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SODIUM HYDROXIDE (SODYUM HİDROKSİT (BONCUK))

Synonyms;

sodium hidroksit; sodyum hidroksit; sodyum hydroxıde; sodium hidrooksit; SODIUM HYDROKSIT; SODYUM HİDROKSIT; sodium hydroksit; sodıum diosit; sodıum hidroksit boncut; payet; sodıum hidroksit payet; SODYUM HİDROKSİT; sodium hydroxide payet; sodium hydroxide boncuk; kostik soda; sodıum hydroksit ağır; sodıum hydroksit hafif; sodium hydroxide heavy; sodıum hidroksit; caustic soda; boncuk kostik; sud kostik; Sodyum hidroksit (Boncuk); Lye; sodium hydrate; white caustic; caustic soda; soda lye; soda ash; ascarite; Sodium Hydroxide - Sodyum Hidroksit (Boncuk Kostik) - PEARL; boncuk kostık; boncu kostik soda; boncuk sodyum hidroksit; boncuk; hidroksit sodyum; sodyum hidroksit boncuk; sodyum peroksit; Caustic soda lye; lye; LYE; CAUSTIC SODA; Sodium hydroxide pellets; BETZ 0234; IODINE SOLUTION; POTASSIUM IODIDE; causticsoda,solid(dot); causticsoda,solution; Sodium hydroxide(1310-73-2); sodium hidroksit; sodyum hidroksit; sodyum hydroxıde; sodium hidrooksit; SODIUM HYDROKSIT; SODYUM HİDROKSIT; sodium hydroksit; sodıum diosit; sodıum hidroksit boncut; payet; sodıum hidroksit payet; SODYUM HİDROKSİT; sodium hydroxide payet; sodium hydroxide boncuk; kostik soda; sodıum hydroksit ağır; sodıum hydroksit hafif; sodium hydroxide heavy; sodıum hidroksit; caustic soda; boncuk kostik; sud kostik; Sodyum hidroksit (Boncuk); Lye; sodium hydrate; white caustic; caustic soda; soda lye; soda ash; ascarite; Sodium Hydroxide - Sodyum Hidroksit (Boncuk Kostik) - PEARL; boncuk kostık; boncu kostik soda; boncuk sodyum hidroksit; boncuk; hidroksit sodyum; sodyum hidroksit boncuk; sodyum peroksit; Caustic soda lye; lye; LYE; CAUSTIC SODA; Sodium hydroxide pellets; BETZ 0234; IODINE SOLUTION; POTASSIUM IODIDE; causticsoda,solid(dot); causticsoda,solution; Sodium hydroxide(1310-73-2); sodium hidroksit; sodyum hidroksit; sodyum hydroxıde; sodium hidrooksit; lye; acidity regulator; caustic soda; soda lye; E524; lye; acidity regulator; caustic soda; soda lye, E524; sodyum florit; sodyum karbonat; sodyum sülfat; caustic soda; sodium hidroksit; sodyum hidroksit; sodyum hydroxıde; sodium hidrooksit; SODIUM HYDROKSIT; SODYUM HİDROKSIT; sodium hydroksit; sodıum diosit; sodıum hidroksit boncut; payet; sodıum hidroksit payet; SODYUM HİDROKSİT; sodium hydroxide payet; sodium hydroxide boncuk; kostik soda; sodıum hydroksit ağır; sodıum hydroksit hafif; sodium hydroxide heavy; sodıum hidroksit; caustic soda; boncuk kostik; sud kostik; Sodyum hidroksit (Boncuk); Lye; sodium hydrate; white caustic; caustic soda; soda lye; soda ash; ascarite; Sodium Hydroxide - Sodyum Hidroksit (Boncuk Kostik) - PEARL; boncuk kostık; boncu kostik soda; boncuk sodyum hidroksit; boncuk; hidroksit sodyum; sodyum hidroksit boncuk; sodyum peroksit; Caustic soda lye; lye; LYE; CAUSTIC SODA; Sodium hydroxide pellets; BETZ 0234; IODINE SOLUTION; POTASSIUM IODIDE; causticsoda,solid(dot); causticsoda,solution; Sodium hydroxide(1310-73-2); sodium hidroksit; sodyum hidroksit; sodyum hydroxıde; sodium hidrooksit; SODIUM HYDROKSIT; SODYUM HİDROKSIT; sodium hydroksit; sodıum diosit; sodıum hidroksit boncut; payet; sodıum hidroksit payet; SODYUM HİDROKSİT; sodium hydroxide payet; sodium hydroxide boncuk; kostik soda; sodıum hydroksit ağır; sodıum hydroksit hafif; sodium hydroxide heavy; sodıum hidroksit; caustic soda; boncuk kostik; sud kostik; Sodyum hidroksit (Boncuk); Lye; sodium hydrate; white caustic; caustic soda; soda lye; soda ash; ascarite; Sodium Hydroxide - Sodyum Hidroksit (Boncuk Kostik) - PEARL; boncuk kostık; boncu kostik soda; boncuk sodyum hidroksit; boncuk; hidroksit sodyum; sodyum hidroksit boncuk; sodyum peroksit; Caustic soda lye; lye; LYE; CAUSTIC SODA; Sodium hydroxide pellets; BETZ 0234; IODINE SOLUTION; POTASSIUM IODIDE; causticsoda,solid(dot); causticsoda,solution; Sodium hydroxide(1310-73-2); sodium hidroksit; sodyum hidroksit; sodyum hydroxıde; sodium hidrooksit; lye; acidity regulator; caustic soda; soda lye; E524; lye; acidity regulator; caustic soda; soda lye, E524; sodyum florit; sodyum karbonat; sodyum sülfat; caustic soda; sodium hidroksit; sodyum hidroksit; sodyum hydroxıde; sodium hidrooksit; SODIUM HYDROKSIT; SODYUM HİDROKSIT; sodium hydroksit; sodıum diosit; sodıum hidroksit boncut; payet; sodıum hidroksit payet; SODYUM HİDROKSİT; sodium hydroxide payet; sodium hydroxide boncuk; kostik soda; sodıum hydroksit ağır; sodıum hydroksit hafif; sodium hydroxide heavy; sodıum hidroksit; caustic soda; boncuk kostik; sud kostik; Sodyum hidroksit (Boncuk); Lye; sodium hydrate; white caustic; caustic soda; soda lye; soda ash; ascarite; Sodium Hydroxide - Sodyum Hidroksit (Boncuk Kostik) - PEARL; boncuk kostık; boncu kostik soda; boncuk sodyum hidroksit; boncuk; hidroksit sodyum; sodyum hidroksit boncuk; sodyum peroksit; Caustic soda lye; lye; LYE; CAUSTIC SODA; Sodium hydroxide pellets; BETZ 0234; IODINE SOLUTION; POTASSIUM IODIDE; causticsoda,solid(dot); causticsoda,solution; Sodium hydroxide(1310-73-2); sodium hidroksit; sodyum hidroksit; sodyum hydroxıde; sodium hidrooksit; SODIUM HYDROKSIT; SODYUM HİDROKSIT; sodium hydroksit; sodıum diosit; sodıum hidroksit boncut; payet; sodıum hidroksit payet; SODYUM HİDROKSİT; sodium hydroxide payet; sodium hydroxide boncuk; kostik soda; sodıum hydroksit ağır; sodıum hydroksit hafif; sodium hydroxide heavy; sodıum hidroksit; caustic soda; boncuk kostik; sud kostik; Sodyum hidroksit (Boncuk); Lye; sodium hydrate; white caustic; caustic soda; soda lye; soda ash; ascarite; Sodium Hydroxide - Sodyum Hidroksit (Boncuk Kostik) - PEARL; boncuk kostık; boncu kostik soda; boncuk sodyum hidroksit; boncuk; hidroksit sodyum; sodyum hidroksit boncuk; sodyum peroksit; Caustic soda lye; lye; LYE; CAUSTIC SODA; Sodium hydroxide pellets; BETZ 0234; IODINE SOLUTION; POTASSIUM IODIDE; causticsoda,solid(dot); causticsoda,solution; Sodium hydroxide(1310-73-2); sodium hidroksit; sodyum hidroksit; sodyum hydroxıde; sodium hidrooksit; lye; acidity regulator; caustic soda; soda lye; E524; lye; acidity regulator; caustic soda; soda lye, E524; sodyum florit; sodyum karbonat; sodyum sülfat; caustic soda; sodium hidroksit; sodyum hidroksit; sodyum hydroxıde; sodium hidrooksit; SODIUM HYDROKSIT; SODYUM HİDROKSIT; sodium hydroksit; sodıum diosit; sodıum hidroksit boncut; payet; sodıum hidroksit payet; SODYUM HİDROKSİT; sodium hydroxide payet; sodium hydroxide boncuk; kostik soda; sodıum hydroksit ağır; sodıum hydroksit hafif; sodium hydroxide heavy; sodıum hidroksit; caustic soda; boncuk kostik; sud kostik; Sodyum hidroksit (Boncuk); Lye; sodium hydrate; white caustic; caustic soda; soda lye; soda ash; ascarite; Sodium Hydroxide - Sodyum Hidroksit (Boncuk Kostik) - PEARL; boncuk kostık; boncu kostik soda; boncuk sodyum hidroksit; boncuk; hidroksit sodyum; sodyum hidroksit boncuk; sodyum peroksit; Caustic soda lye; lye; LYE; CAUSTIC SODA; Sodium hydroxide pellets; BETZ 0234; IODINE SOLUTION; POTASSIUM IODIDE; causticsoda,solid(dot); causticsoda,solution; Sodium hydroxide(1310-73-2); sodium hidroksit; sodyum hidroksit; sodyum hydroxıde; sodium hidrooksit; SODIUM HYDROKSIT; SODYUM HİDROKSIT; sodium hydroksit; sodıum diosit; sodıum hidroksit boncut; payet; sodıum hidroksit payet; SODYUM HİDROKSİT; sodium hydroxide payet; sodium hydroxide boncuk; kostik soda; sodıum hydroksit ağır; sodıum hydroksit hafif; sodium hydroxide heavy; sodıum hidroksit; caustic soda; boncuk kostik; sud kostik; Sodyum hidroksit (Boncuk); Lye; sodium hydrate; white caustic; caustic soda; soda lye; soda ash; ascarite; Sodium Hydroxide - Sodyum Hidroksit (Boncuk Kostik) - PEARL; boncuk kostık; boncu kostik soda; boncuk sodyum hidroksit; boncuk; hidroksit sodyum; sodyum hidroksit boncuk; sodyum peroksit; Caustic soda lye; lye; LYE; CAUSTIC SODA; Sodium hydroxide pellets; BETZ 0234; IODINE SOLUTION; POTASSIUM IODIDE; causticsoda,solid(dot); causticsoda,solution; Sodium hydroxide(1310-73-2); sodium hidroksit; sodyum hidroksit; sodyum hydroxıde; sodium hidrooksit; lye; acidity regulator; caustic soda; soda lye; E524; lye; acidity regulator; caustic soda; soda lye, E524; sodyum florit; sodyum karbonat; sodyum sülfat; caustic soda; BONCUK KOSTİK;


Kimyasal adı
Sodyum hidroksit, Kostik
Kimyasal formül
NaOH
Molekül ağırlığı
39.9971 g/mol
CAS numarası
[1310-73-2]
Yoğunluk
2.1 g/cm³
Erime noktası
318 °C (591 K)
Kaynama noktası
1.390 °C (1.663 K)

Sodyum hidroksit, beyaz renkte nem çekici bir maddedir. NaOH formülüyle gösterilir. Suda kolaylıkla çözünür ve yumuşak kaygan ve sabun hissi veren bir çözelti oluşturur. İnsan dokusuna kaşındırıcı bir etkisi vardır. Sodyum hidroksit (kostik soda veya sud kostik te denir), lâboratuvarda CO2 gibi asidik gazları yakalamak için kullanılır. Endüstride birçok kimyasal maddenin yapımında, yapay ipek, sabun, kâğıt, boya, deterjan endüstrisinde ve petrol rafinelerinde kullanılır. Ayrıca serigrafide pozitif20 ile beraber kullanılır. Bir bazdır. Su ile tepkimeye girdiğinde yaklaşık 5 dakika içinde sıcaklığı 50 Santigrat dereceye çıkar ve yaklaşık 15 dakika sıcak kalır. Özellikle inşaat laboratuvarlarında organik madde tayini için kullanılmaktadır. Suyun içerisine % 3 oranınında NaOH eklenerek iyice çalkalanır ve bir eprüvetin içerisine 100 çizgisine kadar agrega konulur. Bunun üzerine 160'a gelene kadar çözeltiden eklenir ve çalkalanarak 24 saat suda bekletilir. Bu beklemenin sonunda agreganın rengindeki değişiklik bize agrega içindeki organik madde miktarı hakkında bilgi vermektedir. Sodyum Hidroksit, Sodyum Hidroksit kimya birçok endüstride kullanılan önemli temel bir birleşiktir. Sodyum Hidroksit'in diğer adı kostik tir. Beyaz renkte olup nem çekici özelliği olan bir maddedir. Suda kolaylıkla çözülmektedir. Yumuşak, kaygan ve sabun hissi veren bir yapıdadır. Sıvı ve katı halde bulunmaktadır. Herhangi bir kokusu da yoktur. Katı olanı payet, boncuk gibi şekillerde olurken sıvı olanı, sulu çözelti şeklinde bulunmaktadır. Sodyum Hidroksit 1807 yılında İngiltere de Humphrey Day tarafından keşfedilmiş olup, keşfin nasıl gerçekleştiği tam olarak bilinmemektedir. Sodyum Hidroksit kendiliğinde doğal bir şekilde meydana gelmez, fakat üretimi çok kolaydır. Basit sofra tuzunun elektrolizi sonucunda %50 lik bir çözelti şeklinde üretilmektedir. Klor gazı bu esnada ortaya çıkar. çözeltideki suyun buharlaşması sonucunda katı haldeki kostik elde edilir. 25 kg paketli ambalajlarda olarak ticareti yapılmaktadır. Sodyum Hidroksit endüstride bir çok alanda kullanılmaktadır. Kağıt, boya, yapay ipek, deterjan sanayinde petrol rafinelerinde kullanılmaktadır. En büyük kullanım alanı kimyasal endüstridir, deterjan ve boya daha sonra kağıt sektöründe kullanılır. lüminyum üretiminde de kullanılır. Kağıt yapımında Sodyum hidroksit ve sülfit temel maddelerdir. Bu maddeler Kraft projesi esnasında serilöz fiberden lingini ayırmak için çözeltinin ana maddeleridir. Üretilen kahve rengi kağıdı beyazlaştırmak için Sodyum hidroksit kullanılır. Sodyum hidroksit sabun yapımında ve petrol sanayinde biodizel üretiminde kullanılmaktadır. Meyve ve sebzelerin kimyasal yollarla soyma işleminde, çikolata ve kakao işlemede kullanılır. Sodyum Hidroksit temizleme malzemesi olarak kullanılır, en yaygın olanı lavabo açıcılarıdır. Güçlü yağ alma özelliği sayesinde paslanmaz çeliklerde kullanılır. Kanalizasyon atık su borularının temizliğinde kullanılır. Gres ve ağır yağları çözebilmektedir. Lavabo,Wc Ve Pvc Boru Açıcı , Pimaşa Zarar Vermez Eriterek Açar Pimaşınızı Sökmeden, Fayansınızı Kırmadan, Ev Düzeninizi Bozmadan Günlerce Uğraşmadan Dökün Açılsın! Tıkanmış Banyonuz Tuvaletiniz Ve Lavabonuz Varsa Sadece 3 Dakikada Açıyor! Mutfak İçin: Yemek Artıkları,Yağ Kalıntıları ,Bulaşık Ve Çeşitli Türlerden Oluşan Lavabo Tıkanıklıklarında. Banyo İçin:Banyo Lavaboları Ve Banyonun Diğer Boru,Pimaş Giderlerinde Bez,Kıl,Tüy,Yün,Yağ,Çerçöp Vs.Tıkanıklıklarda. Tuvalet İçin : Tuvalet Giderleri Tahliye Borularında Pislik, Tuvalet Kağıdı, Bez, Hijyenik Ped, Peçete, İzmarit, Çerçöp Vs. Tıkanıklıklarda. Dikkat Edilmesi Gereken Hususlar El, Yüz, Vücut Ve Gıda Temizliğinde Kullanmayınız. Kendi Ambalajı Dışında Başka Ambalaja Boşaltmayınız. Ağzını Kapalı Tutunuz. Cilt İle Temas Halinde Bol Suyla Yıkayınız. Gerektiğinde Doktorunuza Başvurunuz. Ürünün Çok Kullanıldığı Yerlerde Maske Takınız.Ürünü Başka Kimyasallarla Karıştırmayınız.Özellikle Toz Halindeki Lavabo Açıcılarla Karıştırmayınız Ve Birliktekullanmayınız. Ürünü Mermer, Granit, Ahşap Vb. Yerlere Dökmeyiniz. Zarar Verebilir. Galvaniz Borularda Karatma Yapar.
2Na + 2H2O --> 2NaOH +H2 + tepkime sonucu oluşan alev -ısı

CAS Number: 1310-73-2

appearance: NaOH is a white, odorless, deliquescent material sold as pellets, flakes, lumps, or sticks. Aqueous solutions are known as soda lye. White solid.
NaOH, adhesives, agrochemicals, chemicals in animal husbandry, crop protection & fertilizers, building & construction, construction adhesives, CASE, adhesives, detergents, food industry, cleaning products for installations in food industry, fuel industry, I&I cleaning, metallurgical industry, metalworking, paints & coatings, personal care, pharmaceuticals, pulp & paper, raw materials and intermediates, water & wastewater treatment, wastewater treatment, water treatment. bleaching agents, cleansing agents, degreasing agents, metal working fluids, pH regulators, raw materials & intermediates, solvents. Sodium hydroxide is an inorganic chemical compound of the hydroxide group, belonging to the strongest alkali. In liquid form it is a colourless, odourless and non-flammable product called caustic soda liquid. It belongs to a group of basic raw materials, so it is used almost in every industry. Sodium hydroxide in the PCC Group is produced in the process of membrane electrolysis and delivered to the market in a 49% to 51% solution. The resulting product is characterised by high quality and purity, thanks to which it has obtained the PZH certificate. The product also fulfils the requirements of the latest edition of European Pharmacopoeia, which defines basic quality requirements and research methods, among which are pharmaceutical raw materials.fulfills the requirements of the latest edition of European Pharmacopoeia; used for the production of aluminium in the steel and metallurgical industries;paper production; refining of crude oil, mineral oils in the petrochemical industry; in the cosmetics industry - production of hard (sodium) soap, washing detergents, exfoliating masks; industrial cleaning;component of several plasticisers in the construction industry; pH regulation in water treatment processes;raw material in the manufacture of pigments and dyes for paints, pharmaceuticals and chemical industries, cleaning and disinfection in animal breeding and beekeeping, combating diseases and protecting plants in fruit growing, NaOH is a strongly basic versatile inorganic compound often referred to as caustic soda, lye, or sodium hydrate. This common laboratory alkali is used for general cleaning of equipment, buffer solutions, and titrations, among other uses. In the home, NaOH is found in soaps, cleaning agents, and even foodstuffs like wine. Use the links below to buy NaOH as powder, pellets, or in solution for luminescence, molecular biology, cell culture, semiconductors, and ion chromatography. Choose from common concentration values, purities from 97%, and grades from to meet your commercial, educational, food, drug, or medicinal applications. Available grades include ACS reagent, analytical, Ph. Eur., Puriss, Puriss P.A., BioUltra, BioXtra, and Purum. Product detail pages provide full information, including documentation, safety data, and lists of common trace anion and cations or impurities. Get sodium hydroxide in amounts from 25 g to 50 kg (25 mL to 650 L) or request a bulk order for sodium hydroxide from any product page. Our team will review your request for bulk critical raw materials along with any unique or large package size requirements to ensure you a smooth single order or a customized local supply chain with lot-to-lot consistency, in-house quality testing, and comprehensive documentation. Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda,is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na+and hydroxide anions OH-Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·nH2O.The monohydrate NaOH·H2O crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides,it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes. Pure sodium hydroxide is a colorless crystalline solid that melts at 318 °C (604 °F) without decomposition, and with a boiling point of 1,388 °C (2,530 °F). It is highly soluble in water, with a lower solubility in polar solvents such as ethanol and methanol.NaOH is insoluble in ether and other non-polar solvents. Similar to the hydration of sulfuric acid, dissolution of solid sodium hydroxide in water is a highly exothermic reaction where a large amount of heat is liberated, posing a threat to safety through the possibility of splashing. The resulting solution is usually colorless and odorless. As with other alkaline solutions, it feels slippery with skin contact due to the process of saponification that occurs between NaOH and natural skin oils. Sodium hydroxide, NaOH, as a fluid solution, demonstrates a characteristic viscosity, 78 mPa·s that is much greater than water (1.0 mPa·s) and near that of olive oil (85 mPa·s) at room temperature. The viscosity of NaOH, as with any chemical, is inversely related to its service temperature; meaning viscosity decreases as temperature increases, and vice versa. The viscosity of sodium hydroxide plays a direct role in its application as well as its storage.Sodium hydroxide can form several hydrates NaOH·nH2O, which result in a complex solubility diagram that was described in detail by S. U. Pickering in 1893.The known hydrates and the approximate ranges of temperature and concentration (mass percent of NaOH) of their saturated water solutions are.The only hydrates with stable melting points are NaOH·2O (65.10 °C) and NaOH·3.5H2O (15.38 °C). The other hydrates, except the metastables NaOH·3H2O and NaOH·4H2Oβ) can be crystallized from solutions of the proper composition, as listed above. However, solutions of NaOH can be easily supercooled by many degrees, which allows the formation of hydrates (including the metastable ones) from solutions with different concentrations For example, when a solution of NaOH and water with 1:2 mole ratio (52.6% NaOH by mass) is cooled, the monohydrate normally starts to crystallize (at about 22 °C) before the dihydrate. However, the solution can easily be supercooled down to -15 °C, at which point it may quickly crystallize as the dihydrate. When heated, the solid dihydrate might melt directly into a solution at 13.35 °C; however, once the temperature exceeds 12.58 °C. it often decomposes into solid monohydrate and a liquid solution. Even the n = 3.5 hydrate is difficult to crystallize, because the solution supercools so much that other hydrates become more stable NaOH and its monohydrate form orthorhombic crystals with the space groups Cmcm (oS8) and Pbca (oP24), respectively. The monohydrate cell dimensions are a = 1.1825, b = 0.6213, c = 0.6069 nm. The atoms are arranged in a hydrargillite-like layer structure /O Na O O Na O/... Each sodium atom is surrounded by six oxygen atoms, three each from hydroxyl anions HO-and three from water molecules. The hydrogen atoms of the hydroxyls form strong bonds with oxygen atoms within each O layer. Adjacent O layers are held together by hydrogen bonds between water molecules Glass reacts slowly with aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions at ambient temperatures to form soluble silicates. Because of this, glass joints and stopcocks exposed to sodium hydroxide have a tendency to "freeze". Flasks and glass-lined chemical reactors are damaged by long exposure to hot sodium hydroxide, which also frosts the glass. Sodium hydroxide does not attack iron at room temperatures, since iron does not have amphoteric properties (i.e., it only dissolves in acid, not base). Nevertheless, at high temperatures (e.g. above 500 °C), iron can react endothermically with sodium hydroxide to form iron(III) oxide, sodium metal, and hydrogen gas.This is due to the lower enthalpy of formation of iron(III) oxide (-824.2kJ/mol compared to sodium hydroxide (500kJ/mol), thus the reaction is thermodynamically favorable, although its endothermic nature indicates non-spontaneity. Consider the following reaction between molten sodium hydroxide and finely divided iron filings Sodium hydroxide can be used for the base-driven hydrolysis of esters (as in saponification), amides and alkyl halides.However, the limited solubility of sodium hydroxide in organic solvents means that the more soluble potassium hydroxide (KOH) is often preferred. Touching sodium hydroxide solution with the bare hands, while not recommended, produces a slippery feeling. This happens because oils on the skin such as sebum are converted to soap. Despite solubility in propylene glycol it is unlikely to replace water in saponificaction due to propylene glycol primary reaction with fat before reaction between sodium hydroxide and fat. Sodium hydroxide is industrially produced as a 50% solution by variations of the electrolytic chloralkali process.Chlorine gas is also produced in this process.Solid sodium hydroxide is obtained from this solution by the evaporation of water. Solid sodium hydroxide is most commonly sold as flakes, prills, and cast blocks.Sodium hydroxide is a popular strong base used in industry. Around 56% of sodium hydroxide produced is used by industry, 25% of which is used in the paper industry. Sodium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of sodium salts and detergents, pH regulation, and organic synthesis. It is used in the Bayer process of aluminium production.In bulk, it is most often handled as an aqueous solution,since solutions are cheaper and easier to handle. sodium hydroxide is used in many scenarios where it is desirable to increase the alkalinity of a mixture, or to neutralize acids.Poor quality crude oil can be treated with sodium hydroxide to remove sulfurous impurities in a process known as caustic washing. As above, sodium hydroxide reacts with weak acids such as hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans to yield non-volatile sodium salts, which can be removed. The waste which is formed is toxic and difficult to deal with, and the process is banned in many countries because of this. In 2006, Trafigura used the process and then dumped the waste in Africa. Strong bases attack aluminium. Sodium hydroxide reacts with aluminium and water to release hydrogen gas. The aluminium takes the oxygen atom from sodium hydroxide, which in turn takes the oxygen atom from the water, and releases the two hydrogen atoms, The reaction thus produces hydrogen gas and sodium aluminate. In this reaction, sodium hydroxide acts as an agent to make the solution alkaline, which aluminium can dissolve in. This reaction can be useful in etching, removing anodizing, or converting a polished surface to a satin-like finish, but without further passivation such as anodizing or alodining the surface may become degraded, either under normal use or in severe atmospheric conditions. n the Bayer process, sodium hydroxide is used in the refining of alumina containing ores (bauxite) to produce alumina (aluminium oxide) which is the raw material used to produce aluminium metal via the electrolytic Hall-Héroult process. Since the alumina is amphoteric, it dissolves in the sodium hydroxide, leaving impurities less soluble at high pH such as iron oxides behind in the form of a highly alkaline red mud. Food uses of sodium hydroxide include washing or chemical peeling of fruits and vegetables, chocolate and cocoa processing, caramel coloring production, poultry scalding, soft drink processing, and thickening ice cream.[39] Olives are often soaked in sodium hydroxide for softening; Pretzels and German lye rolls are glazed with a sodium hydroxide solution before baking to make them crisp. Owing to the difficulty in obtaining food grade sodium hydroxide in small quantities for home use, sodium carbonate is often used in place of sodium hydroxide.It is known as E number E524. Sodium hydroxide is frequently used as an industrial cleaning agent where it is often called "caustic". It is added to water, heated, and then used to clean process equipment, storage tanks, etc. It can dissolve grease, oils, fats and protein-based deposits. It is also used for cleaning waste discharge pipes under sinks and drains in domestic properties. Surfactants can be added to the sodium hydroxide solution in order to stabilize dissolved substances and thus prevent redeposition. A sodium hydroxide soak solution is used as a powerful degreaser on stainless steel and glass bakeware. It is also a common ingredient in oven cleaners. A common use of sodium hydroxide is in the production of parts washer detergents. Parts washer detergents based on sodium hydroxide are some of the most aggressive parts washer cleaning chemicals. The sodium hydroxide-based detergents include surfactants, rust inhibitors and defoamers. A parts washer heats water and the detergent in a closed cabinet and then sprays the heated sodium hydroxide and hot water at pressure against dirty parts for degreasing applications. Sodium hydroxide used in this manner replaced many solvent-based systems in the early 1990s[citation needed] when trichloroethane was outlawed by the Montreal Protocol. Water and sodium hydroxide detergent-based parts washers are considered to be an environmental improvement over the solvent-based cleaning methods. Sodium hydroxide is used in the home as a type of drain opener to unblock clogged drains, usually in the form of a dry crystal or as a thick liquid gel. The alkali dissolves greases to produce water soluble products. It also hydrolyzes the proteins such as those found in hair which may block water pipes. These reactions are sped by the heat generated when sodium hydroxide and the other chemical components of the cleaner dissolve in water. Such alkaline drain cleaners and their acidic versions are highly corrosive and should be handled with great caution. Sodium hydroxide is used in some relaxers to straighten hair. However, because of the high incidence and intensity of chemical burns, manufacturers of chemical relaxers use other alkaline chemicals in preparations available to average consumers. Sodium hydroxide relaxers are still available, but they are used mostly by professionals. A solution of sodium hydroxide in water was traditionally used as the most common paint stripper on wooden objects. Its use has become less common, because it can damage the wood surface, raising the grain and staining the colour. Sodium hydroxide is sometimes used during water purification to raise the pH of water supplies. Increased pH makes the water less corrosive to plumbing and reduces the amount of lead, copper and other toxic metals that can dissolve into drinking water. Like other corrosive acids and alkalis, drops of sodium hydroxide solutions can readily decompose proteins and lipids in living tissues via amide hydrolysis and ester hydrolysis, which consequently cause chemical burns and may induce permanent blindness upon contact with eyes. Solid alkali can also express its corrosive nature if there is water, such as water vapor. Thus, protective equipment, like rubber gloves, safety clothing and eye protection, should always be used when handling this chemical or its solutions. The standard first aid measures for alkali spills on the skin is, as for other corrosives, irrigation with large quantities of water. Washing is continued for at least ten to fifteen minutes. Careful storage is needed when handling sodium hydroxide for use, especially bulk volumes. Following proper NaOH storage guidelines and maintaining worker/environment safety is always recommended given the chemical's burn hazard. Sodium hydroxide is often stored in bottles-as in laboratories, small-scale use-within intermediate bulk containers-medium volume containers for cargo handling and transport-or within large stationary storage tanks with volumes up to 100,000 gallons-as in manufacturing or waste water plants with extensive NaOH use. Common materials that are compatible with sodium hydroxide and often utilized for NaOH storage include: polyethylene (HDPE, usual, XLPE, less common), carbon steel, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP, with a resistant liner). (inorganic chemistry) A strong, caustic alkali (NaOH) used in the manufacture of soap, detergents, paper, textiles and having many other industrial applications.

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