect of stabilizing agent and good long-term stability. As stabilizers and lubricants of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride. As halogen absorbent of polyethylene and polypropylene, it can eliminate the adverse effects of residual resin on catalyst resin color and stability. It widely used to improve the heat resistance of plastic in foreign countries, improving weather resistance initial color and breathability. It will replace the toxic stabilizers with same performance.
Production methods
Firstly melted stearic acid reacts with sodium hydroxide solution to form a dilute soap, then reacted with calcium chloride, Calcium stearate crude is obtained, followed by washed, swirling water, drying, finished product is obtained. Kg/ton stearate, 920 sodium hydroxide (100% discount) 140 Calcium chloride (100% discount) 400.
After food grade sodium stearate interacts with calcium chloride solution, follow by filtered and refined.
Category
Toxic substance
Toxicity grading
Low toxicity
Acute toxicity
Oral-rat LD50:> 10000 mg/kg; Oral-mouse LD50:> 10000 mg/kg.
Flammability hazard characteristics
A public dust hazard; acrid smoke is generated by thermal decomposition.
Storage Characteristics
Storehouse keeps low temperature, dry and ventilated.
Extinguishing agent
Water
Occupational standards
TWA 10 mg/m3
Description
Calcium stearate is carboxylate of calcium that is found in some lubricants and surfactants. It is a white waxy powder.
Chemical Properties
white, granular, fatty powder(s); used as a water repellent; flattening agent in paints [HAW93] [MER06]
Chemical Properties
Calcium stearate occurs as a fine, white to yellowish-white, bulky powder having a slight, characteristic odor. It is unctuous and free from grittiness.
Uses
For waterproofing fabrics, cement, stucco, explosives; as a releasing agent for plastic molding powders; as a stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride resins; lubricant; in pencils and wax crayons. Food grade calcium stearate, derived from edible tallow, is used as a conditioning agent in certain food and pharmaceutical products.
Uses
Calcium Stearate is the calcium salt of stearic acid which functions as an anticaking agent, binder, and emulsifier. it is used in garlic salt, dry molasses, vanilla and vanilla-vanillin powder, salad dressing mix, and meat tenderizer. it can be used for mold release in the tableting of pressed candies.
Production Methods
Calcium stearate is prepared by the reaction of calcium chloride with a mixture of the sodium salts of stearic and palmitic acids. The calcium stearate formed is collected and washed with water to remove any sodium chloride.
Application
Calcium stearate is used as a flow agent in powders including some foods (such as Smarties), a surface conditioner in hard candies such as Sprees, a waterproofing agent for fabrics, a lubricant in pencils and crayons.
The concrete industry uses calcium stearate for efflorescence control of cementitious products used in the production of concrete masonry units i.e. paver and block, as well as waterproofing.
In paper production, calcium stearate is used as a lubricant to provide good gloss, preventing dusting and fold cracking in paper and paperboard making.
In plastics, it can act as an acid scavenger or neutralizer at concentrations up to 1000ppm, a lubricant and a release agent. It may be used in plastic colorant concentrates to improve pigment wetting. In rigid PVC, it can accelerate fusion, improve flow, and reduce die swell.
Applications in the personal care and pharmaceutical industry include tablet mold release, anti-tack agent, and gelling agent.
Calcium stearate is a component in some types of defoamers.
Preparation
Calcium stearate is produced by heating stearic acid, a fatty acid, and calcium oxide:
2C17H35COOH + CaO→(C17H35COO)2Ca + H2O

 

 

It is also the main component of soap scum, a white solid that forms when soap is mixed with hard water. Unlike soaps containing sodium and potassium, calcium stearate is insoluble in water and does not lather well . Commercially it is sold as a 50 % dispersion in water or as a spray dried powder. As a food additive it is known by the generic E number E470. .
Definition
Variable proportions of calcium stearate and calcium palmitate.
Definition
An insoluble salt of octadecanoic acid. It is formed as ‘scum' when SOAP, containing the soluble salt sodium octadecanoate, is mixed with hard water containing calcium ions.
Hazard
A nuisance dust.
Pharmaceutical Applications
Calcium stearate is primarily used in pharmaceutical formulations as a lubricant in tablet and capsule manufacture at concentrations up to 1.0% w/w. Although it has good antiadherent and lubricant properties, calcium stearate has poor glidant properties.
Calcium stearate is also employed as an emulsifier, stabilizing agent, and suspending agent, and is also used in cosmetics and food products.
Safety Profile
A nuisance dust. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
Safety
Calcium stearate is used in oral pharmaceutical formulations and is generally regarded as a relatively nontoxic and nonirritant material.
storage
Calcium stearate is stable and should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.
Regulatory Status
GRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral capsules and tablets). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
Calcium stearate Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
Glycerol tristearate Calcium chloride solution 36-40%, (1box=27kgs) Calcium oxide Calcium chloride Stearic acid Sodium stearate EMULSIFIER Sodium hydroxide Fatty acids, C8-10, triesters with trimethylolpropane PALM OIL Calcium hydroxide
Preparation Products
Calcium stearate Suppliers
Global( 287)Suppliers 
View Lastest Price from Calcium stearate manufacturers
Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer 
2018-12-14 Calcium stearate
1592-23-0 US $1.00 / kg 1kg As customer's need CARA25 career henan chemical co
2018-05-24 Calcium stearate
1592-23-0 US $200.00 / KG 25KG 99.99% 50tons/month China Chemical Lab
Calcium stearate Spectrum
Calcium stearate(1592-23-0)IR2Calcium stearate(1592-23-0)IR1
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