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C 12 14 ALCOHOL 7 EO

C 12 14 ALCOHOL 7 EO

Synonym:c 12 14 alcohol 7 eo; c1214 alcohol 7eo; c 12-14 alcohol 7 eo; C 12-14 alkol 7 eo; 7 eo c 12 14 alcohol; alcohol c 12 14 7 eo; alkol c 12 14 7eo; c12-14 alkol 7eo; c 14-12 alcohol 7 eo; c 12/14 alcohol 7 eo; C 12/14 alcohol 7 EO; C 12-14 alkol 7eo; c 12 14 alcohol 7 eo; c1214 alcohol 7eo; c 12-14 alcohol 7 eo; C 12-14 alkol 7 eo; 7 eo c 12 14 alcohol; alcohol c 12 14 7 eo; alkol c1214 7eo; c12-14 alkol 7 eo; c 14_12 alcohol 7 eo; c12/14alcohol7eo; C 12/14 alkohol 7 EO; C 12-14 alkol 7eo; c 12 14 alcohol 7 eo; c1214 alcohol 7eo; c 12-14 alcohol 7 eo; C 12-14 alkol 7 eo; 7 eo c 12 14 alcool; alcohol c 12 14 7 eo; alkol c 12 14 7Eo; c12-14 Alkol 7eo; c 14-12 alcohol 7 eo; c 12/14 alcohol 7 eo; C 12/14 alcohol 7 EO; C 12-14 alkol 7eo; c 12 14 alcohol 7 eo; c1214 alcohol 7eo; c 12-14 alcohol 7 eo; C 12-14 alkol 7 eo; 7 eo c 12 14 alcohol; alcohol c 12 14 7 eo; alkol c 12 14 7eo; c12-14 alkol 7eo; c 14-12 alcohol 7 eo; c 12/14 alcohol 7 eo; C 12/14 alcohol 7 EO; C 12-14 alkol 7eo; c 12 14 alcohol 7 eo; c1214 alcohol 7eo; c 12-14 alcohol 7 eo; C 12-14 alkol 7 eo; 7 eo c 12 14 alcohol; alcohol c 12 14 7 eo; alkol c 12 14 7eo; c12-14 alkol 7eo; c 14-12 alcohol 7 eo; c 12/14 alcohol 7 eo; C 12/14 alcohol 7 EO; C 12-14 alkol 7eo; Alcohols, C12‐14(even numbered), ethoxylated ; Lauryl Alcohol Ethoxylate; Sodium Laureth Sulfate;Alcohols; C12-14; ethoxylated; FATTYALCOHOL(C12-C14)POLYGLYCOL(3OEO)ETHER; POLYALKOXYLATEDALIPHATICALCOHOL; Alcohol-(C12-C14), ethoxylated; Ethoxylated alcohols (C12-14); C12-14 Fatty alcohols ethoxylated;

CAS Number 68439‐50‐9

 

C12‐14 AE7 is a non‐ionic surfactant, belonging to the group of alcohol ethoxylates, with 7 moles of ethylene oxide. The alcohol ethoxylates with seven ethylene oxide units are produced by the reaction of C12‐C14 fatty alcohols (oleo) with ethylene oxide. The addition of ethylene oxide to C12‐14 fatty alcohols leads to a distribution of homologue polyethylene glycol ether groups. 
The ethoxylation reaction can be catalyzed by alkaline catalysts as e.g. potassium hydroxide or by acidic catalysts as e.g. boron trifluoride or zinc chloride. For detergent range alcohol ethoxylates, the alkaline catalysis is normally used.
The intermediate ethylene oxide is industrially produced by direct oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst (Further details of the ethylene oxide production are explained in the Eco Profile fact sheet of the precursor ethylene oxide.

 

 

Application
Personal Care: Foaming Agent in Shampoos and Bath Gels.
Detergents: Wetting Agent in Detergents, Laundry Pre‐spotters and Hard Surface Cleaners
Surfactants and Esters: Surfactant Intermediate, Sulfonated to Make SLES (Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate). Used both in household and industrial products. 
Textiles: Wetting Agent in Textile and Leather Processing.

 

 

These Environmental Fact Sheets are a product of the ERASM Surfactant Life Cycle & Ecofootprinting (SLE) project. The
objective of this project was to establish or update the current environmental profile of 15 surfactants and 17 precursors, taking
into consideration actual surfactant production technology and consistent high quality background data. 
The Eco‐profiles are based upon life cycle assessment (LCA) and have been prepared in accordance with the ISO standard [ISO
14040: 2006 and ISO 14044: 2006]. In addition, the project follows the ILCD (2010) handbook. This Fact Sheet describes the
cradle‐to‐gate production for C12‐14 AE7. C12‐14 AE7 is a petrochemical surfactant.
The ERASM SLE project recommends to use the data provided in a full ‘cradle‐to‐grave' life cycle context of the surfactant in a
real application. 
Further information on the ERASM SLE project and the source of these datasets can be found in

 

 

Based on the LCI data an environmental impact assessment was performed for the indicators Primary Energy Demand (PED) and
Global Warming Potential (GWP). Other impacts may be calculated from the full LCI dataset.
Primary Energy Demand (PED): An analysis of the inventory data showed that the main contribution comes from the main raw
materials C12‐14 fatty alcohol and ethylene oxide (together about 90% contributions). Electricity and thermal energy
generation each cause 3‐5% of the PED. Direct process emissions, other chemicals, utilities, process waste treatment, and
transport do not have relevant influence (each smaller 0.5%). The alcohol ethoxylates based on fatty alcohols from natural
sources have a lower primary energy demand compared to those based on petrochemical feedstock.
Global Warming Potential (GWP): An analysis of the inventory data showed that the main contribution comes from the main
raw materials C12‐14 fatty alcohol and ethylene oxide (together about 90% contributions). Electricity and thermal energy
generation each cause 3‐5% of the GWP. Direct process emissions, other chemicals, utilities, process waste treatment, and
transport do not have relevant influence (each smaller 0.5%).
The high value for carbon uptake of the C12‐C14 alcohol ethoxylate is due to the main precursor C12‐C14 fatty alcohol based on
palm kernel oil and coconut oil.
As EO has a lower GWP than the alcohol, a higher share of EO in C12‐14 AE7 results in a lower GWP than for C12‐14 AE3.
The alcohol ethoxylates based on fatty alcohols from natural sources have a lower global warming potential compared to those
based on petrochemical feedstock.

 

 

Application
Laundry powders
Laundry tablets
Laundry liquids
Pretreatmen agents
All purpose cleaners
Bathroom cleaners
Sanitary cleaners
Dishwashing liquids
Janitorial products
Vehicle cleaners
Shampoos
Shower gels
Cosmetic cleaning emulsions
Auxiliaries for texlile production and leather processing
Emulsions for technical processes

 

Sodium lauryl ether sulfate based on fatty alcohol ethoxylate C12-14 with 7 moles of EO

 

appearance at 20°C clear yellowish liquid
density at 20°C, g/cm3, c. 1.05
solids, % wt. 27 ± 1
sodium sulfate, % wt., max. 0.8
pH, 10% aqueous solution 7.0 - 8.5

 

 

Alcohol consumption by adult women is consistently associated with risk of breast cancer. Several questions regarding alcohol and breast cancer need to be addressed. Menarche to first pregnancy represents a window of time when breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens. Youth alcohol consumption is common in the USA, largely in the form of binge drinking and heavy drinking. Whether alcohol intake acts early in the process of breast tumorigenesis is unclear. This review aims to focus on the influences of timing and patterns of alcohol consumption and the effect of alcohol on intermediate risk markers. We also review possible mechanisms underlying the alcohol-breast cancer association.
Alcohol is considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer to be causally related to breast cancer risk [1], with a 7-10% increase in risk for each 10 g (~1 drink) alcohol consumed daily by adult women [2-4]. This association is observed in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Compared with other organs, breast appears to be more susceptible to carcinogenic effects of alcohol. The risk of breast cancer is significantly increased by 4-15% for light alcohol consumption (≤1 drink/day or ≤12.5 g/day) [2,5,6] which does not significantly increase cancer risk in other organs of women [7]. This raises a clinical and public health concern because nearly half of women of child-bearing age drink alcohol and 15% of drinkers at this age have four or more drinks at a time [8]. Approximately 4-10% of breast cancers in the USA are attributable to alcohol consumption [2,5,6], accounting for 9000-23,000 new invasive breast cancer cases each year. Therefore, better understanding of how alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk is crucial for developing breast cancer prevention strategies. As previous meta-analyses and systemic reviews comprehensively summarized the association between adult alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk [3,5,9,10], here we reviewed the recent epidemiologic evidence, with special emphasis on timing and patterns of alcohol consumption and the effect of alcohol on intermediate markers. In addition, we discussed up-to-date mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the association and provide guidance for clinicians on preventive messages.

 

Ethoxylation is a chemical reaction in which ethylene oxide adds to a substrate. It is the most widely practiced alkoxylation, which involves the addition of epoxides to substrates.

In the usual application, alcohols and phenols are converted into R(OC2H4)nOH where n ranges from 1 to 10. Such compounds are called alcohol ethoxylates. Alcohol ethoxlates are often converted to related species called ethoxysulfates. Alcohol ethoxylates and ethoxysulfates are surfactants, used widely in cosmetic and other commercial products.[1] The process is of great industrial significance with more than 2,000,000 metric tons of various ethoxylates produced worldwide in 1994.

 

Production
The process was developed at the Ludwigshafen laboratories of I.G. Farben by Conrad Schöller and Max Wittwer during the 1930s.[3][4]

 

 

Alcohol ethoxylates
Industrial ethoxylation is primarily performed upon fatty alcohols in order to generate fatty alcohol ethoxylates (FAE's), which are a common form of nonionic surfactant (e.g. octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether. Such alcohols may be obtained by the hydrogenation of fatty acids from seed oils,[5] or via hydroformylation in the Shell higher olefin process.[6] The reaction proceeds by blowing ethylene oxide through the alcohol at 180 °C and under 1-2 bar of pressure, with potassium hydroxide (KOH) serving as a catalyst.[7] The process is highly exothermic (ΔH -92000 J/mol of ethylene oxide reacted) and requires careful control to avoid a potentially disastrous thermal runaway.[7]

 

 

ROH + n C2H4O → R(OC2H4)nOH
The starting materials are usually primary alcohols as they react ~10-30x faster than do secondary alcohols.[8] Typically 5-10 units of ethylene oxide are added to each alcohol,[6] however ethoxylated alcohols can be more prone to ethoxylation than the starting alcohol, making the reaction difficult to control and leading to the formation of a product with varying repeat unit length (the value of n in the equation above). Better control can be afforded by the use of more sophisticated catalysts,[9] which can be used to generate narrow-range ethoxylates. Ethoxylated alcohols are considered to be a high production volume (HPV) chemical by the US EPA.[10]

 

 

Ethoxylation/propoxylation
Ethoxylation is sometimes combined with propoxylation, the analogous reaction using propylene oxide as the monomer. Both reactions are normally performed in the same reactor and may be run simultaneously to give a random polymer, or in alternation to obtain block copolymers such as poloxamers.[7] Propylene oxide is more hydrophobic than ethylene oxide and its inclusion at low levels can significantly affect the properties of the surfactant. In particular ethoxylated fatty alcohols which have been 'capped' with ~1 propylene oxide unit are extensively marketed as low-foaming surfactants.

 

 

Ethoxysulfates
Ethoxylated fatty alcohols are often converted to the corresponding organosulfates, which can be easily deprotonated to give anionic surfactants such as sodium laureth sulfate. Being salts, ethoxysulfates exhibit good water solubility (high HLB value). The conversion is achieved by treating ethoxylated alcohols with sulfur trioxide.[11] Laboratory scale synthesis may be performed using chlorosulfuric acid:

 

 

R(OC2H4)nOH + SO3 → R(OC2H4)nOSO3H
R(OC2H4)nOH + HSO3Cl → R(OC2H4)nOSO3H + HCl
The resulting sulfate esters are neutralized to give the salt:

 

 

R(OC2H4)nOSO3H + NaOH → R(OC2H4)nOSO3Na + H2O
Small volumes are neutralized with alkanolamines such as triethanolamine (TEA).[12][page needed] In 2006, 382,500 metric tons of alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES) were consumed in North America.[13](subscription required)[page needed][better source needed]

 

 

Other materials
Although alcohols are by far the major substrate for ethoxylation, many nucleophiles are reactive toward ethylene oxide. Primary amines will react to give di-chain materials such as polyethoxylated tallow amine. The reaction of ammonia produces important bulk chemicals such as ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and triethanolamine.

 

 

Applications of ethoxylated products
Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) and alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES) are surfactants found in products such as laundry detergents, surface cleaners, cosmetics, agricultural products, textiles, and paint.[14][non-primary source needed]

 

 

Alcohol ethoxylates
As alcohol ethoxylate based surfactants are non-ionic they typically require longer ethoxylate chains than their sulfonated analogues in order to be water-soluble.[15] Examples synthesized on an industrial scale include octyl phenol ethoxylate, polysorbate 80 and poloxamers. Ethoxylation is commonly practiced, albeit on a much smaller scale, in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries to increase water solubility and, in the case of pharmaceuticals, circulatory half-life of non-polar organic compounds. In this application, ethoxylation is known as "PEGylation" (polyethylene oxide is synonymous with polyethylene glycol, abbreviated as PEG). Carbon chain length is 8-18 while the ethoxylated chain is usually 3 to 12 ethylene oxides long in home products.[16][page needed] They feature both lipophilic tails, indicated by the alkyl group abbreviation, R, and relatively polar headgroups, represented by the formula (OC2H4)nOH.

 

 

Alcohol ethoxysulfates
AES found in consumer products generally are linear alcohols, which could be mixtures of entirely linear alkyl chains or of both linear and mono-branched alkyl chains.[17][page needed] A high-volume example of these is sodium laureth sulfate a foaming agent in shampoos and toothpastes, as well as industrial detergents.

 

 

Alcohol ethoxylates (AEs)
Human health
Alcohol ethoxylates are not observed to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, or skin sensitizers, nor cause reproductive or developmental effects.[18] One byproduct of ethoxylation is 1,4-dioxane, a possible human carcinogen.[19] Undiluted AEs can cause dermal or eye irritation. In aqueous solution, the level of irritation is dependent on the concentration. AEs are considered to have low to moderate toxicity for acute oral exposure, low acute dermal toxicity, and have mild irritation potential for skin and eyes at concentrations found in consumer products.[16]

 

 

Aquatic and environmental aspects
AEs are usually released down the drain, where they may be adsorbed into solids and biodegrade through anaerobic processes, with ~28-58% degraded in the sewer.[20][non-primary source needed] The remaining AEs are treated at waste water treatment plants and biodegraded via aerobic processes with less than 0.8% of AEs released in effluent.[20] If released into surface waters, sediment or soil, AEs will degrade through aerobic and anaerobic processes or be taken up by plants and animals.

 

Toxicity to certain invertebrates has a range of EC50 values for linear AE from 0.1 mg/l to greater than 100 mg/l. For branched alcohol exthoxylates, toxicity ranges from 0.5 mg/l to 50 mg/l.[16] The EC50 toxicity for algae from linear and branched AEs was 0.05 mg/l to 50 mg/l. Acute toxicity to fish ranges from LC50 values for linear AE of 0.4 mg/l to 100 mg/l, and branched is 0.25 mg/l to 40 mg/l. For invertebrates, algae and fish the essentially linear and branched AEs are considered to not have greater toxicity than Linear AE.[16]

 

Alcohol ethoxysulfates (AESs)
Biodegradation
The degradation of AES proceeds by ω- or β-oxidation of the alkyl chain, enzymatic hydrolysis of the sulfate ester, and by cleavage of an ether bond in the AES producing alcohol or alcohol ethoxylate and an ethylene glycol sulfate. Studies of aerobic processes also found AES to be readily biodegradable.[12] The half-life of both AE and AES in surface water is estimated to be less than 12 hours.[21][non-primary source needed] The removal of AES due to degradation via anaerobic processes is estimated to be between 75 and 87%.

 

 

Aquatic
Flow-through laboratory tests in a terminal pool of AES with mollusks found the NOEC of a snail, Goniobasis and the Asian clam, Corbicula to be greater than 730 ug/L. Corbicula growth was measured to be affected at a concentration of 75 ug/L.[22][non-primary source needed] The mayfly, genus Tricorythodes has a normalized density NOEC value of 190 ug/L.[23][non-primary source needed]

 

 

Human Safety
AES has not been found to be genotoxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic.

 

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