1-9 A-D E-G H-M N-P Q-S T-Z

FENOL SÜLFONİK ASİT (PHENOL SULPHONIC ACID)

PHENOL SULPHONIC ACID

SYNONYMS:Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid; Phenol Sulphonic Acid; phenol sulphonic acid; phenolsulphonic acid; phenol sulphonicacid; phenolsülfonic acid; phenolsülfonik asit; phenol sulphonic acit; phenol sulfonik acid; PHENOLSÜLDONİC ACİD; PHENOLSÜLFONİK ASİT; PHENOL SÜLPHONİC ACİT; PHENOL SULPHONİK ACİD; Phenol sulphonic acid; phenolsulphanicacid; phenolsulphanic acid; phenol sulphanicacid; phenol sulphonic acid; phenyl sulfonik asit; phenyl sulphonic asit; PHENOL SULPHONIC ACID; PHENOLSULPHONIC ACID; PHENOL SULPHONICACID; fenol sülfonik asit; liquid price; Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid; Phenol sulphonic acid; Phenol-4-sulfonic acid; O-PHENOLSULFONIC ACID; Phenol-2-sulfonic acid; Benzenesulfonic acid, 2-hydroxy-; 609-46-1; 2-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid; Benzenesulfonic acid, hydroxy-; Phenolsulphonic acid; 1333-39-7; o-Hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid; o-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid; UNII-0YY4Y390MW; 0YY4Y390MW; CHEBI:71049; Hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid; phenols; fonic; phenolsulfosaure; Benzenesulfonic acid, o-hydroxy-; EINECS 210-191-4; phenolsulfonicacidliquid; hydroxybenzenesulfonicacid; hydroxy-benzenesulfonicaci; AC1L1YBF; hydroxy-benzenesulfonicacid; DSSTox_CID_7390; DSSTox_RID_78433; DSSTox_GSID_27390; SCHEMBL18274; Benzenesulfonic acid,hydroxy-; C6H6SO4; phenolsulfonic acid, AldrichCPR; 4-hydroxyphenyl-3-sulfonic acid; CHEMBL2110744; CTK4B8490; DTXSID90274036; IULJSGIJJZZUMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N; ZINC1757854; Tox21_303096; 7663AF; NSC243747; AKOS006273486; NSC-243747; NCGC00257064-01; AN-223 ; SC-86781; CAS-1333-39-7; FT-0721460; SR-01000944845; SR-01000944845-1; 2.4.1Depositor-Supplied; O-PHENOLSULFONIC ACID; Phenol-2-sulfonic acid; Benzenesulfonic acid, 2-hydroxy-; 609-46-1; 2-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid; Benzenesulfonic acid, hydroxy-; Phenolsulphonic acid; 1333-39-7; o-Hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid; o-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid; UNII-0YY4Y390MW; 0YY4Y390MW; CHEBI:71049; Hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid; phenolsulfonic; phenolsulfosaure; Benzenesulfonic acid, o-hydroxy-; EINECS 210-191-4; phenolsulfonicacidliquid; hydroxybenzenesulfonicacid; hydroxy-benzenesulfonicaci; AC1L1YBF; hydroxy-benzenesulfonicacid; DSSTox_CID_7390; DSSTox_RID_78433; DSSTox_GSID_27390; SCHEMBL18274

Benzenesulfonic acid,hydroxy C6H6SO phenolsulfonic acid, AldrichCPR 4-hydroxyphenyl-3-sulfonic acid CHEMBL2110744 CTK4B8490 DTXSID90274036 DULJSGIJJZZUMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N ZINC1757854 Tox21_303096 7663AF NSC243747 AKOS006273486 NSC-243747 NCGC00257064-01 AN-22300 SC-86781 CAS-1333-39-7 FT-0721460 SR-01000944845 SR-01000944845-1 UNII-4OOD0LGW0Q component IULJSGIJJZZUMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N 4-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid PHENOL-4-SULFONIC ACID p-Phenolsulfonic acid Phenolsulfonic acid PSS P4SS-phenolsulfonic acid 4-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid solution 65 wt. % in H2O Synonym: Phenol-4-sulfonic acid CAS Number 98-67-9 Linear Formula HOC6H4SO3H Molecular Weight 174.17 Beilstein/REAXYS Number 1869034 MDL number MFCD00007506 PubChem Substance ID 24850348 4-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid solution 65 wt. % in H2O SDS Similar Products SKU-Pack Size Availability Price (EUR) 171506-250ML Estimated to ship on 07.10.19 33.40 171506-1L Only 3 left in stock (more on the way) - FROM 110.00 To order products, please contact your local dealer. Click here Product Recommendations CDS013549 phenolsulfonic acid AldrichCPR 282987 Sodium 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate dihydrate 98% 840015 Phenolsulfonic acid top Purchase Safety & Documentation Peer-Reviewed Papers5 Properties Related Categories Building Blocks, Chemical Synthesis, Organic Building Blocks, Sulfonic/Sulfinic Acids, Sulfur Compounds More... InChI Key FEPBITJSIHRMRT-UHFFFAOYSA-N concentration 65 wt. % in H2O refractive index n20/D 1.489 density 1.337 g/mL at 25 °C Description Packaging 1 L in glass bottle 250 mL in glass bottle

 

Safety Information
Symbol GHS05 GHS05 Signal word Danger Hazard statements H290-H314 Precautionary statements P280-P305 + P351 + P338-P310 Personal Protective Equipment Faceshields, full-face respirator (US), Gloves, Goggles, multi-purpose combination respirator cartridge (US), type ABEK (EN14387) respirator filter RIDADR UN 2586PSN1 8 / PGIII WGK Germany 3 Documents Certificate of Analysis Enter Lot No. Bulk Quote-Order Product SDS Specification Sheet Structure Search Customers Also Viewed 09180 3-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid technical, ≥95% (T) 56260 3-Hydroxypropane-1-sulfonic acid technical, ~80% (T) Recently Viewed66681 4,4′-Methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) analytical standard 221368 Sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate ACS reagent, ≥99% 10108987001 Pyrophosphatase, inorganic (PPase) from yeast 856061 D-(-)-Isoascorbic acid 98% W241008 D-Isoascorbic acid FCC, FG Meet Synthia - Retrosynthesis Sofware Peer-Reviewed Papers Did you use this product in your Paper? If so click here. Operational stability of immobilised horseradish peroxidase in mini-packed bed bioreactors. Rebecca K Johnston Journal of Molecular Catalysis. B, Enzymatic 28(2), 121-128, (2004)
Read Abstract 
Kinetics of the oxidation of ascorbic acid, ferrocyanide and p-phenolsulfonic acid by chloroperoxidase compounds I and II. A M Lambeir et. al European journal of biochemistry, 163(1), undefined (1987-2-16) For the first time elementary reactions involving chloroperoxidase compounds I and II have been investigated. A multi-mixing stopped-flow apparatus was used to study the kinetics of the reactions of compounds I and II with ascorbic acid, ferrocyanide...Read More
Read Abstract [Effect of phenolsulfonic acid on cultured V79 cells]. T Yokka Shigaku = Odontology; journal of Nihon Dental College, 75(1), undefined (1987-6-1) Read Abstract Assessment of genotoxicity of 14 chemical agents used in dental practice: ability to induce chromosome aberrations in Syrian hamster embryo cells.
Makoto Hagiwara et. al Mutation research, 603(2), undefined (2006-1-13) To assess the genotoxicity of 14 chemical agents used as locally applied agents in dental practice, the ability of these agents to elicit chromosome aberrations was examined using Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Chromosome aberrations in SHE cells...Read More Read Abstract Toxicity and uptake potential of an acrylic polymer comonomer and its biological degradation products. F R Johannsen et. al Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 40(3), undefined (1988-3-1)
O-Phenolsulfonic acid PubChem CID: 11867 Structure: O-Phenolsulfonic acid_small.png O-Phenolsulfonic acid_3D_Structure.png Find Similar Structures Chemical Safety: Corrosiv Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS) Datasheet Molecular Formula: C6H6O4S Chemical Names: O-PHENOLSULFONIC ACID Phenol-2-sulfonic acid Benzenesulfonic acid, 2-hydroxy- 609-46-1 2-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid More... Molecular Weight: 174.18 g/mol Dates: Modify: 2019-07-22 Create: 2005-03-26 2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid is an arenesulfonic acid that is phenol substituted by a sulfo group at C-2. It has a role as a metabolite. It derives from a phenol. from ChEBIPHENOLSULFONIC ACID, LIQUID appears as a yellowish liquid that becomes brown on exposure to air. Soluble in alcohol. Irritating to mucous membranes, skin, and eyes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Used as a laboratory reagent, in water analysis and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. A mixture of ortho and para isomers. from CAMEO Chemicals 1Structures HelpNew Window 1.12D Structure HelpNew Window Find Similar Structures Get Image Download Chemical Structure Depiction COMPOUND SUMMARY O-Phenolsulfonic acid PubChem CID: 11867 Structure: O-Phenolsulfonic acid_small.png O-Phenolsulfonic acid_3D_Structure.png Find Similar Structures Chemical Safety: Corrosive Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS) Datasheet Molecular Formula: C6H6O4S Chemical Names: O-PHENOLSULFONIC ACID Phenol-2-sulfonic acid Benzenesulfonic acid, 2-hydroxy- 609-46-1 2-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid More... Weight: 174.18 g/mol Dates: Modify: 2019-07-22 Create: 2005-03-26 2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid is an arenesulfonic acid that is phenol substituted by a sulfo group at C-2. It has a role as a metabolite. It derives from a phenol. from ChEBI
PHENOLSULFONIC ACID, LIQUID appears as a yellowish liquid that becomes brown on exposure to air. Soluble in alcohol. Irritating to mucous membranes, skin, and eyes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Used as a laboratory reagent, in water analysis and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. A mixture of ortho and para isomers. from CAMEO Chemicals 1Structures HelpNew Window 1.12D Structure HelpNew Window Find Similar Structures Get Image Download Chemical Structure Depiction O-Phenolsulfonic acid.png Full screen Zoom in Zoom out from PubChem 1.23D Conformer HelpNew Window Get Image Download Interactive Chemical Structure Model Ball and Stick Sticks Wire-Frame Space-Filling Show Hydrogens Animate Full screen Zoom in Zoom out from PubChem 2Names and Identifiers HelpNew Window 2.1Computed Descriptors HelpNew Window 2.1.1IUPAC Name HelpNew Window 2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid from PubChem 2.1.2InChI HelpNew Window InChI=1S/C6H6O4S/c7-5-3-1-2-4-6(5)11(8,9)10/h1-4,7H,(H,8,9,10) from PubChem 2.1.3InChI Key HelpNew Window IULJSGIJJZZUMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N rom PubChem 2.1.4Canonical SMILES HelpNew Window C1=CC=C(C(=C1)O)S(=O)(=O)O from PubChem 2.2Molecular Formula HelpNew Window C6H6O4S from PubChem 2.3Other Identifiers HelpNew Window 2.3.1CAS HelpNew Window 609-46-1 from ChemIDplus; DTP/NCI; EPA DSSTox; European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 1333-39-7 rom EPA Chemicals under the TSCA; European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2.3.2EC Number HelpNew Window 210-191-4 from European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 215-587-0 from European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2.3.3NSC Number HelpNew Window 243747 from DTP/NCI 2.3.4UN Number COMPOUND SUMMARY O-Phenolsulfonic acid PubChem CID: 11867 Structure: O-Phenolsulfonic acid_small.png O-Phenolsulfonic acid_3D_Structure.png Find Similar Structures Chemical Safety: Corrosive Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS) Datasheet Molecular Formula: C6H6O4S Chemical Names: O-PHENOLSULFONIC ACID Phenol-2-sulfonic acid Benzenesulfonic acid, 2-hydroxy- 609-46-1 2-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid More... Molecular Weight: 174.18 g/mol Dates: Modify: 2019-07-22 Create: 2005-03-26 2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid is an arenesulfonic acid that is phenol substituted by a sulfo group at C-2. It has a role as a metabolite. It derives from a phenol. from ChEBI PHENOLSULFONIC ACID, LIQUID appears as a yellowish liquid that becomes brown on exposure to air. Soluble in alcohol. Irritating to mucous membranes, skin, and eyes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Used as a laboratory reagent, in water analysis and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. A mixture of ortho and para isomers. from CAMEO Chemicals 1Structures HelpNew Window 1.12D Structure HelpNew Window Find Similar Structures
2-phenolsulfonic acid from Wikipedia 2.4Synonyms O-PHENOLSULFONIC ACID Phenol-2-sulfonic acid Benzenesulfonic acid, 2-hydroxy- 609-46-1 2-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid Benzenesulfonic acid, hydroxy- Phenolsulphonic acid 1333-39-7 o-Hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid o-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid UNII-0YY4Y390MW 0YY4Y390MW CHEBI:71049 Hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid phenolsulfonic phenolsulfosaure Benzenesulfonic acid, o-hydroxy- EINECS 210-191-4 phenolsulfonicacidliquid hydroxy-benzenesulfonicaci AC1L1YBF hydroxy-benzenesulfonicacid DSSTox_CID_7390 DSSTox_RID_78433 DSSTox_GSID_27390 SCHEMBL18274 Benzenesulfonic acid,hydroxy- C6H6SO4 phenolsulfonic acid, AldrichCPR 4-hydroxyphenyl-3-sulfonic acid CHEMBL2110744 CTK4B8490 DTXSID90274036 IULJSGIJJZZUMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N ZINC1757854 Tox21_303096 7663AF NSC243747 AKOS006273486 NSC-243747 NCGC00257064-01 AN-22300 SC-86781 CAS-1333-39-7 FT-0721460 SR-01000944845 SR-01000944845-1 UNII-4OOD0LGW0Q component IULJSGIJJZZUMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N COMPOUND SUMMARY O-Phenolsulfonic acid PubChem CID: 11867
Structure: O-Phenolsulfonic acid_small.png O-Phenolsulfonic acid_3D_Structure.png Find Similar Structures Chemical Safety: Corrosive Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS) Datashee Molecular Formula: C6H6O4S Chemical Names: O-PHENOLSULFONIC ACID Phenol-2-sulfonic acid Benzenesulfonic acid, 2-hydroxy- 609-46-1 2-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid More... Molecular Weight: 174.18 g/mol Dates: Modify: 2019-07-22 Create: 2005-03-26 2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid is an arenesulfonic acid that is phenol substituted by a sulfo group at C-2. It has a role as a metabolite. It derives from a phenol. from ChEBI PHENOLSULFONIC ACID, LIQUID appears as a yellowish liquid that becomes brown on exposure to air. Soluble in alcohol. Irritating to mucous membranes, skin, and eyes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Used as a laboratory reagent, in water analysis and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. A mixture of ortho and para isomers. from CAMEO Chemicals 1Structures HelpNew Window 1.12D Structure HelpNew WindowFind Similar Structures Get Image Download Chemical Structure Depiction O-Phenolsulfonic acid.png Full screen in Zoom out from PubChem 1.23D Conformer HelpNew Window Get Image Download Interactive Chemical Structure Model and Stick Sticks Wire-Frame Space-Filling Show Hydrogens Animate screen Zoom in Zoom out from PubChem 2Names and Identifiers HelpNew Window 2.1Computed Descriptors HelpNew Window 2.1.1IUPAC Name HelpNew Window 2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid from PubChem 2.1.2InChI HelpNew Window InChI=1S/C6H6O4S/c7-5-3-1-2-4-6(5)11(8,9)10/h1-4,7H,(H,8,9,10) from PubChem 2.1.3InChI Key HelpNew Window IULJSGIJJZZUMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N from PubChem2.1.4Canonical SMILES HelpNew Window C1=CC=C(C(=C1)O)S(=O)(=O)O from PubChem 2.2Molecular Formula HelpNew Window C6H6O4S from PubChem 2.3Other Identifiers HelpNew Window 2.3.1CAS HelpNew Window 609-46-1 rom ChemIDplus; DTP/NCI; EPA DSSTox; European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 1333-39-7 from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA; European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2.3.2EC Number HelpNew Window 210-191-4from European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 215-587-0 from European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2.3.3NSC Number HelpNew Window 243747 from DTP/NCI 2.3.4UN Number HelpNew Window 1803 CAMEO Chemicals 2.3.5UNII HelpNew Window 0YY4Y390MW from FDA/SPL Indexing Data 2.3.6Wikipedia HelpNew Window 2-phenolsulfonic acid from Wikipedia 2.4Synonyms HelpNew Window 2.4.1Depositor-Supplied Synonyms HelpNew Window O-PHENOLSULFONIC ACID Phenol-2-sulfonic acid Benzenesulfonic acid, 2-hydroxy- 609-46-1 2-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid Benzenesulfonic acid, hydroxy- Phenolsulphonic acid 1333-39-7 o-Hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid o-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid UNII-0YY4Y390MW 0YY4Y390MW CHEBI:71049 Hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid phenolsulfonicphenolsulfosaure Benzenesulfonic acid, o-hydroxy- EINECS 210-191-4 phenolsulfonicacidliquid hydroxybenzenesulfonicacid hydroxy-benzenesulfonicaci AC1L1YBF hydroxy-benzenesulfonicacid DSSTox_CID_7390 DSSTox_GSID_27390 SCHEMBL18274 Benzenesulfonic acid,hydroxy- C6H6SO4 phenolsulfonic acid, AldrichCPR 4-hydroxyphenyl-3-sulfonic acid CHEMBL2110744 CTK4B8490 DTXSID90274036 ULJSGIJJZZUMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N ZINC1757854 Tox21_3030967663AF NSC243747 AKOS006273486 NSC-243747 NCGC00257064-01 AN-22300 SC-86781 CAS-1333-39-7 FT-0721460 SR-01000944845 SR-01000944845-1 UNII-4OOD0LGW0Q component IULJSGIJJZZUMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N from PubChem 3Chemical and Physical Properties HelpNew Window 3.1Computed Properties HelpNew Window Property Name Property Value Molecular Weight 174.18 g/mol XLogP3-AA 0.9 Hydrogen Bond Donor Count 2 Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count 4 Rotatable Bond Count 1 Exact Mass 173.99868 g/mol Monoisotopic Mass 173.99868 g/mol Topological Polar Surface Area 83 A^2 Heavy Atom Count 11 Formal Charge 0 Complexity 215 Isotope Atom Count 0 Defined Atom Stereocenter Count 0 Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count 0 Defined Bond Stereocenter Count 0 Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count 0 Covalently-Bonded Unit Count 1 Compound Is Canonicalized Yes from PubChem 3.2Experimental Properties HelpNew Window 3.2.1Physical Description HelpNew Window PHENOLSULFONIC ACID, LIQUID appears as a yellowish liquid that becomes brown on exposure to air. Soluble in alcohol. Irritating to mucous membranes, skin, and eyes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Used as a laboratory reagent, in water analysis and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. A mixture of ortho and para isomers. from CAMEO Chemicals Liquid COMPOUND SUMMARY O-Phenolsulfonic acid PubChem CID: 11867 Structure: O-Phenolsulfonic acid_small.png O-Phenolsulfonic acid_3D_Structure.png Find Similar Structures Chemical Safety: Corrosive Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS) Datasheet Molecular Formula: C6H6O4S Chemical Names: O-PHENOLSULFONIC ACID
from PubChem 3Chemical and Physical Properties HelpNew Window 3.1Computed Properties HelpNew Window Property Name Property Value Weight 174.18 g/mol XLogP3 AA 0.9 Hydrogen Bond Donor Count 2 Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count 4 Rotatable Bond Count 1 Exact Mass 173.99868 g/mol Mass 173.99868 g/mol Topological Polar Surface Area 83 A^2 Heavy Atom Count 11 Formal Charge 0 Complexity 215 Isotope Atom Count 0 Defined Atom Stereocenter Count 0 Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count 0 Defined Bond Stereocenter Count 0 Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count 0 Covalently-Bonded Unit Count 1 Compound Is Canonicalized Yes from PubChem
3.2Experimental Properties HelpNew Window 3.2.1Physical Description HelpNew Window PHENOLSULFONIC ACID, LIQUID appears as a yellowish liquid that becomes brown on exposure to air. Soluble in alcohol. Irritating to mucous membranes, skin, and eyes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Used as a laboratory reagent, in water analysis and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. A mixture of ortho and para isomers. from CAMEO Chemicals Liquid from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA 4Related Records HelpNew Window 4.1Related Compounds with Annotation HelpNew Window 3,762 items View More Rows & Details Download SORT BY Descending Compound CID Structure Compound CID Name Molecular Formula Molecular Weight, g/mol Structure 19 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid C7H6O4 154.12 Structure 186 Acetylphosphate C2H5O5P 140.03 Structure 227 Anthranilic acid C7H7NO2 137.14 Structure 242 Benzoate C7H5O2- 121.11 Structure 243 Benzoic acid C7H6O2 122.12 1 2 3 .. 753 Next from PubChem 4.2Related Compounds HelpNew Window Same Parent, Exact 72 Records Mixtures, Components, and Neutralized Forms 137 Records Similar Compounds 216 Records Similar Conformers 5,262 Records from PubChem 4.3Substances HelpNew Window 4.3.1Related Substances HelpNew Window All 368 Records Same 64 Records Mixture 304 Records from PubChem 4.3.2Substances by Category HelpNew Window 8 Categories Expanded View Download Chemical Vendors (19) Curation Efforts (8) Governmental Organizations (10) Journal Publishers (2) NIH Initiatives (3)Research And Development (17) Subscription Services (5) Legacy Depositors (13) from PubChem 4.4Entrez Crosslinks HelpNew Window PubMed 5 Records from PubChem 5Chemical Vendors HelpNew Window Showing 1 Substance per Vendor View All View in Entrez Download Aurora Fine Chemicals LLC PubChem SID: 292927802 Purchasable Chemical: A06.790.049 AA BLOCKS SID: 374153579 Purchasable Chemical: AA0014HL MuseChem PubChem SID: 355194687 Purchasable Chemical: M049336 ZINC PubChem SID: 256283488 Purchasable Chemical: ZINC1757854 AHH Chemical co.,ltd PubChem SID: 252355883 Purchasable Chemical: MT-57848 3B Scientific (Wuhan) Corp PubChem SID: 375100839 Purchasable Chemical: 3B3-052167 Boc Sciences PubChem SID: 254781096 Purchasable Chemical: 609-46-1 AK Scientific, Inc. (AKSCI) PubChem SID: 252503311Purchasable Chemical: 7663AFFinetech Industry Limited PubChem SID: 347869449 Purchasable Chemical: FT-0721460 ChemTik PubChem SID: 162786808 Purchasable Chemical: CTK4B8490 Chemhere PubChem SID: 313623689 Purchasable Chemical: Achem230373 (URL not provided...) MolPortPubChem SID: 316972563 Purchasable Chemical: MolPort-006-112-062 AKos Consulting & Solutions PubChem SID: 132556113 Purchasable Chemical: AKOS006273486 Chem-Space.com Database SID: 342630795 Purchasable Chemical: CSC000073778 labseeker PubChem SID: 253655593 Purchasable Chemical: SC-86781 Ambinter PubChem SID: 369540757 Purchasable Chemical: Amb17594378 SYNCHEM OHG PubChem SID: 136344324 Purchasable Chemical: 69206 -Aldrich PubChem SID: 329788313 Purchasable Chemical: CDS013549_ALDRICH Acadechem PubChem SID: 321916243 Purchasable Chemical: ACDS-034616 from PubChem 6Use and Manufacturing HelpNew Window 6.1Uses HelpNew Window 6.1.1Industry Uses HelpNew Window Processing aids, not otherwise listed https://www.epa.gov/chemical-data-reporting from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA 6.2U.S. Production HelpNew Window Aggregated Product Volume (EPA CDR 2016) 1,000,000 - 10,000,000 lb https://www.epa.gov/chemical-data-reporting rom EPA Chemicals under the TSCA 6.3General Manufacturing Information HelpNew Window Industry Processing Sectors All other basic organic chemical manufacturing A61P13/00 - Drugs For Disorders Of The Urinary System A61P13/08 - of the prostate LINKED RECORDS Compounds: 90,057Substances: 163,220Patents: 988 (PARENT NODES) International Patent ClassificationHUMAN NECESSITIES HEALTH; LIFE-SAVING; AMUSEMENT Category A61 - MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE A61P - SPECIFIC THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS A61P13/00 - Drugs For Disorders Of The Urinary System from WIPO 11.1.3ChemIDplus HelpNew Window from ChemIDplus 11.1.4CAMEO Chemicals HelpNew Window from CAMEO Chemicals 11.1.5UN GHS Classification HelpNew Window from UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) 12Information Sources HelpNew Window FILTER BY SOURCE ALL SOURCES CAMEO Chemicals PHENOLSULFONIC ACID, LIQUID https://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/chemical/9464 CAMEO Chemical Reactivity Classification https://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/browse/react EPA Chemicals under the TSCA Benzenesulfonic acid, hydroxy- https://www.epa.gov/chemicals-under-tsca ChEBI 2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:71049 ChEBI Ontology http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/userManualForward.do#ChEBI%20Ontology ChemIDplus o-Phenolsulfonic acid https://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/sid/0000609461 ChemIDplus Chemical Information Classification https://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/ DTP/NCI Phenol-2-sulfonic acid https://dtp.cancer.gov/dtpstandard/servlet/dwindex?searchtype=NSC&outputformat=html&searchlist=243747 EPA DSSTox o-Phenolsulfonic acid https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/DTXSID90274036 European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) o-hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid https://echa.europa.eu/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.009.266 hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid https://echa.europa.eu/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.014.171 o-hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals/cl-inventory-database/-/discli/details/4853 Hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals/cl-inventory-database/-/discli/details/24616 FDA/SPL Indexing Data 0YY4Y390MW https://www.fda.gov/ForIndustry/DataStandards/SubstanceRegistrationSystem-UniqueIngredientIdentifierUNII/ Springer Nature https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/substance/341143365 Thieme Chemistry Wikipedia 2-phenolsulfonic acid https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81cido_2-hidroxibenzenossulf%C3%B4nico PubChem https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov WIPO nternational Patent Classification http://www.wipo.int/classifications/ipc/ UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) GHS Classification Tree http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/ghs/ghs_welcome_e.html LANXESS GmbH LANXESS worldwide
Enter value...
Contact
ABOUT LANXESS
PRODUCTS & SOLUTIONS
MEDIA
INVESTOR RELATIONS
CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY
CAREER

 

 

About LANXESS
PRODUCTS & SOLUTIONS
Products & Solutions
Product Search
Segments
Business Units
Product News
Trade Fair Calendar
REACH
Conditions of Purchase and Sale
eBusiness
Media
Investor Relations
Corporate Responsibility
Career
PHENOL-4-SULFONIC ACID
Aqueous solution of phenol-4-sulfonic acid.
The product is used in electrolytic galvanizing bath (tin plate production) and in the purification of crude tin by electrolytic refining. The product is also suitable for use in other electrolytic, galvanic or chemical processes.
Chelating agent for fertilizers.
Additive for the production of floral foam.
Information
Business Unit:
Material Protection
Applications
Construction Construction foam Construction material Electroplating Finishing of metals Material protection Metal industry Plastic- and Rubberpolymers Polymer auxiliaries
Synonyms
4-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid PHENOL-4-SULFONIC ACID p-Phenolsulfonic acid Phenolsulfonic acid PSS P4SS
4-phenolsulfonic acid
Molecular FormulaC6H6O4S
Average mass174.174 Da
Monoisotopic mass173.998672 Da
ChemSpider ID4601
More details:
Featured data source
The Merck Index Online
This record has not been tagged.
TAG
Names
Properties
Searches
Spectra
Vendors
Articles
More 
Names and SynonymsDatabase ID(s)
Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users
4-phenolsulfonic acid
Hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid
1869034 [Beilstein]
202-691-6 [EINECS]
4-Hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
4-hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid
4-Hydroxybenzolsulfonsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
4-Hydroxyphenylsulfonic acid
98-67-9 [RN]
Acide 4-hydroxybenzènesulfonique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name
2236
Sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate

 

ACS reagent, ≥99%

 

10108987001
Pyrophosphatase, inorganic (PPase)

 

from yeast

 


856061
D-(-)-Isoascorbic acid

 

98%

 


W241008
D-Isoascorbic acid

 

FCC, FG

 


Meet Synthia - Retrosynthesis Sofware
Peer-Reviewed Papers
Did you use this product in your Paper? If so click here.

 

 


Operational stability of immobilised horseradish peroxidase in mini-packed bed bioreactors. Rebecca K Johnston Journal of Molecular Catalysis. B, Enzymatic 28(2), 121-128, (2004)
Read Abstract 
Kinetics of the oxidation of ascorbic acid, ferrocyanide and p-phenolsulfonic acid by chloroperoxidase compounds I and II.
A M Lambeir et. al
European journal of biochemistry, 163(1), undefined (1987-2-16)
For the first time elementary reactions involving chloroperoxidase compounds I and II have been investigated. A multi-mixing stopped-flow apparatus was used to study the kinetics of the reactions of compounds I and II with ascorbic acid, ferrocyanide...Read More
Read Abstract 
[Effect of phenolsulfonic acid on cultured V79 cells].
T Yokka
Shigaku = Odontology; journal of Nihon Dental College, 75(1), undefined (1987-6-1)
Read Abstract 
Assessment of genotoxicity of 14 chemical agents used in dental practice: ability to induce chromosome aberrations in Syrian hamster embryo cells.
Makoto Hagiwara et. al
Mutation research, 603(2), undefined (2006-1-13)
To assess the genotoxicity of 14 chemical agents used as locally applied agents in dental practice, the ability of these agents to elicit chromosome aberrations was examined using Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Chromosome aberrations in SHE cells...Read More
Read Abstract 
Toxicity and uptake potential of an acrylic polymer comonomer and its biological degradation products.
F R Johannsen et. al
Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 40(3), undefined (1988-3-1)
Technical Service:
Our team of scientists has experience in all areas of research including Life Science, Material Science, Chemical Synthesis, Chromatography, Analytical and many others.
Contact Technical Service
Bulk Ordering & Pricing:
Need larger quantities for your development, manufacturing or research applications?
Bulk Ordering & Pricing
WebToolbox
structuresearch
generalhelp
askaphd
Service & Support
CUSTOMER SUPPORT
TECHNICAL SERVICE
WEB HELP DESK
SDS
C OF A
Ordering
CUSTOM PRODUCTS
ECOMMERCE SOLUTIONS
ORDER CENTER
PRODUCTS
TERMS & CONDITIONS OF SALE
Corporate
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT
WORLDWIDE OFFICES
ABOUT US
SITE MAP
CAREERS
EVENTS
PROGRAMS
REACH REGULATIONS
CONTACT US
EMAIL SUBSCRIPTION CENTER
TOOL BOX
Phenol Sulphonic Acid - 65%
Get Latest Price
Phenol Sulphonic Acid chemical offered is also known by synonyms of P-Hydroxy benzene Sulphonic Acid, Sulpho Carbolic Acid and comes with CAS No of 98-67-9, molecular formula of C6H6O4S and molecular weight of 174.20. 
Phenol Sulphonic Acid 
Features:
The chemical is available in red brown colored liquid form with minimum assay of 65% and availability in pure,
View Complete Details
Contact Seller
Ask for best deal
Get Latest Price
Request a quote
Share via 
The Dharamsi Morarji Chemical Co. Limited
The Dharamsi Morarji Chemical Co. Limited
Fort, Mumbai, Maharashtra
View Mobile Number
Call 08048014355
Verified Supplier 
Exporter
77% Response Rate
Product Details
Product Description
Phenol Sulphonic Acid chemical offered is also known by synonyms of P-Hydroxy benzene Sulphonic Acid, Sulpho Carbolic Acid and comes with CAS No of 98-67-9, molecular formula of C6H6O4S and molecular weight of 174.20.
Phenol Sulphonic Acid Features:

 

 

The chemical is available in red brown colored liquid form with minimum assay of 65% and availability in pure, Pharma passing, LR, AR and ACS grades.
Some of its properties include as a versatile catalyst solution it is used in electroplating process, in baths for tin-plating applications, as catalyst in the production of phenolic floral foam, in textile applications.
Product Image
Phenol Sulphonic Acid - 65%
Company Details
About us
Year of Establishment
1919
Legal Status of Firm
Public Limited Company
Nature of Business
Exporter
Number of Employees
101 to 500 People
Annual Turnover
Rs. 100 - 500 Crore
IndiaMART Member Since
Feb 2011
The Dharamsi Morarji Chemical Co. Ltd., (DMCC) headquartered in Mumbai (India), is an ISO 9001:2008 accredited organization. Established in 1919, DMCC was the first producer of Sulphuric Acid and Phosphate fertilizers in India. Over the years, the brand of the Company ("Ship") came to be recognized as the quality standard for Single Superphosphate (SSP). Today, DMCC is one of the leading chemical companies in India.
With focused Research and Development efforts, processes for downstream sulphur-based chemicals were commercialized. What is visible now is a culmination of efforts by the entire team: sustainable performance with zero dependence on Government policy, net foreign exchange earnings, and sales to over 25 countries in 5 continents.

 

DMCC offers customized products and thoughtful solutions to our global customers.

We take pride in maintaining healthy relationship with the environment. We extend our responsibility to the society and focus on sustainable development.

 

Send your enquiry to this supplier
To
The Dharamsi Morarji Chemical Co. Limited
Phenol Sulphonic Acid - 65%
Phenol Sulphonic Acid - 65%
Enter your email
Seller details will be sent on this email
Enter your name

 

 

Type your message here...
Get in Touch with us
The Dharamsi Morarji Chemical Co. Limited
Srinivas Rao
Prospect Chambers, 317/21, Dr. D. N. Road
Fort
Mumbai - 400001 Maharashtra, India
Get Directions
www.indiamart.com/dmcc
View Mobile No.Call 08048014355
Send SMS Send Email

 

 

Tell us what you 
need
Receive seller 
details
Seal the deal
Save Time! Get verified sellers for Phenol Sulphonic Acid - 65%
Email ID
Enter your email
Seller details will be sent on this email
Name
Enter your name
Requirement Details
Compare similar products from other sellers
Phenol Sulfonic Acid, PhSA, CAS No. 1333-39-7
Phenol Sulphonic Acid
Phenol Sulfonic Acid, PhSA, CAS No. 1333-39-7 Phenol Sulphonic Acid
Physical State Powder, solid, Crystals Liquid
Usage Industrial Laboratory
View more specification View more specification
Supplier Details 
Nandadeep Chemicals Private Limited
Choice Organochem Llp
Vashi, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
Balkum, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Call 08046038031 View Mobile Number
Call 08048077479 View Mobile Number
Browse related categories
Sulfonic Acid
Sulfonic Acid
Find more suppliers in Mumbai
Sulfonic Acid in Mumbai
Featured RecommendationsView All >
Phenol Sulphonic Acid
By: Choice Organochem Llp
Contact Supplier

 

 

Phenol Sulfonic Acid, PhSA, CAS No. 1333-39-7
By: Nandadeep Chemicals Private Limited
Contact Supplier

 

 

Phenol Sulphonic Acid
By: Vishnupriya Chemicals Private Limited
Contact Supplier

 

 

Phenol - 4 - Sulphonic Acid
By: Chemocart
Contact Supplier
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter Go Mobile: iOS App Android Apphttps://m.indiamart.comWe are here to help you!
About Us
Success Stories
Press Section
Advertise with Us
Jobs & Careers
Help
Feedback
Complaints
Customer Care
Contact Us
Suppliers Tool Kit
Sell on IndiaMART
Latest BuyLead
Learning Centre
Buyers Tool Kit
Post Your Requirement
Products You Buy
Search Products & Suppliers
Pay With IndiaMART
Liquid Phenol Sulphonic Acid, for Industrial
लिक्विड फेनोल सल्फोनिक एसिड, इंडस्ट्रियल के लिए
Get Latest Price
Usage Industrial
Physical State Liquid
Color Red Brown Colored Liquid
Assay 65% MIN
CAS No 98-67-9
Molecular Formula C6H6O4S
View Complete Details
Contact Seller
Ask for best deal
Get Latest Price
Request a quote
Share via 
Vishnupriya Chemicals Private Limited
Vishnupriya Chemicals Private Limited
Somajiguda, Hyderabad, Telangana
Company Video
View Mobile Number
Call 08048764321
TrustSEAL Verified 
Manufacturer
90% Response Rate
Product Details
Product Specification
Usage Industrial
Physical State Liquid
Color Red Brown Colored Liquid
Assay 65% MIN
CAS No 98-67-9
Molecular Formula C6H6O4S
Molecular Weight 174.2
Product Description
Phenol Sulphonic Acid chemical offered is also known by synonyms of P-Hydroxy benzene Sulphonic Acid, Sulpho Carbolic Acid and comes with CAS No of 98-67-9, molecular formula of C6H6O4S and molecular weight of 174.20. The chemical is available in red brown colored liquid form with minimum assay of 65% and availability in pure, Pharma passing, LR, AR and ACS grades. Some of its properties include as a versatile catalyst solution it is used in electroplating process, in baths for tin-plating applications, as catalyst in the production of phenolic floral foam, in textile applications. 
Product Image
Liquid Phenol Sulphonic Acid, for Industrial
Company Details
About us
Year of Establishment
1999
Legal Status of Firm
Private limited company
Nature of Business
Manufacturer
Number of Employees
51 to 100 People
IndiaMART Member Since
May 2008
Vishnupriya Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. is India based company specializing in the manufacture and supply of inorganic and specialty chemicals. We also undertake synthesis of organic compounds and pharma intermediates on demand basis. We specialize in custom made products.
We have experience spanning 40 years in manufacturing of fine chemicals and continuously pursuing to produce new chemicals, as per client requirements. Our technical and quality team is capable of handling difficult reactions and can adhere highest quality requirements like ACS, Analytical grade and etc. By pursuing & implementing the highest standards of excellence in our operations, we have nurtured our capabilities. 
We offer Inorganic and Specialty Chemicals like Aluminate, Acetate, Bicarbonates, Bromide, Carbonates, Chlorides, Chromates, Edta, Formates, Hydroxides, Iodides, Metal Powder, Nitrates, Nitrites, Oxalates, Oxides, Phosphates, Sulphates etc.
Our success in the industry is built on the strong pillars of innovation, quality, & dedicated customer service. By incorporating these & other business strengths, we have boosted our capabilities to maintain high quality standards in the industry. By adapting advanced technologies, refining processes & exploring wider applications, we aim to secure our position in the present and believe in creating opportunities for future. 
By maintaining a speedy and flexible process of production, packaging & delivery, we have been providing a stable and reliable supply base for all out national and international clients. Our high quality and pure chemicals cater to high growth sectors such as Food, Pharmaceuticals , Fine Chemicals , Biotech , etc that are the prime drivers of growth in the economy.
Company Video
Send your enquiry to this supplier
To
Vishnupriya Chemicals Private Limited
Liquid Phenol Sulphonic Acid, For Industrial
Liquid Phenol Sulphonic Acid, For Industrial
Enter your email
Seller details will be sent on this email
Enter your name

 

 

Type your message here...
Get in Touch with us
Vishnupriya Chemicals Private Limited 
Rahman
Office No. 7, Meridian Apartments, Basheerbagh
Somajiguda
Hyderabad - 500063 Telangana, India
Get Directions
https://www.vishnupriya.co.in
View Mobile No.Call 08048764321
Send SMS Send Email

 

 

Tell us what you 
need
Receive seller 
details
Seal the deal
Save Time! Get verified sellers for Liquid Phenol Sulphonic Acid, For Industrial
Email ID
Enter your email
Seller details will be sent on this email
Name
Enter your name
Requirement Details
Compare similar products from other sellers
Phenol Sulfonic Acid, PhSA, CAS No. 1333-39-7
Phenol Sulphonic Acid
Phenol Sulfonic Acid, PhSA, CAS No. 1333-39-7 Phenol Sulphonic Acid
Physical State Powder, solid, Crystals Liquid
Usage Industrial Laboratory
View more specification View more specification
Supplier Details 
Nandadeep Chemicals Private Limited
Choice Organochem Llp
Vashi, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
Balkum, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Call 08046038031 View Mobile Number
Call 08048077479 View Mobile Number
Browse related categories
Sulphonic Acid
Sulphonic Acid
Find more suppliers in Hyderabad
Sulphonic Acid in Hyderabad
Featured RecommendationsView All >
Phenol Sulphonic Acid - 65%
By: The Dharamsi Morarji Chemical Co. Limited
Contact Supplier

 

 

Phenol Sulfonic Acid, PhSA, CAS No. 1333-39-7
By: Nandadeep Chemicals Private Limited
Contact Supplier

 

 

Phenol - 4 - Sulphonic Acid
Sulfonic acid
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigationJump to search
General structure of a sulfonic acid with the functional group indicated in blue
A sulfonic acid (or sulphonic acid) refers to a member of the class of organosulfur compounds with the general formula R-S(=O)2-OH, where R is an organic alkyl or aryl group and the S(=O)2(OH) group a sulfonyl hydroxide.[1] As a substituent, it is known as a sulfo group. A sulfonic acid can be thought of as sulfuric acid with one hydroxyl group replaced by an organic substituent. The parent compound (with the organic substituent replaced by hydrogen) is the parent sulfonic acid, HS(=O)2(OH), a tautomer of sulfurous acid, S(=O)(OH)2.[2] Salts or esters of sulfonic acids are called sulfonates.

 

 

investigated in lab-scale experiments for degradation of phenol
sulfonic acid (PSA) in aqueous solution. The study showed that
the UV/H2O2
process has removal percentage 90.9, 93.0 and
94.4 for neutral, basic and acidic conditions in 20 minutes
respectively.
The experimental results showed that the optimum
conditions were obtained at a pH value of 3, with 4 mmol/1
H2O2
, and 0.25 mmol/1 Fe(II) for the UV/H2O2
/Fe(II) system
and 6 mmol/l H2O2
and, 0.4 mmol/1 Fe(III) for the
UV/H2O2
/Fe(III) system.
The reaction was influenced by the pH, the input
concentration of H2O2
and the amount of the iron catalyst and
the type of iron salt. As for the UV processes, UV/H2O2
showed
the highest degradation rate under acidic conditions.
Keywords- Photochemical Oxidation; phenol sulfonic acid;
Photo-Fenton; UV radiation; Hydrogen peroxide; Degradation.
I. INTRODUCTION
Many industrial processes, such as oil refineries,
petrochemical industries (olefin plants), Steel factories,
plastic plants, paper plants, synthetic chemicals, pesticides,
coal conversion generate flow streams that contain small
concentrations of phenols and phenolic compounds. The
removal of these pollutants from wastewater is one of the
most critical topics in environmental research and is required
prior to discharge or reuse of the waste flow.
Phenolic compounds are one of the major classes of organic
pollutants generated through various industrial activities. For
example, more than 97,000 tonnes of phenolic wastes were
generated by the industries in the United States in 2000 [1].
Electrolytic tin plating on steel substrate has been widely
used in food and beverage industries
due to its non-toxic nature [2]. Recently, it also has been
applied in the semiconductor industry because of its strong
resistance to corrosion and tarnishing of component leads,
solderability and ductility. Phenol Sulfonic Acid (PSA) and
its isomers work as electrolytes in electroplating baths for
tin-plating applications also as a catalyst in the production of
phenolic floral foam and in paint, textile and carpeting
industries, tanneries, pharmaceutics, glue production and etc.
The acute toxicological effects of phenol and its derivatives
are largely on the central nervous system. Acute poisoning
can lead to severe gastrointestinal disturbances, kidney
malfunction, circulatory system failure, lung edema and
convulsions. Fatal doses can be absorbed through the skin.
Key organs damaged by chronic phenol exposure include the
spleen, pancreas and kidneys.
The toxic effect of phenol sulfonic acid (PSA) resembles
those of phenol [3]. Various treatment technologies are
available for the reduction of all levels of initial phenol
concentration in phenolic wastes. These are classified as
solvent extraction for high levels of phenols (above 500
ppm), physico-chemical and biological treatments for
intermediate levels of phenols (5-500 ppm), ozonation and
carbon adsorption for low levels of phenols [4].
The Photo-Fenton process, the combination of homogeneous
systems of UV/H2O2/Fe compounds, produced the highest
photochemical elimination rate for phenol (up to 100 ppm)
[5, 6].
In this study, removal of PSA using advanced oxidation
processes (UV, UV/H2O2, UV/H2O2/Fe(II) and
UV/H2O2/Fe(III)) has been studied and its removal
efficiency is compared.
Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Environment, Energy, Ecosystems and Development 207
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Phenol sulfonic acid (4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid), 65%
solution in stable form was provided from Mreck. For PSA
concentration measurement, calorimetric method with
spectrophotometer was used. In this stage, solutions with
concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 400 mg/lit
were prepared and their light absorption in UV mode and in
two light wavelength of 235 and 259 nm were tested. Results
showed that 235 nanometer wavelengths are sensitive to
concentrations less than 10 mg/lit PSA and 259 nanometer
wavelengths are sensitive to concentrations more than 10
mg/lit of PSA. Using these data, standard curves for the
solutions were prepared and used for subsequent
measurements.
Ferrous (FeSO4.7H2O) and ferric [Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O] sulphate
heptahydrate used as sources of Fe(II) and Fe(III), were all
analytical grade and purchased from Merck. Hydrogen
peroxide solution (35% w/w) in stable form was provided by
Riedel-deHaen Company. All reagents employed were not
subjected to any further treatment. Water was double
distilled quality.
Samples were taken at appropriate time intervals from the
reaction vessel and pipetted into (5 ml) glass vials. The vials
were filled so as to leave no headspace and sealed with
teflon-lined silicon septa and screw caps. The samples were
immediately analyzed to avoid further reaction.
Concentration changes of phenol sulfonic acid were
determined by a spectrophotometer (CARY 100 Scan,
VARIAN) according to the standard methods [7]. The initial
and treated solutions of phenol sulfonic acid were
determined by the standard methods procedure [7]. The pH
measurements were carried out with a Metrohm model 691
pH meter, calibrated with two buffer solutions of 3 and 7.
A. Experimental setup
All experiments were performed in a batch reactor with a
cooling jacket. The schematic diagram of the experimental
set-up used in the study is shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of photochemical oxidation system experimental set-up.
The reactor was cylindrical with 1.5 L volume and the
internal part is made of quartz glass which was available for
the transfer of the radiation and the outer part is made of
Pyrex glass. Irradiation was achieved by using UV lamp
(medium pressure mercury lamp UVOX 300 of 300 W, 245-
265 nm, from ARDA Company in France) which was
immersed in the glass tube.
The reactor was equipped with a cooling water jacket system
(with recycle water thermostat model OPTIMA 740 , Japan).
The reactor was filled with the reaction mixture. Mixing was
accomplished by the use of a magnetic stirrer.
C. Photodegradation procedures
For each experiment, synthetic aqueous solution of phenol
sulfonic acid (to simulate a high loaded phenol sulfonic acid
containing industrial wastewater) was prepared in double
distilled water as solvent. The laboratory unit was filled with
1.5 L of the phenol sulfonic acid solution. For runs using
UV/H2O2 system, hydrogen peroxide at different amounts
was injected in the reactor before the beginning of each run.
For runs, using the photo-Fenton process, the pH value of the
solution was set at the desired value by the addition of a
H2SO4 solution before startup, then a given weight of iron
salt was added. The iron salt was mixed very well with the
phenol sulfonic acid before the addition of a given volume of
hydrogen peroxide. The time at which the ultraviolet lamp
was turned on was considered time zero or the beginning of
the experiment which was taking place simultaneously with
the addition of hydrogen peroxide.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A. The effect of the amount of H2O2
Although hydrogen peroxide did not oxidize phenol at all, as
observed in this work, when it combined with UV
irradiation, the rate of phenol degradation increased
significantly compared to that of direct photolysis. Fig. 2
illustrates the percent degradation of phenol as a function of
the irradiation time at different doses of H2O2 input. The
photolysis of phenol in the absence of H2O2 gave rather
moderate results and resulted in a slow degradation of
phenol. By addition of H2O2, the degradation rate of phenol
increased when hydrogen peroxide concentration increased.
As can be seen from Fig. 2, the percent degradation of
phenol sulfonic acid at 4 mmol/L hydrogen peroxide dosage
was 67.5 and was 67.9 at 6 mmol/L hydrogen peroxide
dosage. In this process, hydroxyl radicals generated from the
direct photolysis of hydrogen peroxide were the main
responsible species of phenol elimination. However
hydrogen peroxide also reacts with these radicals and hence
acts as an inhibiting agent of phenol sulfonic acid
degradation [8].
Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Environment, Energy, Ecosystems and Development 208
Fig. 2. Degradation of phenol sulfonic acid with the UV/H2O2 process.
The effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration (irradiation time= 5 min.).
B. Photo-Fenton process
The formation of the hydroxyl radicals by using the
photo-Fenton process under application of Fe(II) occurs
according to the following Eq. (1) [9].
Fe2+ + H2O2 → Fe3+ + OH-
+OH* (1)
Reaction (1), already known as the Fenton reaction,
possesses a high oxidation potential, but its revival in the
application to wastewater treatment began only recently [10].
UV irradiation leads not only to the formation of additional
hydroxyl radicals but also to a recycling of the ferrous
catalyst by reduction of Fe(III). By this the concentration of
Fe(II) increases and therefore the gross reaction is
accelerated [11]. The reaction time needed for the photoFenton reaction is extremely low and depends on the
operating pH value and the concentrations of H2O2 and iron
added. Within 5 mins above 80% destruction of phenol
sulfonic acid could be observed using photo-Fenton
processes.
C. The effect of the pH value
The pH value affects the oxidation of organic substances
both directly and indirectly. The photo-Fenton reaction is
strongly affected by the pH-dependence. The pH value
influences the generation of OH radicals and thus the
oxidation efficiency. Fig. 3 (a,b and c) show the effect of the
pH value during the use of the photo-Fenton process. A
maximum degradation of 94.4% was obtained with the
system UV/H2O2 at a pH=3, degradation of 93.0% with the
same system at a pH=8.5 and degradation of 90.9% at a
pH=7.
D. The influence of initial hydrogen peroxide concentration
Fig. 2 shows the effect of the initial hydrogen peroxide on
the degradation of phenol with the use of photo-Fenton
processes. As expected, the degradation of phenol was
increased by increasing the concentration of H2O2 added.
This can be explained by the effect of the additionally
produced OH0
radicals. Addition of H2O2 exceeding 20 m
mol/L for UV/H2O2 system did not improve the respective
maximum degradation; this may be due to autodecomposition of H2O2 to oxygen and water and the
recombination of OH0
radicals. Since OH0
radicals react with
H2O2, H2O2 itself contributes to the OH scavenging
capacity [8].
Fig. 3. Phenol sulfonic acid degradation as a function of the pH value by
using UV/H2O2 process: (H2O2)0 = 4 mmol/1 [pH=3(a), pH=7(b) and
pH=8.9(c)].
Therefore, H2O2 should be added at an optimal
concentration to achieve the best degradation.
E. The effect of the amount of iron salt
Iron in its ferrous and ferric form acts as photo-catalyst
and requires a working pH below 4. To obtain the optimal
Fe(II) or Fe(III) amounts, the investigation was carried out
with various amounts of the iron salt. Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show
the percent degradation of phenol as a function of the added
Fe(II) and Fe(III). The figures show that the addition of
either Fe2+ or Fe3+ enhanced the efficiency of UV/H2O2 for
phenol degradation. The degradation rate of phenol sulfonic
acid distinctly increased with increasing amounts of iron salt.
Addition of the iron salt above 0.25 mmol/L Fe(II) or 0.40
mmol/L Fe(III) did not affect the degradation, even when the
concentration of the iron was doubled. A higher addition of
iron salt resulted in brown turbidity that hindered the
absorption of the UV light required for photolysis and caused
the recombination of OH radicals. In this case, Fe2+ reacted
with OH radicals as a scavenger [12].
It is desirable that the ratio of H2O2 to Fe(II) should be as
small as possible, so that the recombination can be avoided
and the sludge production from iron complex is also reduced.
Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Environment, Energy, Ecosystems and Development 209
Fig. 4. Phenol sulfonic acid degradation as a function of iron catalyst
(Fe(II)) addition: (H2O2)0 =4 mmol/1, pH=3.
Fig. 5. Phenol sulfonic acid degradation as a function of iron catalyst
(Fe(III)) addition: (H2O2)0 =4 mmol/1, pH=3.
IV. COMPARISON BETWEEN UV/H2O2 SYSTEM
AND PHOTO-FENTON PROCESS
A. Degradation rate
The photodegradation of phenol was investigated in both
systems UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton process
[UV/H2O2/Fe(II) and UV/H2O2/Fe(III)]. The loss of phenol
sulfonic acid was observed as a function of irradiation time
and data were fitted to a first-order rate model
Ln(C1/C0)=-K0 t (2)
Where C0 and C1 are the concentration of phenol sulfonic
acid at irradiation times 0 and t, K0 is a first-order rate
constant (in min-1) and t is the irradiation time (in min). The
rate constants were determined using a first-order rate model
[Eq. (2)]. The results are listed in Table 1.
The experimental data in Table 1 show that UV/H2O2
process had a significant accelerating effect on the rate of
oxidation of phenol sulfonic acid. The data in Table 1 show
that adding Fe(II) or Fe(III) to the UV/H2O2 system
decreased the rate of phenol oxidation by a maximum factor
0.86 and 0.82 for Fe(II) and Fe(III), respectively, over the
UV/H2O2 system, depending on both H2O2 and Fe doses.
Table 1: Values of reaction rate constants of the degradation of phenol
sulfonic acid by different types of AOP.
IV. CONCLUTIONS
The results show that the degradation rate of phenol
sulfonic acid strongly accelerates by the photochemical
oxidation processes. The UV/H2O2 process produced the
highest photochemical elimination rate for phenol sulfonic
acid. The oxidation rate was influenced by many factors,
such as the pH value, the amount of hydrogen peroxide and
iron salt and the type of iron added. The optimum conditions
obtained for the best degradation were a pH = 3 and a H2O2
concentration of 4 mmol/1 for UV/H2O2 system.
The advantages of the UV/H2O2 process as an oxidative
pre-treatment step over other photochemical oxidation
processes are economics, efficiency especially if aromatic
compounds are to be destroyed, easy handling of the method
because no specific technical equipment is necessary, low
investment, less energy demand and harmless process
products. The acidic pH (<4) is major problem currently
under examination.
Combination of an AOP with biological treatment is a
promising alternative because one can take advantage of
both methods and develop as a result a potent wastewater
purification method.
Considering the UV/H2O2 method as a preliminary step
prior to a biological wastewater treatment, one has to adjust
pH twice, first to an acidic pH below 4 to perform the
reaction and then back to a neutral pH.
IV. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors wish to thank to National Petrochemical
Company (NPC) for support of this study.
REFERENCES
[1] US EPA, 2000 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)
Public Data Release Report. EPA-260-R-02-003 United
States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
(2002).
[2] E. Morgan, Tinplate and Modern Can making.
Pergamon Press Ltd. (1995).
[3] E.M. Stanly, Environmental Chemistry. Lewis Pub.,
7th ed. (2000).
[4] J.W. Patterson, Industrial Wastewater Treatment
Technology. 2nd ed., Butterworth Publisher Inc., Boston,
371-393 (1985).
[5] N. Jamshidi, A. Torabian, A.A. Azimi and A.A.
Ghadimkhani, Degradation of phenol in aqueous solution by
AOP. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 21 (1), 673-681 (2009).
[6] A. Torabian, N. Jamshidi, A.A. Azimi, G.R. Nabi
Bidhendi and M.T. Jafarzadeh, Asian Journal of
Chemistry, 21 (7), 5310 (2009).
Type of advanced oxidation process K0 (min-1
)
UV 0.379
UV/H2O2 0.792
UV/H2O2/Fe(II) 0.684
UV/H2O2/Fe(III) 0.652
Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Environment, Energy, Ecosystems and Development 210
[7] Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and
Wastewater, 22th Edition. American Public Health
association (APHA), American Water Works Association
(AWWA) and Water Environment Federation (WEF).
Washington DC, USA, 2012.
[8] A. Mokrini, D. Oussi, S. Esplugas, Water Sci.
Technol., 35(4), 95 (1997).
[9] R.J. Bigda, Chem. Eng. Prog., 91(12), 62 (1995).
[10] S.H. Bossmann, E. Oliveros, S. Gob, S. Siegwart,
E.P. Dahlen, J.L. Payawan, M. Straub, M. Worner, A.M.
Braun, J. Phys. Chem. A, 102(28), 5542 (1998).
[11] J Gimenez, D. Curco, P. Marco, Reactor modeling
in the photocatalytic oxidation of wastewater. Water Sci.
Tech., 35(4), 207-13 (1997).
[12] C. Wailling, Acc. Chem. Res., 8, 125-131 (1975). 
Phenol Sulphonic Acid
Phenol Sulphonic Acid chemical offered is also known by synonyms of P-Hydroxy benzene Sulphonic Acid, Sulpho Carbolic Acid and comes with CAS No of 98-67-9, molecular formula of C6H6O4S and molecular weight of 174.20. The chemical is available in red brown colored liquid form with minimum assay of 65% and availability in pure, Pharma passing, LR, AR and ACS grades. Some of its properties include as a versatile catalyst solution it is used in electroplating process, in baths for tin-plating applications, as catalyst in the production of phenolic floral foam, in textile applications.
Specifications:

 

 

Phenol Sulphonic Acid
Synonyms : P-Hydroxy benzene Sulphonic Acid, Sulpho Carbolic Acid
CAS No 98-67-9
Molecular Formula C6H6O4S
Molecular Weight 174.2
Description Red Brown Colored Liquid
Grade 
SPECIFICATION
Assay 65% MIN
*Also available Pure, Pharma passing, LR, AR and ACS Grade
tudies on removal of phenol sulfonic acid-syntan in aqueous medium usingozonationRema Thankappana, S. V. Srinivasana, R. Suthanthararajanaand Mika SillanpääbaEnvironmental Technology Division, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, India;bLaboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappenranta Universityof Technology, Mikkeli, FinlandABSTRACTThe removal of phenol sulfonic acid-syntan (PSAS) in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) wasstudied at different pH, ozone and initial PSAS concentrations and the optimum condition wasfound to be pH 7, ozone concentration of 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L and initial PSAS concentration of500 mg/L. The increase in BOD5/COD ratio confirmed the bio-treatability of ozonated PSASeffluent. The excitation-emission matrix intensity and Fourier transmission infra-red spectroscopyconfirmed the generation of intermediate by-product during degradation of PSAS. The ozonationof PSAS was found to obey fast regime pseudo-first-order reaction with a rate constant of 3.7 ×10-9mol-1s-1. The mean oxidation state of carbon value between +2 and +3 confirmed that theozonation of PSAS resulted in partial mineralization.ARTICLE HISTORYReceived 26 April 2017Accepted 11 July 2017KEYWORDSCOD; EEM; ozone; rateconstant; syntan1. IntroductionWastewater generated from tanneries is highly variable incomposition and is characterized by high organic con-taminants, in turn contributing to high chemical oxygendemand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) andtotal dissolved solids, which is based on the type oftanning process, raw materials used, product manufac-tured and scale of operation carried out in tanneries.Some of these organics used in tanneries are not easilyamenable to chemical or biological treatment [1-4]. Therapid increase in treatment costs and stringent regulationon discharge of treated wastewaters has prompted muchresearch efforts to identify other alternative methods tomeet the discharge standards. Numerous physicochem-ical methods such as adsorption, filtration, coagulation,etc. before and after biological methods have been usedto treat wastewater containing organic contaminants.However, these processes have many disadvantagessuch as considerable amount of sludge generation, absor-bent regeneration, membrane fouling, etc. [2,5-9].In the tanning process, a group of organic compoundsof high molecular weight, syntans, are used to transformhide and skin to be durable leather material. Most of thesyntans are manufactured from aromatic substances,based on cresols, phenols and naphthalene, using formal-dehyde and sulfuric acid which pose a greater environ-mental threat. Choice of the raw materials (cresols,phenols and naphthalene) used in the manufacture ofsyntan depends mainly on the nature of its applications.Syntans, which are used in leather processes, are not com-pletely absorbed by the skins and the excess chemicalsare washed out in effluent [9]. Based on the constituentsof syntan, it is categorized into three groups, namely (a)condensation product of aromatic compounds such asphenol, naphthalene, sulfonic acid, formaldehyde orurea with sulfone group, (b) condensation product fromformaldehyde with amino or amido compounds such asurea melamine cyanamid and (c) polymerization productfrom acrylic acid derivatives [10]. These compounds aredifficult to degrade biologically by available methodsdue to the presence of sulfonic group in the aromaticring which resist the bacterial attack [11]. Hence, thesesyntans are persistent in water for several years, causingdirect ecotoxicological effects on aquatic organisms[12,13]. The presence of sulfonic group in the aromaticring deactivates it against bacterial attack. Due to thelarge degree of aromatics present (phenol, formaldehyde,etc.) in the syntan, the conventional biological treatmentmethods adopted in treatment plants are ineffective[14-16]. Hence, there is need for an alternative treatmentprocesswithlesssludgeproduction.Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are found to bea better approach for the elimination of toxic and recal-citrant compounds present in wastewater with less© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis GroupCONTACT Rema Thankappan ranirema@gmail.com Environmental Technology Division, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020, India;S. V. Srinivasan srinivasansv@yahoo.com Environmental Technology Division, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020, IndiaSupplemental data for this article can be accessed at https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2017.1355936.ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY, 2017https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2017.1355936
generation of sludge. AOPs are based on the generationof hydroxyl radical, which are highly reactive and non-selective oxidant toward organic compounds. AOPshave been suggested as potential methods especiallyfor biorefractory or toxic compounds [17-20]. The appli-cation of ozonation is a favorable technology for theremoval of relatively refractory compounds [21,22].Studies have reported that ozonation is effective for thedegradation of organic compounds containing C=C, ole-finic double bonds, acetylenic triple bonds, aromatic com-pounds, C-H, C-N bonds and carbon-metal bonds [23,24]by breakdown of simple organic compounds such as alde-hydes, ketones and organic acids which could be easilytreated in the biological process in an effective manner[25], although in some studies, it has been reported thatthe by-products formed can exhibit toxicity [26]. Even-tually, in some other cases, organic compounds can becompletely oxidized with ozone to CO2and H2O[27].Studies have reported that there is an increase in theratio of BOD5/COD after the ozonation process whichshows an improved biodegradability of toxic substancesuch as naphthalene derivatives, phenol and its chlori-nated derivatives containing wastewater [28-30].Though other AOPs such as UV/ozone, UV/H2O2andFenton process enhance the degradation process,there are few limitations on these systems compared tosingle ozone oxidation. The limitations of UV/ozone andUV/H2O2include (i) interference of UV absorning com-pounds such as nitrate and Iron (ii) turbidity reduce lightpenetration, and the Fenton reaction also results theformation of large amount of iron sludge. Only a fewreports exist on the degradation of syntan using AOPsuch as ozonation, UV/TiO2and Fenton process[9,28,31], though AOP of composite tannery wastewaterhas been reported for the partial mineralization of refrac-tory compounds present in it [30,32-36].This study focused on the mineralization of PSAS by theozonation process and assessed its efficiency in terms ofreduction in COD, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) andUV absorption (UV254and UV280nm). The kinetic analysis,estimation of mean oxidation state of carbon (MOC) andthree-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emissionmatrix (EEM) spectroscopy analysis were performed toassess the mineralization of PSAS. Kinetic parameterssuch as reaction order, rate constants, stoichiometricratio and the kinetic regime of absorption (Hattanumber, Ha) were calculated for the degradation ofPSAS for the ozonation process.2. Materials and methodsAll the chemicals used in the present study were analyti-cal in grade and used without further purification.Commercially available PSAS was obtained from theleather-manufacturing process industry. Physicochem-ical properties of the selected syntan compound aregiven in Table 1.2.1. Experimental set-upA bench-scale glass reactor with a volume of 3 L withdimensions of 40 mm diameter and 1600 mm heightwas used as a reactor for the ozonation process. Theozone gas was injected into a reactor through ceramicdiffuser at the bottom of the reactor. A lab-scale ozonegenerator (Faraday Instruments, Model No. L6G, India)was used as a source for ozone with a supply range of1-3 g/h. Ozone was generated and subsequently usedfor the application from pure oxygen using oxygen con-centrator (Air Sep Corporation, Model New Life, USA).The required flow rate of oxygen concentration was con-trolled by adjusting flow from 1 to 5 L/min. The concen-tration of ozone dose was determined using a dissolvedozone monitor kit provided by Faraday Instruments,Model DOZ1, India. The consumption of ozone was cal-culated from the difference in ozone concentration(initial and final) at aqueous solution after ozonation.To study the effect of pH on the removal of PSAS,experiments were conducted at pH 5, 7 and 9 with theinitial PSAS concentration of 500 mg/L and ozone con-centration of 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L. The pH was maintainedthroughout the ozonation process using 0.1N NaOH andby adding appropriate phosphate and borate buffer inorder to avoid possible changes in the pH-sensitive reac-tion mechanism of ozone. Similarly, to study the effect ofPSAS concentration on the removal of PSAS, experimen-tal runs were carried out by varying the initial concen-tration from 100 to 700 mg/L at pH 7 and ozoneconcentration of 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L at buffered con-dition. Similarly, to study the effect of ozone concen-tration on removal of PSAS, experimental runs werecarried out by varying ozone concentration from 1.7 ×10-3, 3.4 × 10-3and 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L at pH 7 andinitial PSAS concentration of 500 mg/L at buffered con-dition. It is reported that Henry's law constant of ozonein water depends on pH and temperature of theTable 1. Properties of selected syntan.Properties Phenol sulfonic acid condensation productAppearance Light yellowSolubility Highly water solublepH 4.5-4.7Carbon (%) 28-30Tannin (%) 55-60Nitrogen (%) 11-12Sulfur (%) 27-28Hydrogen (%) 4.8-5.12R. THANKAPPAN ET AL.
ozone-water system [37]. The equilibrium concentrationC∗Awas calculated from the molecular diffusion coeffi-cient of ozone in water based on experimental results.Kinetics and stoichiometric ratio were calculated fromthe experimental results carried out at pH 7, initialPSAS concentration of 500 mg/L and ozone molar con-centration of 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L at buffered condition.2.2. Analytical methodsSamples were drawn at predefined time intervals fromthe reactor for determining COD, DOC, tannin, phenoland UV absorbance up to 60 min. pH was measuredusing a pH meter (Eutech Instruments, Singapore). Theozone dose at the inlet and outlet of the reactor wasdetermined by iodometric titration according to the pro-cedures recommended in standard methods for examin-ation of water and wastewater [38]. COD (closed refluxmethod) and tannin was determined using colorimetrictechniques [38]. The optical absorption spectra (200-400 nm) and reduction in the UV-Visible absorption ofthe PSAS solution was recorded using a UV-Visibledouble beam spectrophotometer (Hitachi, Model.U2000). Phenol was quantified by high performanceliquid chromatograph (HPLC, Dionex, Ultimate 3000).Phenol analysis was performed on a reverse phase C-18 column (220 m × 4.6 mm) with acetonitrile:water(60:40) mixture as the mobile phase at a constant flowrate of 1 mL/min and detected using UV at 275 nm atroom temperature. DOC was analyzed by using totalorganic carbon (TOC) analyser (SGE Analytica, Australia).Fourier transmission infra-red (FTIR) spectra wereobtained using approximately 2 mg of lyophilizedsample in approximately 200 mg of KBr pellet and setto scan from 4000 to 400 cm-1(Nicolet Impact 400FTIR spectrophotometer). The results presented forCOD, DOC, tannin, phenol and UV absorbance (280 and254 nm) at various pH are average values of an error vari-ation of +/-5%. MOC was calculated as follows [39]:MOC =4-1.5×CODTOC , (1)The MOC parameter was used as a confirmatory foranalysis of the formation of CO2during the oxidationof different organics, which qualitatively assesses thenature of the organics using measurements of TOCand COD. This parameter ranges between -4 for theminor oxidation state of carbon (CH4) and +4 for themajor oxidation state (CO2) which gives valuable infor-mation concerning reaction during the oxidationprocess [40]. Three-dimensional excitation-emissionspectra were measured by Varian eclipse fluorescencespectrophotometer. The changes were quantitativelyanalyzed using fluorescence regional integration (FRI)technique developed by Chen et al. [41]. The methodintegrates EEM intensities and determines thecumulative response using the volume (ɸi) beneaththe region Iin the EEM and the EEM volumewas determined by using the equation as reported inliterature [21].Fi=Ex Em I(lExlEm )DlEx DlEm , (2)where ΔλExis the excitation wavelength interval, ΔλEmisthe emission wavelength interval and I(λExλEm) is fluor-escent intensity of each excitation-emission wave-length pair.3. Result and discussion3.1. Effect of pHThe effect of pH on oxidizing ability of the ozonationexperiment was carried out in the range of 5-9bytreating different solutions with 500 mg/L of PSAS(equivalent COD of 538 mg/L, DOC 190.8 mg/L, tanninof 108 mg/L and phenol of 81 mg/L) for contact timeof 60 min with an ozone concentration of 5.2 ×10-3mmol/L. Figure 1(a) depicts the effect of initialpH on the removal of PSAS in terms of COD, tanninand phenol. After 60 min of ozonation, maximum per-centage of removal was found to be 84.2%, 58.7%, 97%and 99% in terms of COD, DOC, tannin and phenol,respectively. SM Table 1 and Figure 1(b) show ahigher rate constant of 0.016 min-1at pH 7 for DOCremoval (Equation (7)). The decrease in COD might bedue to partial oxidation as full mineralization oforganic molecules did not occur [40]. The reactionbetween ozone and organic carbon compounds isfound to be a function of carbon bonding and func-tional group content with aromatic compounds or com-pounds with e-donating functional groups [42]. FromFigure 1(c,d), it is observed that the reduction in UVabsorbance was favored at pH 7, and was attributedto breakage of UV absorbing double bonds whichreflect a decrease in the recalcitrance of the compoundthereby reducing its aromaticity. The lower DOCremoval compared to UV254removal could be causedby incomplete or partial oxidation of organic carbon.UV254and UV280removal achieved an overall removalof 87.4% and 92%, respectively, at the end of 60 minozonation. From these results, it is observed that lossin aromaticity is attributed to delocalization of UVabsorbing organic constituents of PSAS molecule.These results are similar to the studies published byWert et al. [26]. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) is avaluable parameter indicating the quantity of theENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY 3
unsaturated double bonds associated with DOC con-tained in organic matters (measure of aromaticcontent per unit concentration of carbon -L/mg cm);higher the quantity of unsaturated bonds, higher theUV254absorbance [42]. SUVA > 4 mg/L shows relativelyhigh content of hydrophobic and high molecularweight aromatic organic compounds fraction. SUVA inthe range of 2-4 shows a mixture of hydrophobicand hydrophilic compounds. SUVA < 2 shows largelynon-humic, hydrophilic, aliphatic and low molecularweight organic fractions [43]. From Figure 1(e), it isclearly observed that the initial SUVA index of >2showed that PSAS molecule contains more hydrophiliccompounds than hydrophobic components [9]. Withreference to the above-mentioned studies, SUVA atpH 7 showed best SUVA index which decreased from2.06 to 0.64, indicating the reactivity of ozonetowards UV absorbing organic compounds as aFigure 1. Effect of pH on removal of COD, DOC, tannin, phenol (a), DOC removal (b), UV254(c), UV280(d), SUVA (e) and MOC (f) at ozoneconcentration of 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L and initial PSAS concentration of 500 mg/L.4R. THANKAPPAN ET AL.
consequence of higher delocalization. UV254,UV280andSUVA increased in the first 5-10 min and then graduallydecreased. This may be due to the several short-livedproducts formed during ozonation [44]. Subsequently,it was observed from the experimental results thatCOD reduced much faster than DOC towards the endof the reaction. Decrease in COD/DOC ratio wasobserved in all studied pH, which showed thatorganic carbon remaining in solution after ozonationwas in a higher average oxidation state than beforeozonation [40]. Similar results have been reported forthe removal of COD in the treatment of organic com-pounds of stabilized leachate using ozonation andremoval of phenol and naphthalene derivatives intanning wastewater [45].In order to understand the partial oxidation, MOCvalue at different pH was calculated based onexpression given in Equation (1) using COD and TOCvalues, which are presented in Figure 1(f). MOC valuewas between +2 and +3 towards the end of the reac-tion, which indicates that different intermediatesduring PSAS oxidation and final product CO2werenot formed. The MOC value below +2 at pH 9 confirmsthat radical scavenger would have been generated andat pH 5, due to high selective nature of molecularozone in the reaction, direct oxidation would nothave proceeded [46]. Maximum removal of PSAS hasbeen observed at pH 7, which may be due to both mol-ecular ozone and OH·radical involved in the reaction,which might have effectively taken part in theremoval of organic carbon. In general, studies havereported that at pH 8 or above, organic compoundsare oxidized due to the formation of hydroxyl radical.In the present study, removal of PSAS at pH 9 wasless than at pH 7. This could be due to the presenceof inorganic additives in PSAS or the formation of car-bonate, bicarbonate, chloride or sulfate during oxi-dation which would have acted as a hydroxyl radicalscavenger resulting in less hydroxyl radical availablefor the reaction with organic fractions of PSAS [47,48].In addition, it could be attributed to the fact that struc-tured polymeric PSAS molecules are oxidized by ozona-tion to small molecules such as aldehydes, ketones, etc.instead of mineralization of complex PSAS into CO2andwater [25]. A rapid decrease in the COD values in theinitial stages of the reaction was observed till 30 min,which may be due to the presence of compoundswith functional groups having C=C double bond andthe aromatic ring which reacts easily with ozone. Since,the OH·radical would be the prominent oxidant at alka-line pH, phenol and tannin removal was higher at pH9. This may be attributed to the formed OH·radical,which might have degraded phenol and tanninaccording to following equation [36]:C6H5OH +OH†by - products, k2=6.6×109 M-1s-1.(3)3.2. Influence of initial PSAS concentrationThe influence of PSAS concentration on the removalrate was studied by conducting a series of experimentsat various initial PSAS concentrations. Four differenttotal initial concentrations of PSAS ranging from 100to 700 mg/L were investigated at pH 7 and an ozoneconcentration of 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L. The COD, tanninand phenol concentrations of these aqueous solutionsvaried between 102 and 746, 20.7 and 150 and 15.4and 109 mg/L, respectively. Figure 2(a) indicates theremoval of PSAS in terms of COD, DOC, tannin andphenol. It was observed that the removal ratedecreased with increase in initial concentration ofPSAS. Removal of COD, DOC, tannin and phenolvaried from 62% to 97%, 32% to 78%, 79% to 99%and 98.17% to 99.6%, respectively, after 60 min ofcontact time for different concentrations studied.Removal of COD, tannin and phenol is mainly due toreaction of OH·radical formed during reaction and mol-ecular ozone at pH 7. Lesser removal at higher concen-trations of PSAS may be due to insufficient quantity ofthe molecular ozone and OH·radical formation forremoval of PSAS or may be due to inefficient oxidationof by-products formed during removal of PSAS [49].Figure 2(b) and SM Table 1demonstrate that theremoval of DOC showed almost linear relationshipand a higher initial concentration of PSAS led toslower degradation rate. Pseudo-first-order rate con-stants were estimated to be 2.5 × 10-2, 1.9 × 10-2,1.6 × 10-2and 7.2 × 10-3min-1for initial PSAS concen-tration of 100, 300, 500 and 700 mg/L, respectively.From Figure 2(c,d), it is observed that with the increasein initial concentration, the aromatic moieties at UV 254and 280 nm decrease from 94% to 74% and 97% to79%, respectively. From Figure 2(e), it is depicted thatSUVA index reduced from 2 to 0.46, 0.53, 0.6 and 0.74with initial PSAS concentrations of 100, 300, 500 and700 mg/L, respectively. The decrease in COD, DOC, UVabsorbance and increase in SUVA index may be attrib-uted to the ratio of ozone molecules to refractory com-ponents of PSAS in the solution which decreases withincrease in PSAS concentration. In order to understandthe influence of initial PSAS concentration on the partialoxidation/mineralization, MOC value was calculated forvarious initial PSAS concentrations. From Figure 2(f), itis ascertained that MOC value of the oxidation stateENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY 5
at lower concentration was less initially and at 60 minthe MOC value reached between +3 and +4. This indi-cates the reduction in aromatic structures and the for-mation of compounds with -COOH, -CHO and -OHfunctional groups [39]. At higher initial concentration,at 60 min, MOC was between +1 and +2 which maybe attributed to non-availability of sufficient ozone mol-ecules for the reaction at higher initial PSAS concen-tration or the formation of more intermediates, whichconsumes more ozone when compared to high initialPSAS concentration.3.3. Effect of ozone concentrationEffect of ozone concentration on the removal of PSAS interms of COD, tannin and phenol was studied with threedifferent ozone concentration 1.7 × 10-3, 3.4 × 10-3and5.2 × 10-3mmol/L with an initial PSAS concentration ofFigure 2. Effect of initial syntan concentration on removal of COD, DOC, tannin, phenol (a), DOC removal (b), UV254(c), UV280(d), SUVA(e) and MOC (f) at pH7 and ozone concentration of 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L.6R. THANKAPPAN ET AL.
500 mg/L (equivalent COD of 538 mg/L, tannin of108 mg/L and phenol of 81 mg/L) and pH at 7. Figure 3(a) shows that the removal of COD, DOC, tannin andphenol was found to vary from 43.9% to 84%, 30.9% to58%, 78.6% to 97.7% and 97% to 99.7%, respectively,when the ozone concentration increased from 1.7 ×10-3to 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L. From Figure 3(b) and SMTable 1, it is observed that the pseudo-first-order rateconstant increased from 6 × 10-3min-1with an ozoneconcentration of 1.7 × 10-3mmol/L to 1.6 × 10-1min-1with an ozone concentration of 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L. It isobserved from Figure 3(c,d) that with increase in ozoneconcentration, removal of aromatic moieties UV at 254and 280 nm increased from 46.9% to 86.6% and 69%to 92.6%, respectively. Figure 3(e) indicates that therewas no change in SUVA index at 1.7 × 10-3mmol/L ofFigure 3. Effect of ozone concentration (mmol/L) on removal of COD, DOC, tannin, phenol (a), DOC removal (b), UV254(c), UV280(d),SUVA (e) and MOC (f) at pH7 and initial PSAS concentration of 500 mg/L.ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY 7
ozone concentration, whereas at ozone concentration of3.4 × 10-3and 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L, SUVA index waschanged from 2.06 to 0.6 which depicts that aromaticcarbon decreases with increase in ozone concentration[26]. From Figure 3(f), it can be ascertained that MOCvalue was varying between 0 and +1, +1 and +2 and+2 and +3 for 1.7 × 10-3, 3.4 × 10-3and 5.2 ×10-3mmol/L, respectively.The increase in the applied ozone concentration asexpected resulted in improving the mass transfer andcausing an increase ozone concentration in the liquidphase. Hence, increased ozone concentration has pro-vided more available molecular ozone and OH·radicalin DOC, COD and UV absorbance removal and resultedin increase in the oxidation state by the formation of ali-phatic compounds [44]. However, at higher initial PSASconcentration of 700 mg/L at pH 7, the removal ofPSAS in term of COD at 60 min was 58.2% and clearlyindicates that the initial ozone concentration of 5.2 ×10-3mmol/L was not sufficient to remove organic frac-tions of PSAS. This demonstrates that ozone concen-tration can significantly influence the reaction rate for agiven initial PSAS concentration [50,51].The presence of residual DOC at high ozone concen-tration is explained by the fact that ozone mainly oxi-dizes electrophilic aromatic groups, such as aldehydes,ketones and especially carboxylic groups. These satu-rated compounds react very inefficiently with ozone, sothey are not further mineralized into carbon dioxideand water [52].3.4. Ozone consumption on decomposition ofPSASFig. SM-1 shows ozone consumption over a period of 60min contact time during removal of PSAS at pH 5, 7and 9. Ozone consumption was calculated in terms ofmmol/L COD removed. The ozone consumption rapidlyincreased in the initial period of 5 min and the samereduced to a minimum at 45 min. This may be due todestruction of readily degradable complex bondspresent in the PSAS and the varying degradabilitynature of products generated during the ozonationprocess and their reaction rate with ozone at pH 7,where both direct and indirect reactions would havebeen headed. It is also observed from the trendsshown in the graph that ozone consumption is relatedto pH up to 5 min. When the ozone consumption washigh, particularly during the first 5 min of the reaction,there was a rapid decrease in the concentration ofCOD, tannin and phenol. The trend continued up to 45min, which resulted in minimum ozone consumption,and remained almost constant up to 60 min.3.5. Kinetic analysis-stoichiometric ratios,evaluation of kinetic constant, liquid masstransfer coefficient and kinetic regimeThe stoichiometric ratio (z) was calculated using the con-centration of ozone and PSAS in terms of COD in theaqueous solution (CCOD0), and the remaining concen-tration in the final solution (CCOD) by the followingequation [53]:z=[O3]0CCOD0-CCOD.(4)The stoichiometric ratio (z) for the treatment of aqueousPSAS solution by ozonation increased with increase inozone/COD molar ratio from 0.76 to 0.80 until itreached a constant value. This may be due to the for-mation of intermediate products which consumedhigher ozone concentration than the required concen-tration for a particular reaction. A similar observationwas also reported during degradation of phenol fromagro waste [53].In order to assess the kinetic regime (fast or slow), filmtheory equation has been followed. The ozone gasabsorbed into a liquid followed an irreversible reactionwith the liquid solute; the gas sorption rate has beenobtained from the following equation [53]:NAa=kLaC∗AE, (5)where Eis the enhancement factor.Since the dissolved ozone was not detected in thepresent ozonation reaction, ozone absorption rate hasbeen expressed as a function of degradation rate ofPSAS in terms of COD as follows [53]:NAa=zdCBdt.(6)In the fast regime, there is a particular situation wherethe reaction can be considered to be pseudo-m-orderwith respect to the gas being dissolved and the reactionregime is often described by a dimensionless parameter,Hatta number, which indicates the relative importance ofthe chemical reaction compared to the mass transfer,and is defined in the form (Equation (7)) as reported inthe treatment of phenolic compounds in agro waste [53].Ha =1KL2m+1kDAC∗m-1ACnB.(7)CBis the reactant concentration, kis the rate constant forthe reaction between ozone and the organic compound,and KLis the mass transfer coefficient.In the ozonation process, the enhancement factor Ecould not be calculated as the data are not available.The fast and pseudo-m-order kinetic regime is initially8R. THANKAPPAN ET AL.
assumed, but later it has been proved by determiningthe parameters Ha and Eand verifying the condition.With the condition E=Ha and equations (5), (6) and (7),equation can be written as [53]-dCBdt=aCAz2kDAC∗m-1ACnBm+1.(8)Assuming initially a reaction of first order with respect tothe substrate m= 1, rearranging and integratingEquation (8) with the initial conditiont=0; CB=CB0(9)The following equation was obtained [53]:CB0-CB=k′t.(10)From Equation (10), the graph was plotted between(CB0√-CB√) vs. time for the different pH of the sol-ution (Figure 4). The points were found to be on astraight line with the regression coefficient of 0.98, thusconfirming that the removal of PSAS by ozonationobeyed pseudo-first-order reaction. Hence, the order ofreaction, n= 1 was used in the present investigation.SM Table 2 shows the k′values obtained from leastregression analysis for the experiment at differentozone concentrations applied. The kinetic rate constantk′value was increased with an increase in ozone concen-tration, which may be due to the fact that the increase inozone concentration increased the rate of reaction sig-nificantly. The calculated liquid mass transfer kLcoeffi-cient was found to be 4.61 ms-1.Equation (11) was used to identify the experimentalreaction order m during ozonation of PSAS. The plotbetween ln k′vs. ln C∗Ayielded a straight line and fromthe slope [(m+ 1)/2] of the straight line, the value of mwas found to be 1.074 (Figure 5). Similar value of 1.058was obtained and reported [53]. The order of reactionwas found to be nearly 1; hence, the order of reactionis considered as the pseudo-first-order model.k′=aC∗.A2z2kDAC∗m-1Am+1.(11)Hence, the above equation has been modified and rep-resented in terms of the rate constant k[53].k=4k′2z2a2C∗2A.(12)Further the reaction regime was verified by calculatingHatta number from Equation (13). The equation wasderived from Equations (7) and (11).Ha =2zk′aC∗ACB√KL.(13)According to the film theory model, the reaction regimesmay be identified by the calculated Hatta number.The reaction is very slow and slow when the Hattanumber is Ha < 0.02 and Ha < 0.3, respectively. The reac-tion can be called as fast reaction regime when the Ha> 3. In the present study, the calculated Ha numberwas less than 3 for the ozone supply of 1.7 × 10-3and3.4 × 10-3mmol/L O3and showed a greater than 3 forthe ozone concentration of 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L O3.Hence,the removal of PSAS is sufficiently high only when theozone concentration is supplied at 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L O3and this concentration was considered as the optimumvalue for the effective removal of PSAS containingwastewater.Figure 4. Determination of k′constants.Figure 5. Determination of the m-order with respect to ozone.ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY 9
3.6. Absorption spectra and FTIR analysisDegradation of PSAS before and after ozonation wasstudied using UV-Visible analysis, which is based onthe characteristic of ozone reaction with C=C or C=O,and destruction of benzene ring makes aromaticity oforganic substances lower or disappear. From thespectra shown in Fig. SM-2, it is visible that the intensityof the UV absorbance at 280 nm (C=C bonded com-pounds) and 225 nm is decreased with an increase intreatment time. The absorption at 283, 225 and 210 nmdisappeared after ozonation. The shifting of spectralabsorbance from 225 to 210 nm may be due to the for-mation of carboxyl group (210-200 nm) and aldehyde(210 nm) as degradation products of PSAS.FTIR analysis of the lyophilized sample before andafter ozonation has been carried out in order to under-stand the changes of functional group within PSAS.Figure 6(a) shows peak before and after ozonation atpH 7. Peak at 3251 indicates N-H stretching or aromatic-OH. Carbonyl stretching conjugated with aromatic ringskeleton (naphthalene) or primary amide band prob-ably due to acrylamide C=C stretching of alkanesshowed a peak at 1653 cm-1. The peak at 1058 cm-1may be attributed to S=O stretching vibration ofSO3H. The peak at 970 and 850 cm-1showed CH outof plane trans-alkene and C-Cl stretching or is due toring-sextant-out-of-plane bending type of vibration.The FTIR spectrum of peak after ozonation (Figure 6(b))showed a peak at 3383 cm-1which may be due tothe presence of the N-H stretching. The peak at1641 cm-1may be attributed to carbonyl stretchingconjugated with an aromatic ring skeleton (naphtha-lene) or primary amide band. A new peak formed at1331 cm-1shows asymmetric bending of the NH+3while the peak at 1053 cm-1may be attributed to CHof 1, 4 tri-substituted aromatic rings or due to the sul-fonic group. The newly formed peak at 808 cm-1maybe due to bending mode vibration of O-C=O or C-Clstretching or is due to ring-sextant-out-of-planebending type of vibration. The newly formed peaksshowed the formation of by-products during ozonationand reduced intensity of the peak after ozonationshows the removal of PSAS.3.7. Changes of fluorescence properties of PSASduring ozonationEEM contour plot of PSAS before and after ozonation isshown in Fig. SM-3. Three characteristic peaks wereobserved in EEM such as quinone and aromaticketone-like substances ex/em 250-280/380-480,aniline-like substances ex/em 300-380/400-500 and aro-matic (phenolics and naphthalene) and amino groupcompounds ex/em 270-280/240-380. Molecular fluor-escence of PSAS may be due to the conjugative effectof aromatic πelectron. Fig. SM-4 shows fluorescent inten-sity of initial PSAS molecule reduced from 42 to 2 a.u,35.9 to 3.9 a.u and 87 to 3.7 a.u for quinone and aromaticketone-like, aniline-like and aromatic amino group com-pounds, respectively, with increase in ozonation time.The decrease in intensity after 60 min indicated loss ofaromatic structures. After ozonation, the intensities ofthis region decreased with increase in time. Figure 7shows quinone and aromatic ketone, aniline and aro-matic amino group-like compounds decreased by92.5%, 87% and 95.5% after 60 min, respectively. It indi-cates that the reaction between organic molecules withunsaturated bonds and OH·radicals tends to be higherthan those for molecules with predominantly saturatedwith C-C bonds. The higher removal of aromatic andamino group-like compounds may be due to theFigure 6. FTIR spectra before and after ozonation at pH 7 atinitial PSAS concentration of 500 mg/L and ozone concentrationof 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L.Figure 7. Change in FRI during ozonation of PSAS (pH 7, initialPSAS concentration of 500 mg/L and ozone concentration of5.2 × 10-3mmol/L).10 R. THANKAPPAN ET AL.
presence of unsaturated bonds which react faster withozone than quinone and aromatic ketone-like, aniline-like compounds.3.8. Biodegradability improvementThe increase in biodegradability index (BOD/COD) uponozone treatment was a measure of biodegradabilityimprovement of refractory compounds in initial PSAS.Values for the index were determined before and afterozonation. Fig. SM-5 shows the use of ozonation as aneffective pre-treatment step for an improved biodegrad-ability index. It is observed that the maximum improve-ment of biodegradability was achieved at pH 7. Inaddition, the biological treatment process was also con-sidered as a feasible option when biodegradability indexis greater than 0.3. Ozonation of PSAS at pH 5 showedBOD/COD index lower than 0.3 and higher at pH 7 and9. The increase in biodegradability may be due to the for-mation of intermediates during ozonation with PSAS thatwere readily biodegradable. These intermediates werebelieved free from toxic compounds as confirmed byan increase in biodegradability upon treatment.4. ConclusionThe experimental results obtained in the present studyindicated that the removal of PSAS in terms of COD,tannin and phenol was influenced by the initial concen-tration, ozone concentration and pH. The increase inozone dose resulted in maximum COD removal of84.2% and rate constant of 3.7 × 109mol-1s-1at pH7. Reductions of UV absorbing organic matter at UV254and UV280of 87.4% and 92%, respectively, wereobtained. Maximum DOC removal of about 58% wasalso obtained at pH 7 of initial PSAS concentration of500 mg/L at an ozone concentration of 5.2 ×10-3mmol/L. This study showed that ozonation ofPSAS resulted in partial oxidation of PSAS-containingwastewater which was confirmed by MOC. The stoichio-metric ratio (z) representing consumption of ozone forCOD removal was estimated and it is found to be 0.8at pH of 7, 5.2 × 10-3mmol/L ozone concentration andPSAS concentration of 500 mg/L. Experimental resultsof COD and DOC removal were found to fit thepseudo-first-order reaction and the reaction of ozonewith PSAS was found to be in fast kinetic regime. The dis-appearance of peak at UV (280 and 225 nm), FTIR and thenewly formed peaks in FTIR after ozonation confirmedthe formation of by-products during ozonation confirm-ing the removal of PSAS. EEM intensity of PSAS decreasewith increase in ozonation contact time shows a signifi-cant removal in the major fluorescent species. Further,EEM results confirmed the removal of PSAS. Biodegrad-ability of PSAS significantly increased from 0.03 to 0.42,indicating that ozonation could be an effective pre-treat-ment method for the removal of PSAS.NomenclatureAspecific interfacial area per liquid volume, m-1C∗Aequilibrium molar concentration of ozone concentration,mol L-1CBPSAS concentration in terms of COD, mol L-1DAozone diffusivity in liquid phase m2s-1Eenhancement factorHa Hatta numberKkinetic rate constant for PSAS in terms of COD,L mol COD-1s-1k′parameter defined in Equation (7)kLliquid mass transfer coefficient, ms-1kLavolumetric mass transfer coefficient in liquid phase, s-1Mreaction order for ozone decompositionNreaction order for PSAS in terms of CODNAagas absorption rate of ozone in liquid phase, mol L-1s-1zstoichiometric ratio for the ozone COD reaction mol O3COD-1ORCIDRema Thankappan http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0722-3357S. V. Srinivasan http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7169-9400Mika Sillanpää http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3247-5337AcknowledgementRema Thankappan would like to acknowledge her earlier super-visor, Late Dr R. Alwar Ramanujam, for encouraging thisresearch work and providing the facilities. The authors alsowish to thank Dr Indumathi M. Nambi, Assistant professor,Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,Madras, for providing the facility for HPLC analysis. The authorsare also thankful to Mr. Boopathi, Lecturer, School of ChemicalEngineering, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology (AIT), AddisAbaba University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Disclosure statementNo potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.FundingRema Thankappan would like to acknowledge CSIR, Delhi forgranting CSIR -Senior Research fellowship for carrying outthis work [grant number 31/6/271/2007].References[1] Mannucci A, Munz G, Mori G, et al. Anaerobic treatment ofvegetable tannery wastewaters: a review. Desalination.2010;264:1-8.ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY 11
[2] Jain SK, Purkait MK, De S, et al. Treatment of leather planteffluent by membrane separation processes. Separat SciTechn. 2006;41:3329-3348.[3] He Q, Yao K, Sun D, et al. Biodegradability of tannin-con-taining wastewater from leather industry.Biodegradation. 2007;18:465-472.[4] Srinivasan SV, Rema T, Chitra K, et al.Decolourisation of leather dye by ozonation. Desalination.2009;235:88-89.[5] Di Iaconi C, Lopez A, Ramadori R, et al. Tannery waste-water treatment by sequencing batch biofilm reactor.Environ Sci Techn. 2003;37:3199-3205.[6] Espinoza-Quiñones FR, Fornari MMT, Módenes AN, et al.Pollutant removal from tannery effluent by electrocoagu-lation. Chem Eng J. 2009;151:59-65.[7] Mandal T, Dasgupta D, Mandal S, et al. Treatment of leatherindustry wastewater by aerobic biological and Fenton oxi-dation process. J Hazard Mater. 2010;180:204-211.[8] Song Z, Williams CJ, Edyvean RGJ. Treatment of tannerywastewater by chemical coagulation. Desalination.2004;164:249-259.[9] Thankappan R, Nguyen TV, Srinivasan SV, et al. Removal ofleather tanning agent syntan from aqueous solution usingFenton oxidation followed by GAC adsorption. J Ind EngChem. 2015;21:483-488.[10] Kurt U, Apaydin O, Gonullu MT. Reduction of COD in waste-water from an organized tannery industrial region byelectro-Fenton process. J Hazard Mater. 2007;143:33-40.[11] Virginija J, Jiyembetova I, Gulbinieniene A, et al.Comparable evaluation of leather waterproofing behav-iour upon hide quality II. influence of retannig and fatli-quoring agents on leather structure and properties. MatSci. 2014;20(2):165-170.[12] Rivera-Utrilla J, Sánchez-Polo M, Zaror CA. Degradation ofNaphthalene sulfonic acid by oxidation with ozone inaqueous phase. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2002;4:1129-1134.[13] De Nicola E, Meric S, Gallo M, et al. Vegetable and syn-thetic tannins induce hormesis/toxicity in sea urchinearly development and in algal growth. Environ Polln.2007;146:46-54.[14] Tisler T, Koncan JZ. Comparative assessment of toxicity ofphenol, formaldehyde and industrial wastewater toaquatic organisms. Water Air Soil Polln. 1997;97:315-322.[15] Danhong S, Qiuang H, Wenjun Z, et al. Evaluation ofenvironmental impact of typical leather chemicals. PartII, biodegradability of organic tanning agents by activatedsludge. J Soc Leather Tech Chem. 2007;92:59-64.[16] Ganesh R, Ramanujam RA. Biological waste management ofleather tannery effluents in India: current options and futureresearch needs. Int J Environ Eng. 2009;1:165-186.[17] Peter ALJ, Viraraghavan T, Ramanujam RA. Evaluation ofbiodegradability of selected post tanning chemicals.Fresenius Environ Bull. 2004;13:568-573.[18] Canterino M, Marotta R, Somma ID, et al. A kinetic investi-gation on the ozonation of glycerol and its oxygenatedderivatives. Ozone Sci Eng. 2009;31(6):445-453.[19] Li W, Nanaboina V, Zhou Q, et al. Changes of excitation/emission matrixes of wastewater caused by Fenton-andFenton like treatment and their associations with the gen-eration of hydroxyl radical, oxidation of effluent organicmatter and degradation of trace-level organic pollutants.J Hazard Mater. 2013;244-245:698-708.[20] Lucas MS, Peres JA, Li Puma G. Treatment of winery waste-water by ozone based advanced oxidation process(O3,O3/UV and O3/UV/ H2O2) in pilot scale bubble column in areactor and process economics. Sep Purif Technol.2010;72:235-241.[21] Zhang P, Jian L. Ozone enhanced photocatalytic degra-dation of natural organic matter. Wat Sci Tech. 2006;6(3):53-61.[22] Giuseppe M, Antonio L, Huwjames MF. By-products for-mation during degradation of isoproturon in aqueous sol-ution. I: ozonation. Water Res. 2001;35(7):1695-1704.[23] Hirvonen A, Trapido M, Hentunen J, et al. Formation ofhydroxylated and dimeric intermediates during oxidationof chlorinated phenols in aqueous solution.Chemosphere. 2000;41:1211-1218.[24] Gilbert E. Biodegradability of ozonation products as a func-tion of COD and DOC elimination by example of substitutedaromatic substances. Water Res. 1987;21(10):1273-1278.[25] Kunz A, Mansila H, Duran N. A degradation and toxicitystudy of three textile reactive dyes by ozone. EnvironTechn. 2002;23:911-918.[26] Wert EC, Rosario-Ortiz FL, Drury DD, et al. Formation of oxi-dation byproducts from ozonation of wastewater. WaterRes. 2007;41:1481-1490.[27] van Leeuwen J, Sridhar A, Harrata AK, et al. Improving thebiodegradation of organic pollutants with ozonationduring biological wastewater treatment. Ozone Sci Eng.2009;31(2):63-70.[28] Poznayk T, Araiza B. Ozonation of non-biodegradable mix-tures of phenol and naphthalene derivatives in tanningwastewater. Ozone Sci Eng. 2007;27:51-357.[29] Arslan-Alaton I, Aynur-Koyunluoglu S. Toxicity and biode-gradability behaviour of xenobiotic chemicals before andafter ozonation. A case study with commercial textiletannins. Ozone Sci Eng. 2007;29:443-450.[30] Lofrano G, Meric S, Belgiorno V, et al. Fenton's oxidation ofvarious-based tanning materials. Desalination.2007;211:10-21.[31] Zenaitis MG, Sandhu H, Duff SJB. Combined biological andozone treatment of log yard run-off. Water Res. 2002;36(8):2053-2061.[32] Rema T, Ramanujam RA. Decomposition of aromatic sul-phonic acid syntan in aqueous solution using ozone. IntJ Sci Ind Res. 2012;71(03):363-368.[33] Hasegawa MC, Daniel J, Takashima K, et al. COD removaland toxicity decrease from tannery wastewater by zincoxide-assisted photcatalysis: a case study. Environ Tech.2014;35(13):1589-1595.[34] Preethi V, Paramakalyani KS, Iyappan K, et al. Ozonation oftannery effluent for removal of COD and color. J HazardMater. 2009;166:150-154.[35] Srinivasan SV, Mary PS, Kalyanaraman C, et al. Combinedadvanced oxidation and biological treatment oftannery effluent. Clean Tech Environ Policy. 2012;14(2):251-256.[36] Wang Y, Li W, Irini A, et al. Removal of organic pollutants intannery wastewater from wet-blue fur processing by inte-grated anoxic/oxic (A/O) and Fenton: process optimiz-ation. Chem Eng. 2014;252:22-29.[37] Benitez FJ, Beltran-Heredia J, Gonzalez T. Kinetics of thereaction between ozone and MCPA. Water Res. 1991;25(11):1345-1349.12 R. THANKAPPAN ET AL.
[38] APHA, AWWA. WEF standard method for the examinationof water and wastewater. 21st ed. Washington (DC):American Public Health Association, American WaterWorks Association, Water Environment Federation; 2005.[39] Vogel F, Harf J, Hug A, et al. The mean oxidation numberof carbon (MOC) -a useful concept for describing oxi-dation processes. Water Res. 2000;34(10):2689-2702.[40] Saroj DP, Kumar A, Bose P, et al. Mineralization of somenatural refractory organic compounds by biodegradationand ozonation. Water Res. 2005;39:1921-1933.[41] Chen W, Westerhoff P, Leenheer JA, et al. Fluorescenceexcitation-emission matrix regional integration to quan-tify Spectra for dissolved organic matter. Environ SciTechn. 2003;37:5701-5710.[42] Weishaar JL, Aiken G, Bergmaschi BA, et al. Evaluation ofspecific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of thechemical composition and reactivity of dissolvedorganic carbon. Environ Sci Tech. 2003;37:4702-4708.[43] Karanfil T, Schlautman MA, Erdogani. Survey of DOC andUV measurement practices with implications for SUVAdetermination. JAWWA. 2002;94(12):68-72.[44] Contreras S, Rodrigues M, Momani F, et al. Contribution ofthe ozonation pre-treatment to the biodegradation ofaqueous solutions of 2,4-dichlorophenol. Water Res.2003;37:3164-3171.[45] Abu Amr SS, Aziz HA. New treatment of stabilized leachateby ozone/Fenton in the advanced oxidation process.Waste Manag. 2012;32(9):1693-1698.[46] Gottchalk CJA, Saupe A. Ozonation of water andwastewater. 2nd ed. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH VerlagGmbH& Co.[47] Arslan-Alaton I, Akmehmet Balcioglu I. Biodegradabilityassessment of ozonated raw and biotreated pharma-ceutical wastewater. Arch Environ Cont Toxicol.2002;43:425-431.[48] Lin SH, Lin CM. Treatment of textile waste effluents byozonation and chemical coagulation. Water Res. 1993;27(12):1743-1748.[49] Kusvuran E, Gulnaz O, Samil A, et al. Decolorization ofmalachite green, decolorization kinetics and stoichi-ometry of ozone-malachite green and removal of antibac-terial activity with ozonation processes. J Hazard Mater.2011;186(1):133-143.[50] Karahan Ö, Dogruel S, Dulekgurgen E, et al. COD fraction-ation of tannery wastewaters -particle size distribution,biodegradability and modeling. Water Res. 2008;42:1083-1092.[51] Wu J, Wang T. Ozonation of aqueous azo dye in a semi-batch reactor. Water Res. 2001;35:1093-1099.[52] von Gunten U. Ozonation of drinking water: partI. oxidation kinetics and product formation. Water Res.2003;37:1443-1467.[53] Beltran Heredia J, Joaquin Torregrosa JR, Dominguez JAP.Kinetics of the reaction between ozone and phenolicacids present in agro-industrial wastewaters. Water Res.2001;35(4):1077-1085.ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY 13
or
Discover by subject area
Recruit researchers
Join for free
Login
App Store
About
News
Company
Careers
Support
Help center
FAQ
Business solutions
Recruiting
Advertising

 

 

By: Chemocart
Contact Supplier

 

 

Phenol Sulphonic Acid
By: Choice Organochem Llp
Contact Supplier
Follow us on: Facebook Twitter Go Mobile: iOS App Android Apphttps://m.indiamart.comWe are here to help you!
About Us
Success Stories
Press Section
Advertise with Us
Jobs & Careers
Help
Feedback
Complaints
Customer Care
Contact Us
Suppliers Tool Kit
Sell on IndiaMART
Latest BuyLead
Learning Centre
Buyers Tool Kit
Post Your Requirement
Products You Buy
Search Products & Suppliers
Pay With IndiaMART
Events
Trade Shows
Conferences
Events by Country
Terms of Use - Privacy Policy - Link to UsCopyright © 1996-2019 IndiaMART InterMESH Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid
Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid
Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid structure 
CAS No.
Chemical Name:Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid
SynonymsPhenol sulphonic acid,liquid
CBNumber:CB2851891
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:0
MOL File:Mol file
Request For Quotation
Properties Safety Price Uses Suppliers 1
Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid
Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid Properties
SAFETY
Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid price
Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid Chemical Properties,Uses,Production
Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
Preparation Products
Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid Suppliers
Global( 1)Suppliers 
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Kunshan Yalong Trading Co.,Ltd --
-- kunshan@yalongchina.net China 4049 50
Phenol sulphonic acid,liquid
Copyright 2017 © ChemicalBook. All rights reserved
Citations (0)

 

References (55)

 

Evaluation of biodegradability of selected post-tanning chemicals
Article
Jan 2004FRESEN ENVIRON BULL
A.L. John Peter
T. ViraraghavanR.A. Ramanujam
View
Show abstract
Decomposition of aromatic sulphonic acid syntan in aqueous solution using ozone
Article
May 2012J SCI IND RES INDIA
Rema ThankappanRamamoorthy Alwar Ramanujam
View
Show abstract
Evaluation of environmental impact of typical leather chemicals. Part II: Biodegradability of organic tanning agents by activated sludge
Article
Mar 2008
D. SunQ. HeW. ZhangB. Shi
View
Show abstract
Removal of leather tanning agent syntan from aqueous solution using Fenton oxidation followed by GAC adsorption
Article
Jan 2015J IND ENG CHEM
Rema Thankappan
Tien Vinh Nguyen
Sv Srinivasan
Paripurnanda Loganathan
View
Show abstract
COD removal and toxicity decrease from tannery wastewater by zinc oxide-assisted photocatalysis: A case study
Article
Aug 2014ENVIRON TECHNOL
Maria Claudia Hasegawa
Juliana Feijó de Souza DanielKeiko TakashimaSandra M C P da Silva
View
Show abstract
Removal of organic pollutants in tannery wastewater from wet-blue fur processing by integrated Anoxic/Oxic (A/O) and Fenton: Process optimization
Article
Sep 2014CHEM ENG J
Yong WangWeiguang Li
Irini AngelidakiChengyuan Su
View
Show abstract
Combined advanced oxidation and biological treatment of tannery effluent
Article
Apr 2012CLEAN TECHNOL ENVIR
Sv SrinivasanG. Prea Samita Mary
Chitra KalyanaramanE. Ravindranath
View
Show abstract
Ozone-enhanced photocatalytic degradation of natural organic matter in water
Article
Jul 2006WATER SCI TECHNOL
Pengyi ZhangL. Jian
View
Show abstract
Toxicity and Biodegradability Behavior of Xenobiotic Chemicals Before and After Ozonation: A Case Study with Commercial Textile Tannins
Article
Nov 2007OZONE-SCI ENG
Idil Arslan-Alaton
Sebnem Koyunluoglu Aynur
View
Show abstract
The mean oxidation number of carbon (MOC) - A useful concept for describing oxidation processes
Article
Jul 2000WATER RES
Frédéric VogelJulien HarfAndreas Hug
Philipp Rudolf von Rohr
View
Show abstract
Show more
Recommendations
Discover more publications, questions and projects in Sulfonic Acids
Project
RESERVES - Resource and energy reliability by co-digestion of veg-market and slaughterhouse waste
Private Profile
Dirk Weichgrebe
Sv Srinivasan
The objective of RESERVES is to investigate the feasibility of a sustainable resource and energy reliability by co-digestion of vegetable market and slaughterhouse waste in India and its potentials ... [more]
View project
Project
BIOEN - CSC0116
Naga Balaji
Sv Srinivasan
Rangasamy Suthanthararajan[...]G. Sivasankari
nutrient removal from tannery wastewater using microalgae
View project
Project
Synthesis and application of bio-nanocomposites for water treatment
Sidra Iftekhar
Mika Sillanpää
Varsha Srivastava
To synthesize new hybrid organic-inorganic materials and their application for the removal of several pollutants from water and wastewater.
View project
Project
http://nanomend.eu/
Johanna Lahti
Petri Johansson
Kimmo Lahtinen[...]
David C. Cameron
View project
Article
On farm aerobic treatment of piggery waste. The effect of residence time and storage on effluent qua...
December 1980 · Water Research
D.R. FenlonP.J. Mills
The effect of reducing the residence time of screened pig slurry in an on farm pilot scale oxidation ditch is described. The soluble organic fraction of the slurry was greatly reduced, either by mineralisation at long residence times, or, as residence times decreased, by conversion to suspended solids and organic nitrogen. Losses of inorganic nitrogen during treatment were high due to desorption ... [Show full abstract]Read more
Preprint Full-text available
Fe2V4O13 assisted hetero-Fenton mineralization of methyl orange under UV-A light irradiation
December 2018
Kaliyamoorthy Gowthami
Palusamy Suppuraj
Ganesamoorthy Thirunarayanan[...]
Muthuvel Inbasekaran
Fe2V4O13 is prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The hetero-Fenton catalyst can be used to mineralize Methyl Orange (MO) under UV-A light. The mineralization rate is influenced by ... [Show full abstract]View full-text
Article
Evaluation of leachate dissolved organic nitrogen discharge effect on wastewater effluent quality
April 2017 · Waste Management
Stephanie Bolyard
Debra R Reinhart
Nitrogen is limited more and more frequently in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents because of the concern of causing eutrophication in discharge waters. Twelve leachates from eight landfills in Florida and California were characterized for total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The average concentration of TN and DON in leachate was approximately 1146 mg/L and 40 mg/L, ... [Show full abstract]Read more
Article Full-text available
Organic Removal of Anaerobically Treated Leachate by Fenton Coagulation
July 2001 · Journal of Environmental Engineering
Ivan W. C. LauPeng Wang
Herbert H P Fang
The leachate from a Hong Kong landfill, containing 15,700 mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 2,260 mg/L of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), was first treated in a UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor at 37°C. The process on average removed 90.4% of COD with 6.6 days of hydraulic retention at an organic loading rate of 2.37 g of COD/L day. The UASB effluent was further treated by the ... [Show full abstract]View full-text
Discover more
Last Updated: 05 Mar 2019
Search for publications, researchers, or questions

 

Acar Kimya A.Ş. © 2015 Tüm Hakları Saklıdır.