1-9 A-D E-G H-M N-P Q-S T-Z

OXALIC ACID ( OKZALİK ASİT )

OXALIC ACID

SYNONYMS : Acid, Oxalic Aluminum ; Oxalate Ammonium ; Oxalate Chromium (2+) ;Oxalate Chromium (3+) ;Oxalate (3:2)Chromium Oxalate ;Diammonium Oxalate ;Dilithium Oxalate
;Dipotassium Oxalate ;Disodium Oxalate ;Oxalic,Oksalix,Oksaliks,Oksalata; Ferric Oxalate Iron (2+); Oxalate (1:1) ;Iron (3+) Oxalate; Iron Oxalate; Magnesium OxalateMagnesium Oxalate (1:1) ;Manganese (2+) Oxalate ;(1:1) Monoammonium Oxalate; Monohydrogen Monopotassium Oxalate
Monopotassium Oxalate; Monosodium Oxalate Oxalate; Aluminum Oxalate; Chromium Oxalate; Diammonium Oxalate; Dilithium Oxalate; Dipotassium Oxalate; Disodium Oxalate; Ferric Oxalate; Iron Oxalate; Magnesium Oxalate; Monoammonium Oxalate, Monohydrogen Monopotassium Oxalate; Monopotassium Oxalate; Monosodium Oxalate; Potassium Oxalate; Potassium Chromium Oxalate; Sodium Oxalic Acid Potassium Chromium Oxalate ;Potassium Oxalate; Potassium Oxalate; (2:1)Sodium Oxalate

CAS NO 144-62-7
Oxalic acid is an alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acid that is ethane substituted by carboxyl groups at positions 1 and 2. It has a role as a human metabolite, a plant metabolite and an algal metabolite. It is a conjugate acid of an oxalate(1-) and an oxalate.Molecular Weight 90.03 g/mol

3.2Experimental Properties
3.2.1Physical Description

OXALIC ACID is an odorless white solid. Sinks and mixes with water. (USCG, 1999)

U.S. Coast Guard. 1999. Chemical Hazard Response Information System (CHRIS) - Hazardous Chemical Data. Commandant Instruction 16465.12C. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

from CAMEO Chemicals
DryPowder; Liquid; OtherSolid; PelletsLargeCrystals

from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA
Solid

from Human Metabolome Database (HMDB)
HYGROSCOPIC COLOURLESS CRYSTALS OR WHITE POWDER.

from ILO International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC)
Colorless, odorless powder or granular solid.

from Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Colorless, odorless powder or granular solid. [Note: The anhydrous form (COOH)2 is an odorless, white solid.]

from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
3.2.2Color/Form HelpNew Window
ANHYDROUS OXALIC ACID, CRYSTALLIZED FROM GLACIAL ACETIC ACID IS ORTHORHOMBIC, CRYSTALS BEING PYRAMIDAL OR ELONGATED OCTAHEDRA


Colorless powder or granular solid [Note: The anhydrous form (COOH)2 is a white powder].

NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-116. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1994., p. 238

from HSDB
3.2.3Odor HelpNew Window
Odorless.

NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-116. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1994., p. 238

from HSDB
3.2.4Boiling Point HelpNew Window
Sublimes (NIOSH, 2016)

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (full website version). https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg (accessed August 2016).

from CAMEO Chemicals
Sublimes

from Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA); The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
3.2.5Melting Point HelpNew Window
372 ° F (Decomposes) (NTP, 1992)

National Toxicology Program, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health (NTP). 1992. National Toxicology Program Chemical Repository Database. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

from CAMEO Chemicals
189.5 dec °C

PhysProp

 

National Toxicology Program, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health (NTP). 1992. National Toxicology Program Chemical Repository Database. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

from CAMEO Chemicals
220000 mg/L (at 25 °C)

YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)

from DrugBank
Water Solubility
2.44 M

tion (OSHA); The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
3.2.8Vapor Density HelpNew Window
4.3 (NTP, 1992) (Relative to Air)

National Toxicology Program, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health (NTP). 1992. National Toxicology Program Chemical Repository Database. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

from CAMEO Chemicals
4.3

from Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
3.2.9Vapor Pressure HelpNew Window
0.001 mm Hg at 68 ° F (NTP, 1992)

National Toxicology Program, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health (NTP). 1992. National Toxicology Program Chemical Repository Database. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

from CAMEO Chemicals
2.34e-04 mmHg

from EPA DSSTox
0.54 mm @ 105 deg C

Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 4936

from HSDB
0.001 mmHg

from Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
<0.001 mmHg

from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
3.2.10Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
LogP
-0.81

from ILO International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC)
3.2.11LogS HelpNew Window
0.38

ADME Research, USCD

from DrugBank
3.2.12Henrys Law Constant
1.43e-10 atm-m3/mole

from EPA DSSTox
3.2.13Stability/Shelf Life
OXALIC ACID CAN BE DEHYDRATED BY CAREFUL DRYING @ 100 DEG C, BUT LOSSES OCCUR THROUGH SUBLIMATION /OXALIC ACID DIHYDRATE/

Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 897

from HSDB
3.2.14Autoignition Temperature
Auto-Ignition
Not flammable (USCG, 1999)

U.S. Coast Guard. 1999. Chemical Hazard Response Information System (CHRIS) - Hazardous Chemical Data. Commandant Instruction 16465.12C. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

from CAMEO Chemicals
3.2.15Decomposition
... DECOMP PRODUCTS INCL CARBON MONOXIDE & FORMIC ACID.

National Fire Protection Association. Fire Protection Guide on Hazardous Materials. 7th ed. Boston, Mass.: National Fire Protection Association, 1978., p. 49-224

from HSDB
3.2.16Heat of Combustion
-245.61 KJ/mol

Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984., p. V16 619 (1981)

from HSDB
3.2.17Dissociation Constants
pKa 1: 1.46; pKa 2: 4.40

Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 4936

from HSDB
3.2.18Kovats Retention Index
Semi-standard non-polar 748
from NIST
3.2.19Other Experimental Properties
MP: 101-102 DEG C GIVING OFF WATER OF CRYSTALLIZATION & STARTING TO SUBLIME; K1= 5.36X10-2; K2= 5.3X10-5; DENSITY: 1.653 @ 18.5 DEG C/4 DEG C; DENSITY OF 1% (WT/WT) AQ SOLN: 1.0035 @ 17.5 DEG C/4 DEG C; DENSITY OF 3% (WT/WT) AQ SOLN: 1.0105 @ 17.5 DEG C/4 DEG C; DENSITY OF 5% (WT/WT) AQ SOLN: 1.0175 @ 17.5 DEG C/4 DEG C; DENSITY OF 10% (WT/WT) AQ SOLN: 1.0350 @ 17.5 DEG C/4 DEG C; DENSITY OF 13% (WT/WT) AQ SOLN: 1.0455 @ 17.5 DEG C/4 DEG C /OXALIC ACID DIHYDRATE/

Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 1093

from HSDB
DISSOCIATION CONSTANT: 6.5X10-2 /OXALIC ACID DIHYDRATE/

Tanımı ve Kullanımı :

Okzalik asit esas olarak karbonhidratların veya glikozun vanadyum pentoksit varlığında nitrik asit veya hava kullanarak oksidasyonu ile üretilir. Glikolik asit ve etilen glikol dahil olmak üzere çeşitli öncüler kullanılabilir. Daha yeni bir yöntem oksalik asit diesterleri vermek üzere alkollerin oksidatif karbonilasyonunu gerektirir.

4 ROH + 4 CO + 02 → 2 (CO2R) 2 + 2H20

Oksalik asit, en bilinen bitki kökenli organik asitlerden biridir. COOH2 kimyasal formülle gösterilen oksalik asit, doğada kalsiyum tuzu olarak ravent bitkisinde, sodyum tuzu olarak kuzukulağı denilen bitkide ve bazı bitkilerin özsuyunda bulunmaktadır. Bitkisel kaynakların çoğunda bu organik asit bulunmaktadır. Ispanak, domates, kuzukulağı gibi bitkiler bunun içindedir. Asit olması yüzünden ortamdaki bir iyonla tuz oluşturabilir. Biyolojik olarak canlı bir sisteme ve vücuda giren oksalik asit burada iyonlarla tuz oluşturur. En fazla görülen tuzu olan kalsiyum oksalat, vücutta genellikle üriner sistemde özellikle böbreklerde birikerek taş oluşumuna neden olur.

Ilık suyla hazırlanan şeker şerbeti içine bir miktar oksalik asidi karıştırarak, 10 derecenin altındaki dış ortam sıcaklığında arının salkımda olduğu, kapalı yavrunun bulunmadığı zamanda arıların üzerine damlatma şeklinde uygulanmaktadır. Çözeltide şeker ve su miktarı aynı kalırken, bölgesel sıcaklığa göre oksalik asit oranı değişebilir. Yani her yöre için oranlar değişiklik gösterir. Bunun yılda bir defa uygulanması önerilir. Arıların zayıf olduğu kolonilerdeki salkım sıcaklık dengesinin bozulması nedeniyle, üç çerçeveden az olan kolonilerde bunun uygulanmaması tavsiye edilir.

Oksalik asit dihidrat üzerine ısı uygulandığı zaman, katı durumdan gaz haline geçmesiyle yani süblimleşme özelliğiyle yapılan mücadeledir. Bunların yapılması için, kovanın içinde buharlaştırma aparatları olup, oksalik asit dışarda buharlaştırarak, bir boruyla kovan içine gönderilir.

Kullanım Alanları

İki sulu dihidrat oksalik asit, alkalimetri ve manganometride, nadiren toprak metallerinin ayrıştırılmasında ve kalsiyumun kantitatif analizinde kullanılır.
Oksalik asit ve antimonlu tuzları endüstri alanında tekstil boyamada mordan olarak kullanılmaktadır.
Gıda alanında organik ve konvansiyonel arıcılıkta varroa mücadelesinde kullanılmaktadır. Bal arılarındaki varroa mücadelesinde kullanılan oksalik asit, C2H2O4 - 2H2O kimyasal formülüyle oksalik asit hidrattır. İçeriğinde ağır metal ve kalıntı olan ürünler yerine, güvenilir yerlerden alınan oksalik asit hidrat kullanılmalıdır.
Oksalik asit ana uygulamaları, özellikle pası gidermek için temizleme veya ağartma (demir kompleks yapıcı ajan) içerir. Bar Keepers Friend , oksalik asit içeren bir ev temizleyicisine bir örnektir. Pas giderme ajanlarındaki faydası, demirli demir, ferrioksalat iyonu ile dengeli, suda çözünür bir tuz oluşturmasıdır .
Okzalik asit, lantanid kimyasında önemli bir reaktiftir . Hidratlı lantanit oksalat , yoğun olarak kristalleşmiş , kolayca süzülmüş halde, esas olarak non-lanantid olmayan elementlerin bulaşmasından bağımsız olarak, çok kuvvetli asidik solüsyonlarda kolayca oluşur. Bu oksalatın termal olarak ayrışması , bu elementlerin en çok pazarlanan şekli olan oksitleri verir .
Şeker şurubu içinde buharlaştırılmış okzalik asit veya% 3.2'lik bir oksalik asit çözeltisi bazı arıcılar tarafından paraziter böceklere karşı bir öldürücü olarak kullanılır .
Tamamlanmış mermer heykeller üzerine oksalik asit sürülür ve yüzeyi sızdırmaz hale getirir ve parlaklık kazandırır. Oksalik asit aynı zamanda kuvars kristallerinden demir ve manganez yataklarını temizlemek için kullanılır .
Oksalik asit, suya nüfuz etmenin neden olduğu siyah lekeleri gidermek için odun için bir ağartıcı olarak kullanılır.
Key Spec Table
CAS # EC Number Hill Formula Chemical Formula Molar Mass Grade Value
6153-56-6 205-634-3 C₂H₂O₄ * 2 H₂O (COOH)₂ * 2 H₂O 126.07 g/mol ACS,ISO,Reag. Ph Eur
Pricing & Availability
Catalogue Number Availability Packaging Qty/Pack Price Quantity
1004950100
-

Contact Customer Service
Plastic bottle 100 g
Upon Order Completion More Information
-
Add To Favorites
1004950500
-

Contact Customer Service
Plastic bottle 500 g
Upon Order Completion More Information
-
Add To Favorites
1004951000
-

Contact Customer Service
Plastic bottle 1 kg
Upon Order Completion More Information
-
Add To Favorites
1004959025
-

Contact Customer Service
Fibre carton 25 kg
Upon Order Completion More Information
-
Add To Favorites
Add To Cart
Description
Catalogue Number 100495
Synonyms Ethanedioic acid
Description Oxalic acid dihydrate
Product Information
CAS number 6153-56-6
EC index number 607-006-00-8
EC number 205-634-3
Grade ACS,ISO,Reag. Ph Eur
Hill Formula C₂H₂O₄ * 2 H₂O
Chemical formula (COOH)₂ * 2 H₂O
Molar Mass 126.07 g/mol
HS Code 2917 11 00
Structure formula Image Structure formula Image
Physicochemical Information
Boiling point 149 - 160 °C (1013 hPa) (decomposition)
Density 1.65 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Flash point 157 °C (decomposition)
Melting Point 98 - 100 °C
pH value 1.5 (10 g/l, H₂O)
Vapor pressure 0.000312 hPa (25 °C)
Bulk density 813 kg/m3
Solubility >100 g/l
Toxicological Information
LD 50 oral LD50 Rat 375 mg/kg
Safety Information according to GHS
Hazard Pictogram(s) Hazard Pictogram(s)
Hazard Pictogram(s)
Hazard Statement(s) H302 + H312: Harmful if swallowed or in contact with skin.
H318: Causes serious eye damage.
Precautionary Statement(s) P280: Wear eye protection.
P302 + P352: IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water.
P305 + P351 + P338: IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P313: Get medical advice/ attention.
Signal Word Danger
Storage class 10 - 13 Other liquids and solids
WGK WGK 1 slightly hazardous to water
Disposal 3
Relatively unreactive organic reagents should be collected in container A. If halogenated, they should be collected in container B. For solid residues use container C.
Safety Information
Hazard Symbols Hazard SymbolsHarmful
Categories of danger harmful
R Phrase R 21/22
Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed.
S Phrase S 24/25
Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Storage and Shipping Information
Storage Store at +5°C to +30°C.
Transport Information
Declaration (railroad and road) ADR, RID Kein Gefahrgut
Declaration (transport by air) IATA-DGR No Dangerous Good
Declaration (transport by sea) IMDG-Code No Dangerous Good
Specifications
Assay (manganometric) 99.5 - 102.0 %
Insoluble matter ≤ 50 ppm
Chloride (Cl) ≤ 5 ppm
Sulfate (SO₄) ≤ 50 ppm
Total nitrogen (N) ≤ 10 ppm
Heavy metals (as Pb) ≤ 5 ppm
Heavy metals (ACS) ≤ 5 ppm
Ca (Calcium) ≤ 10 ppm
Fe (Iron) ≤ 2 ppm
Readily carbonisable substance passes test
Residue on ignition (as sulfate) ≤ 100 ppm

What is Oxalate?
Oxalic acid is an organic compound found in many plants.

These include leafy greens, vegetables, fruits, cocoa, nuts and seeds (1Trusted Source).

In plants, it's usually bound to minerals, forming oxalate. The terms "oxalic acid" and "oxalate" are used interchangeably in nutrition science.

Your body can produce oxalate on its own or obtain it from food. Vitamin C can also be converted into oxalate when it's metabolized (2Trusted Source).

Once consumed, oxalate can bind to minerals to form compounds, including calcium oxalate and iron oxalate. This mostly occurs in the colon, but can also take place in the kidneys and other parts of the urinary tract.

Foods High in Oxalate
Oxalates are found in almost all plants, but some plants contain very high amounts while others have very little. Animal foods contain only trace amounts.

 

What Oxalic Acid Is
Oxalic acid is, of course, a chemical substance. At high concentrations, it is a dangerous poison, but such immediately toxic levels are not found in foodstuffs but rather in manufactures, such as some bleaches, some anti-rust products, and some metal cleaners (among other things). It is also a naturally occurring component of plants, and is found in relatively high levels in dark-green leafy foods (relatively high, though, is just that).

The chemical formula for oxalic acid is C2O2(OH)2. An acid (from the Latin acidus, meaning "sour") is typically a corrosive substance with a sharp, sour taste (but tasting an acid can be extremely dangerous, depending on its strength). Acids can range from very mild to very strong, and a given type of acid can be made weaker by diluting it (with, for example, water). Oxalic acid is inherently a strong acid: it is about 3,000 times stronger than acetic acid, which is the chemical name for the acid in ordinary vinegar (usually sold as around a 5% solution of acetic acid). Oxalic acid is so strong that it is widely used industrially for bleaching and heavy-duty cleaning, notably for rust removal. If oxalic acid is not heavily diluted-as it is in plants--it is quite dangerous to humans, being both toxic and corrosive.
The effects of oxalic acid in the human body, when ingested in foods, flow from its ability to combine chemically with certain metals commonly found in--and important to--the human body, such as magnesium and calcium. When oxalic acid combines with such metals, the result is, in chemical terms, a "salt" (table salt is just one specimen of the general class of salts); those oxalic-acid+metal salts are called oxalates. Since oxalic acid is not (so far as is known today) a useful nutrient, it is--like all such unneeded components of diet--processed by the body to a convenient form, those oxalates, and that byproduct is then eventually excreted--in this case, in the urine.


Toxicity
Sheer toxicity--actual poisoning--from ingested oxalic acid is wildly unlikely. The only foodstuff that contains oxalic acid at concentrations high enough to be an actual toxicity risk is the leaves--not the stalks, which is what one normally eats--of the rhubarb plant. (And you'd need to eat an estimated eleven pounds of rhubarb leaves at one sitting for a lethal dose, though you'd be pretty sick with rather less.) For just about every other foodstuff, the risk--if any--is not immediate toxicity but a contribution to the development of oxalate crystals.

 

Oxalic acid and the hyperoxaluric syndromes (PDF file)
Oxalosis and Hyperoxaluria Foundation
Rhubarb Poisoning (a general oxalic-acid-discussion)
An Experimental Study of Oxaluria

Appraising Foods' Oxalic-Acid Content
Unfortunately, a simplistic tabling of "oxalic-acid content" is not enough to compare foods, for at least four reasons:

The kind of oxalic acid: as one study reported, "The higher oxalate absorption from [food #1] than from [food #2] suggests that the relative amount of soluble and insoluble oxalate in food has an important role in the determination of oxalate absorption [emphasis added]. Simple percent-composition lists make no such distinctions.

The actual food on your dish: it has been shown that the oxalic-acid content of foodstuffs can vary substantially depending on their growth environment (for example, plants with lots of ammonia available to them when growing had substantially lower oxalic-acid contents).

Again the actual food on your dish: how was it prepared? One tabulation shows "boiled spinach" at 0.60% oxalic acid but "frozen spinach" at 0.75% oxalic acid, a 25% increase.

Different numbers from different sources: perhaps the differences only reflect the some of factors cited above, but they are real and sometimes substantial. There is a table from a 1984 USDA publication, which is the ultimate source of most oxalic-acid tabulations to be found on the web; but there are other, newer, and apparently quite trustworthy tabulations (see the list below) that often disagree with the USDA-table data, and with each other as well. Such a situation is, to use a technical term of the medical profession, insane.

So any simplistic, straightforward tabulation of the "oxalic-acid content" of foodstuffs is thus a tricky thing at best. One has to look at such listings with an understanding that they are likely to be only broad-brush indicators--what is relatively high, what is relatively low--not exact, reliable numbers.

For lack of a better idea, we present here, side by side, oxalic-acid data from three sources:

USDA Agriculture Handbook No. 8-11, Vegetables and Vegetable Products, 1984

Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases, Agricultural Research Service of the National Genetic Resources Program (most data taken from Dr. James Duke's 1992 manual, Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants, Boca Raton, FL; CRC Press)--at that page, enter oxalic acid and click Submit Query

LithoLink Corporation, a metabolic testing and disease management service for kidney stone patients (founded by Dr. Fredric Coe, a University of Chicago Medical School Professor)

Both Duke and Litholink give concentrations to much more than two decimal places, but we have rounded off their data to match the low precision offered by the simplistic USDA, to make comparison simpler. As you can see, sometimes they are all in good agreement, as with corn; sometimes they are not together but not wildly apart, as with beans; and sometimes they are on different planets, as with carrots. What the consumer is supposed to make of such an insane mish-mash is beyond our ken.

We have fallen back to using light and dark red to highlight those foodstuffs that seem worth paying attention to if one has a susceptability to oxalic acid, but that is only a rough guide. Those in that condition should get medical advice and follow it.

 

Oxalic Oxalic Acidacid, also known as ethanedioic acid, is a naturally occurring compound which is found in many different types of vegetables. In its solid form, it is colorless and has the appearance of a white crystal substance when purified. For humans, oral and topical applications of this acid are highly toxic to the body due to its bleach-like and corrosive properties. These properties are, however, useful for waste water applications and general cleaning and therefore this acid is commonly employed for these purposes today. As such, it is important to wear protective glasses, gloves and proper clothing in order to prevent accidental exposure to this harmful chemical.

Oxalic acid is often ingested by humans in very small amounts because it is inherent in foods, particularly broccoli, cucumbers, potatoes and sprouts. More concentrated amounts are present in dark, leafy greens in the form of oxalates. These foods are beneficial to health in small amounts. Foods such as spinach and broccoli are the most common sources of these types of oxalates.

The corrosive nature and toxicity of the acid can cause dangerous conditions for workers who are using the chemical. Well-ventilated areas are essential to avoid accidental breathing in of the acid, as well as latex gloves in order to prevent direct skin exposure to the acid crystals.
Uses
As a Cleaning Agent
Green Leafy Vegetables Containing Oxalic AcidThe oxalic acid is an ideal chemical for cleaning purposes. Its bleach-like qualities make it perfect for sterilizing household items. It is also efficient in removing rust on various different surfaces. Stains on counters, bathtubs and kitchen sinks can be removed through careful application of this chemical. Today, it can be found as a passive ingredient in various cleaning products, bleaches and detergents.

For Industrial Uses
This acid is sometimes used in mineral processing mechanisms. Its bleaching properties can be used to sterilize equipment in a number of corporate environments. Textile mills and factories use it for bleaching in order to color cloths. Medical companies occasionally use the acid to purify certain chemicals or to dilute them further.

Side Effects
Oxalic can cause unwanted side effects to those who ingest a high amount of food containing the chemical or use drugs with concentrated amounts of it present. Oftentimes, these side effects take years to develop as the oxalic acid concentration is too low. Over time, oxalate crystals can form in the body. Most of these crystals form kidney stones at a later stage, causing various complications. More serious side effects can include kidney failure and gastrointestinal disorders, especially after certain types of surgery.

People who consume large amounts of vitamin C are most at risk. This is because when vitamin C is broken down by the body, oxalic acid is released and may accumulate in large amounts to form kidney stones.


Epidemiological studies have helped determine the role of various dietary factors on urine oxalate excretion. Curhan et al. analyzed the impact of various factors on urinary oxalate in 3348 stone formers and non-stone forming participants from the Nurses Health Studies I and II as well as the Health Professionals Follow-up Study [68]. They found that body mass index, total fructose intake, and 24-h urinary potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus were each directly associated with an increase in urinary oxalate excretion while age and dietary calcium were inversely associated with urinary oxalate. Interestingly, the quartile of participants with the highest oxalate intake excreted only 1.7 mg/day more oxalate than those in the lowest quartile of intake (P trend 0.0001). In addition, participants consuming greater than 1000 mg/day of vitamin C excreted only 6.8 mg/d more urinary oxalate than participants consuming <90 mg/d (P trend <0.001). Thus, the effects of dietary oxalate on urinary oxalate are relatively minor and suggest that dietary oxalate restriction may have limited effectiveness in decreasing urine oxalate excretion and preventing recurrent stone formation.

Neither animal nor human studies have clarified the role for dietary oxalate restriction in stone formation. A rat model of recurrent calcium stones was utilized to determine the effect of varying dietary oxalate on the risk of kidney stone formation. The genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rat has been studied extensively to determine the pathophysiology of kidney stone formation and can be utilized to study therapeutic approaches for the prevention of recurrent stone formation. These rats have been inbred for over 95 generations and now excrete eight to ten times as much urine calcium as control rats and universally form calcium containing kidney stones. Bushinsky et al. administered varying amounts of oxalate to the GHS rats and found that the risk for stone formation based on changes in urinary supersaturation did not vary with dietary oxalate [69]. In this study, the increase in urine oxalate excretion due to increasing dietary oxalate was offset by a decrease in urine calcium excretion. Similarly in a study in humans, administration of an oxalate load led to an increase in urine oxalate, but this was mitigated by administering calcium with the meal [70]. Others have demonstrated that a reduction in dietary oxalate in conjunction with other dietary recommendations to prevent nephrolithiasis led to a reduction in the risk for recurrent stone formation [71,72]. Thus, the effectiveness of a low oxalate diet alone on preventing recurrent kidney stone formation is not clear. However dietary oxalate restriction along with other dietary recommendations to reduce kidney stones, may be a reasonable recommendation for a hyperoxaluric stone former.

Even if a clinician decides to recommend restriction of dietary oxalate in a hyperoxaluric stone former it is often difficult to determine the oxalate content of foods. Measurements of the oxalate content in foods depends on how the food is prepared, when in the preparation process the oxalate is measured as well as the method of measurement [73]. Nonetheless, Massey recommends avoidance of the following foods: spinach, rhubarb, beets (roots and leaves), black teas (not green or herbal), chocolate, some tree nuts, bran concentrates and cereals, and legumes (beans, peanuts, soybeans and some soyfoods). In terms of tea, Mackay et al. determined the oxalate content of various teas, and found that black teas have a much higher oxalate content than herbal teas and thus may be more lithogenic [24]. Patients with hyperoxaluria are generally given a list of high oxalate foods to avoid (Table 42.2) and their oxalae excretion is followed by 24 h urine measurements of not only oxalate but supersaturation with respect to calcium oxalate as well.

Calcium intake is a determinant of oxalate absorption [67]. In the intestinal lumen oxalate is present in the salt form bound to calcium and not as free oxalate. Decreasing calcium intake will lead to more free oxalate and intestinal absorption. Several investigators have demonstrated in humans that increasing dietary calcium, for example by drinking milk, will decrease urine oxalate excretion [42,74-76].

Enteric Hyperoxaluria
Enteric hyperoxaluria is due to excessive oxalate absorption in patients with bowel disease and leads to increased rates of stone formation. In patients with ileal disease, the increase in urine oxalate excretion can be mitigated by a decrease in dietary oxalate. Urine oxalate is also increased after small bowel resection and intestinal bypass and the increase is proportional to the severity of steatorrhea [77]. In these cases excess oxalate absorption occurs in the colon and can be reversed by perfusion with calcium [78]. It is thought that in these cases the luminal calcium complexes with the free fatty acids, rather than with the oxalate, allowing the oxalate to be absorbed. The absorbed oxalate is excreted in the urine resulting in hyperoxaluria. Thus in patients with steatorrhea induced enteric hyperoxaluria it is prudent to not only recommend a low fat and low oxalate diet but that calcium should be taken with meals.

Read full chapter

OXALATES
S.C. Morrison, G.P. Savage, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003

Chronic
Oxalate is poorly absorbed under nonfasting conditions. Once absorbed free oxalate binds to calcium ions to form insoluble calcium oxalate, it remains in the insoluble form.

Free oxalate and calcium can precipitate in the urine and may form kidney stones. These stones consist mainly of calcium oxalate (80%), which is relatively insoluble in urine, and calcium phosphate (5%). Oxalate crystallizes with calcium in the renal vasculature and infiltrates vessel walls causing renal tubular obstruction, vascular necrosis, and hemorrhage, which lead to anuria, uremia, electrolyte disturbances, or even rupture. Kidney stones are becoming more common in men between the ages 30 and 50 years in industrialized countries. The risk factors involved in stone formation are a low volume of urine, increased urinary excretion of oxalate, calcium, or uric acid, a persistently low or high urinary pH, and a low concentration of urinary inhibitors, such as magnesium, citrate, and high-molecular-weight polyanions. Normal urine is usually supersaturated with calcium oxalate. The normal urinary excretion of oxalate is less than 40-50 mg day-1 with less than 10% coming from the diet. Intakes of oxalate exceeding 180 mg day-1 lead to a marked increase in the amount excreted. Small increases in oxalate excretion have pronounced effects on the production of calcium oxalate in the urine, implying that foods high in oxalate can promote hyperoxaluria (high oxalate excretion) and increase the risk of stone formation. Rhubarb, spinach, beet, nuts, chocolate, tea, coffee, parsley, celery, and wheat bran cause significant increases in urinary oxalate excretion in healthy individuals and have been identified as the main dietary sources in the risk of kidney stone formation. It has been reported that black tea increased oxalate excretion by only 7.9%, compared with increases of 300% and 400% for spinach and rhubarb, respectively. Therefore 2-3 cups a day of black tea would have little effect on the risk of urinary stone formation when compared to spinach and rhubarb. It appears that tea is a significant source of oxalate intake in UK diets.

The main reason for the strong relationship between the risk of calcium stones and urinary oxalate excretion appears to be the effect that the latter has on the supersaturation of urine with calcium oxalate. The amount of oxalate excreted in the urine was higher in individuals with kidney stones than in healthy individuals, suggesting that those with kidney stones absorb more oxalate, consume more oxalate or oxalate-producing substances such as ascorbate, or metabolize more oxalate precursors. Excessive or increased absorption of oxalate from normal diets is the result of intestinal abnormalities or malfunction. This is termed ‘enteric hyperoxaluria' and is the commonest cause of increased renal oxalate excretion. It has been indicated that people with abnormal gastrointestinal absorption are at greater risk for hyperoxaluria and, as a result, kidney stone formation, than healthy individuals and should reduce their intake of oxalate and its precursors, such as ascorbate. A low-oxalate diet has prevented stone formation in some cases involving gastrointestinal disorders associated with hyperoxaluria.

An increase in calcium intake should be accompanied by a lower oxalate consumption, because a low-calcium and high-oxalate diet enhances oxalate absorption and excretion, which carries an even greater risk of stone formation than high calcium excretion. An increase in calcium intake may reduce urinary oxalate excretion by binding to more oxalate in the gut, thus reducing the risk of stone formation. Varying the amounts of calcium does not significantly alter levels of urinary calcium. From experimental work, it has been concluded that hypercalciuria plays, at most, a secondary role in the formation of calcium stones compared with mild hyperoxaluria.

Excessive ascorbic acid (vitamin C) intake may increase urinary oxalate output with an increased risk of forming kidney stones. An excess dose is considered to be 2000 mg of vitamin C per day. However, ascorbic acid doses greater than 500 mg day-1 were reported to induce a significant increase in urinary oxalate, and doses of 1000 mg day-1 would increase urinary oxalate excretion by 6-13 mg day-1. The recommended daily intake in many countries is in the region of 80 mg.


1.1.1 Calcium Oxalate Stone
Oxalate is the anion of a strong dicarboxylic acid (C2O4H2) that formed in the body from a combination of dietary sources and endogenous synthesis from precursors such as ascorbate and various amino acids (Elder and Wyngaarden, 1960). Dietary sources (exogenous) accounts for approximately 20%-40% of blood oxalate (Holmes et al., 2001). Increased oxalate absorption from diet, and increased oxalate endogenous production can cause calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation. Oxalate absorption from food depends on gastrointestinal (GI) transporters, and genetic variations in oxalate transporting proteins (SLC4A1 or AE1) in red blood cells are linked to CaOx stone formation (Baggio et al., 1993). Oxalate is a nonessential metabolite in mammals that must be excreted or sequestered to maintain homeostasis.

Normal adults excrete oxalate in urine ranging from 28 to 43 mg/day (311-478 μM/day), with the average excretion being slightly higher in men than in women (Asplin and Coe, 2007; Curhan et al., 2001). Urinary oxalate excretion that exceeds above 40-45 mg/day (444-500 μM/day) is generally classified as clinical hyperoxaluria, and it is a risk factor for renal stone formation. Calcium oxalate stones are formed when urinary oxalate is supersaturated with calcium ions, an essential mineral at all ages, although the daily requirement varies with the physiological status of the individual

Approximately 75% of all kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate. CaOx stones are in the form of monohydrate, dihydrate, and mixed with calcium phosphate. The presence of high levels of oxalate (Ox) and calcium oxalate crystals injure the renal epithelial cells. It has been proposed that cellular injury promotes a cascade of events, such as crystal retention within the renal tubules through nucleation, aggregation, and attachment of crystals to the renal epithelium; this is significant in the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis (Khan et al., 2006).

R

Table 23-3. Types of Oxalosis

FAMILIAL
Primary hyperoxaluria

Type 1 (HP1): AGT deficiency

Type 2 (HP2): GR deficiency

Type 3 (HP3): mutation in the mitochondrial dihydrodipicolinate synthase-like gene DHDPSL

ACQUIRED
Diet rich in oxalate, e.g., rhubarb

Increased ingestion or administration of oxalate precursors, e.g., ascorbic acid, ethyleneglycol, and xylitol

Increased absorption, e.g., small bowel resection or bypass, inflammatory bowel disease, or external biliary drainage

Increased production, e.g., deficiency in thiamine or pyridoxine, Aspergillus niger infection

Decreased renal excretion: uremia

Dystrophic: retinal damage

AGT, Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase; DHDPSL, gene encoding 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase, catalyzing the final step in the metabolic pathway of hydroxyproline; GR, glyoxylate reductase/d-glycerate dehydrogenase.


Excess oxalate in the diet or increased absorption in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, small bowel resection, intestinal bypass, external biliary drainage, and intestinal lymphangiectasia can lead to hyperoxalemia. Bowel abnormalities such as Crohn's disease62,63 and small bowel resection64,65 have been reported to result in secondary oxalosis. Patients with cystic fibrosis are at increased risk for hyperoxaluria due to intestinal malabsorption and a lack of intestinal Oxalobacter formigenes from frequent antibiotic use. O. formigenes absorbs oxalate to create adenosine triphosphate, so decreased bacterial counts contribute to oxalosis.66 Arthritis is a rare complication of cystic fibrosis classified as either cystic fibrosis-related arthropathy or hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, and no evidence of oxalate crystals has been reported as a cause of the arthritis.67

Ascorbic acid or vitamin C replacement is often recommended for long-term dialysis patients due to dialysis loss and potential benefit in opposing erythropoietin resistance. However, ascorbate is partially metabolized to oxalate, leading to higher levels of oxalate in dialysis patients.68 The appropriate level of ascorbic acid repletion to achieve benefits but avoid risk of oxalosis is unknown.69 Methoxyflurane, ethyleneglycol, and xylitol are all metabolized to oxalate as well. Infections caused by the Aspergillus sp., particularly Aspergillus niger cause localized oxalate deposition. Oxalate is a fermentation product of the fungus and may participate in the invasive nature of aspergillomas.70 Aspergillomas have been reported to cause systemic oxalosis with renal failure related to oxalate deposition.71 HIV-infected patients have been reported to have oxalate deposition in coronary arteries.72 Oxalate deposition has also been reported in the globe of the eye,73 eyelid,74 and a renomedullary interstitial cell tumor75 in AIDS patients. Thiamine and pyridoxinene deficiencies may inhibit glyoxylate metabolism, thereby increasing oxalate production.

Three rare autosomal recessive disorders of primary oxalosis are associated with oxalate arthropathy (Fig. 23-1). Primary hyperoxaluria type I (HP1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an accumulation of CaOX in various bodily tissues, especially the kidney, resulting in renal failure. Affected individuals have decreased or absent liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT) activity and a failure to transaminate glyoxylate, which causes the accumulated glyoxylate to be oxidized to oxalate. Almost 100 disease-causing mutations in the AGXT gene, located on chromosome 2q36-q37, have been reported thus far. They include mostly point mutations leading to missense, nonsense, and a number of splicing mutations through the 11 exons of the gene. Minor deletions/insertions and a few major deletions spanning several exons account for the remaining third. This overproduction of oxalate results in the accumulation of nonsoluble CaOX in various body tissues, with pathologic sequelae.76

Vitamin C, bees, and rust have something in common: oxalic acid. Find out how in this lesson on oxalic acid's structure, formula, and uses, and learn about some example chemical reactions involving the substance.
Oxalic Acid
Eat your veggies! Why? It's because veggies have a lot of important vitamins. One of them is vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid. Your body actually turns this ascorbic acid into another compound called oxalic acid, also known as ethanedioic acid. If you are one of those people who pops massive doses of vitamin C thanks to Linus Pauling, you should be careful. That's because too much oxalic acid might contribute to the formation of calcium oxalate (the calcium salt of oxalic acid) kidney stones. Ouch!

But don't worry, this lesson won't be painful. Read on to learn more details about oxalic acid's structure, formula, and properties and some of its cool uses.

Structure, Formula & Properties
Oxalic acid can be symbolized by the following two molecular formulas:

o
Here, the C stands for carbon, the H stands for hydrogen and the O represents oxygen. The structure of oxalic acid can be shown through visual models as well.

The 2D structure of oxalic acid.
2
The 3D structure of oxalic acid.
o
Oxalic acid has numerous chemical and physical properties:

It's colorless
It's odorless
It's a powder or granular solid at room temperature
Its crystals can have a pyramidal shape to them
In addition, oxalic acid can react violently with things like alkali metals. It is also sensitive to heat, and it is potentially explosive when mixed with certain compounds.

Interestingly, a colorful oxidation reduction reaction occurs when potassium permanganate is mixed with oxalic acid. The reaction turns the purple potassium permanganate into a light brown color.

Creation
Oxalic acid itself can be made by numerous methods. One way is to heat sodium formate in the presence of sodium hydroxide. It can also be made via the nitric acid oxidation of ethylene glycol (ethylene glycol is famous for being an ingredient in antifreeze).


OXALIC ACID SAFETY SHEET
oxalic acid - liquid contains dissolved oxalic acid dihydrate. Also known as ethanedionic acid.
oxalic acid dihydrate - solid form, a white crystalline powder, crystals, granules, pellets.
oxalic acid vapour - gaseous form, created by heating and vaporizing liquid oxalic acid or solid
oxalic acid dihydrate
In all forms, oxalic acid is odourless, and dissolves readily in water.
Storage: Keep in a tightly closed, airtight container when not in use, to prevent absorption of
moisture, which causes the loose crystalline powder to solidify into a hard rock. Store in a cool, dry,
well-ventilated area away from sources of heat, moisture and incompatible substances. Containers
of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues.
Incompatibilities with Other Materials: Strong oxidizing agents, mercury, hypochlorite, silver,
strong alkalies, chlorites, furfuryl alcohol. Avoid contact with metals, alkali metals.
Handling: Wash thoroughly after handling. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Do not get
in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Do not ingest or inhale. Discard contaminated shoes. Use only with
adequate ventilation.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Always wear impenetrable gloves when handling any form of oxalic acid. Protective clothing
should be worn to prevent contact of the liquid or powder with skin. Goggles and respirator
should be used when vaporizing oxalic acid crystals.
HEALTH EFFECTS
Target Organs: kidneys, heart, eyes, skin, brain, nerves, mucous membranes
Oxalic acid is corrosive to tissue and causes burns.
Inhalation may cause severe respiratory tract irritation with possible burns.
May cause severe digestive tract irritation with possible burns.
May cause kidney damage.
May cause eye and skin irritation with possible burns.
Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed.
Possible risk of harm to the unborn child.
Ingestion:
Oxalic acid is toxic because of its acidic and chelating properties. It may cause burns, nausea, severe
gastroenteritis and vomiting, shock and convulsions. It is especially toxic when ingested. As little as
5 to 15 grams (71 mg/kg) may be fatal to humans. Ulcerations of the mouth, vomiting of blood, and
rapid appearance of shock, convulsions, twitching and cardiovascular collapse may occur following
ingestion of oxalic acid or its soluble salts. Oxalic acid can bind calcium from the blood to form
calcium oxalate, which can precipitate in the kidney tubules and the brain. Renal damage may
result as evidenced by bloody urine. Hypocalcemia secondary to calcium oxalate formation might
disturb the function of the heart and nerves.
Ontario Beekeepers' Association
Technology-Transfer Program
Orchard Park Office Centre, 5420 Hwy 6 North, Suite 185, Guelph, ON, N1H 6J2
Inhalation:
Oxalic acid vapor is harmful if inhaled. It can cause severe irritation and burns of nose, throat, and
respiratory tract. Inhalation of oxalic acid dust or vapor can also cause protein in the urine,
nosebleed, ulceration of the mucous membranes, headache, nervousness, cough, vomiting,
emaciation, back pain (due to kidney injury), and weakness.
Skin Contact:
Oxalic acid can cause severe skin irritation. The crystals/solution are harmful if absorbed through
the skin. Rare chemical burns may occur from oxalic acid and may cause hypocalcemia. Gangrene
has occurred in the hands of people working with oxalic acid solutions without rubber gloves. The
skin lesions are characterized by cracking of the skin and the development of slow-healing ulcers.
The skin may be bluish in color, and the nails brittle and yellow.
Eye Contact:
Oxalic acid may cause severe eye irritation. It may produce corrosive effects or result in corneal
injury.
Chronic Exposure:
Inhalation of oxalic acid dust or mist over a long period of time might result in weight
loss and respiratory tract inflammation. Rats administered oxalic acid at 2.5 and 5% in the diet for
70 days developed depressed thyroid function and weight loss. Prolonged skin contact can cause
dermatitis, cyanosis of the fingers and possible ulceration. A study of railroad car cleaners in
Norway who were heavily exposed to oxalic acid solutions and vapors revealed a 53% prevalence
of urolithiasis (the formation of urinary stones), compared to a rate of 12% among unexposed
workers from the same company.
Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions:
Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems, or impaired kidney or respiratory
function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.
EMERGENCY OVERVIEW - What to do in an emergency situation with oxalic acid.
Inhalation:
If vapors are inhaled, move to fresh air. If the person in question is not breathing, provide artificial
respiration. If breathing is difficult for the affected person, provide oxygen. Call a physician
immediately.
Ingestion:
If oxalic acid crystals/solution is ingested, DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING! Give large quantities of
limewater or milk to drink. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person, wash out
mouth with water instead. Call a physician immediately.
Skin Contact:
In case of contact, wipe off excess from skin then immediately flush skin with plenty of
water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash
clothing before reuse. Call a physician immediately.
Eye Contact:
Immediately flush eyes with gentle but large stream of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting
lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Call a physician

Oxalic Acid/D
Oxalates (or oxalic acid salts) are waste products of metabolism that the body must dispose of through the urine. Oxalate salts (calcium oxalate) are poorly soluble in urine and tend to form crystals often observed during routine urine analysis. More rarely, calcium oxalates will form kidney stones. The results are expressed in micromoles of oxalate per day (umol/d).

Common Name Oxalic acid
Description Oxalic acid is a strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent (Pubchem). Oxalic acid (IUPAC name: ethanedioic acid, formula H2C2O4) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure (HOOC)-(COOH). Because of the joining of two carboxyl groups, this is one of the strongest organic acids. It is also a reducing agent. The anions of oxalic acid as well as its salts and esters are known as oxalates (Wikipedia). Bodily oxalic acid may also be synthesized via the metabolism of either glyoxylic acid or unused ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which is a serious health consideration for long term megadosers of vitamin C supplements. 80% of kidney stones are formed from calcium oxalate. Some Aspergillus species produce oxalic acid, which reacts with blood or tissue calcium to precipitate calcium oxalate. There is some preliminary evidence that the administration of probiotics can affect oxalic acid excretion rates (and presumably oxalic acid levels as well) (Wikipedia). Oxalic acid is found to be associated with fumarase deficiency and primary hyperoxaluria I, which are inborn errors of metabolism. Oxalic acid is a marker for yeast overgrowth from Aspergillus, Penicillum and/or Candida. Can also be elevated due to exposures from vitamin C or ethylene glycol poisoning. Oxalate is elevated in the urine of children with autism

HMDB
Browse
Search
Downloads
About
Contact Us
Search

Quantitative metabolomics services for biomarker discovery and validation.Specializing in ready to use metabolomics kits.Your source for quantitative metabolomics technologies and bioinformatics.
Showing metabocard for Oxalic acid (HMDB0002329)
Record Information
Version 4.0
Status Detected and Quantified
Creation Date 2006-05-22 14:17:48 UTC
Update Date 2019-04-01 19:20:03 UTC
HMDB ID HMDB0002329
Secondary Accession Numbers
HMDB02329
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Oxalic acid
Description Oxalic acid is a strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent (Pubchem). Oxalic acid (IUPAC name: ethanedioic acid, formula H2C2O4) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure (HOOC)-(COOH). Because of the joining of two carboxyl groups, this is one of the strongest organic acids. It is also a reducing agent. The anions of oxalic acid as well as its salts and esters are known as oxalates (Wikipedia). Bodily oxalic acid may also be synthesized via the metabolism of either glyoxylic acid or unused ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which is a serious health consideration for long term megadosers of vitamin C supplements. 80% of kidney stones are formed from calcium oxalate. Some Aspergillus species produce oxalic acid, which reacts with blood or tissue calcium to precipitate calcium oxalate. There is some preliminary evidence that the administration of probiotics can affect oxalic acid excretion rates (and presumably oxalic acid levels as well) (Wikipedia). Oxalic acid is found to be associated with fumarase deficiency and primary hyperoxaluria I, which are inborn errors of metabolism. Oxalic acid is a marker for yeast overgrowth from Aspergillus, Penicillum and/or Candida. Can also be elevated due to exposures from vitamin C or ethylene glycol poisoning. Oxalate is elevated in the urine of children with autism. (PMID: 21911305 )
Structure
Data?1547234217

Oxalic acid KEGG
Close
Chemical Formula C2H2O4
Average Molecular Weight 90.0349
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 89.995308552
IUPAC Name oxalic acid
Traditional Name oxalic acid
CAS Registry Number 144-62-7
SMILES
OC(=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H2O4/c3-1(4)2(5)6/h(H,3,4)(H,5,6)
InChI Key MUBZPKHOEPUJKR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super Class Organic acids and derivatives
Class Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Carboxylic acids
Organic oxides
Hydrocarbon derivatives
Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
Carboxylic acid
Organic oxygen compound
Organic oxide
Hydrocarbon derivative
Organooxygen compound
Carbonyl group
Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acid (CHEBI:16995 )
Ontology
Physiological effect
Health effect:

Health condition:

Primary hyperoxaluria i
Hemodialysis
Collapse
Coma
Primary hyperoxaluria
Renal and urinary disorders:

Renal failure
Metabolism and nutrition disorders:

Gout
General disorders and administration site conditions:

Pain
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders:

Arthritis
Gastrointestinal disorders:

Vomiting
Nausea
Abdominal pain
Diarrhea
Disposition
Route of exposure:

Enteral:

Ingestion
Source:

Endogenous
Food
Biological:

Animal
Microbe
Plant:

Poaceae
Coffea
Fabaceae
Glycine max
Cucurbitaceae
Theobroma cacao
Fungi:

Aspergillus
Candida
Penicillium
Biological location:

Tissue and substructures:

Epidermis
Organ and components:

Intestine
Testicle
Bladder
Pancreas
Kidney
Liver
Biofluid and excreta:

Saliva
Urine
Blood
Sweat
Cell and elements:

Extracellular
Cell:

Fibroblast
Subcellular:

Peroxisome
Process
Naturally occurring process:

Biological process:

Biochemical pathway:

Rheumatoid arthritis
Role
Industrial application:

Pharmaceutical industry:

Pharmaceutical
Biological role:

Drug metabolite
Waste product
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 189.5 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 220 mg/mL at 25 °C Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 65.7 g/L ALOGPS
logP -0.51 ALOGPS
logP -0.26 ChemAxon
logS -0.14 ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic) 1.36 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge -2 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 4 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 2 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 74.6 Ų ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 1 ChemAxon
Refractivity 14.44 m³·mol⁻¹ ChemAxon
Polarizability 6.23 ų ChemAxon
Number of Rings 0 ChemAxon
Bioavailability 1 ChemAxon
Rule of Five Yes ChemAxon
Ghose Filter Yes ChemAxon
Veber's Rule Yes ChemAxon
MDDR-like Rule Yes ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum Type Description Splash Key View
GC-MS GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS) splash10-0002-0900000000-eaa92cf80964dd7d345a JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MS GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized) splash10-0002-0900000000-b9206a3a54b5be6f07d9 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MS GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS) splash10-00dj-9500000000-e5db327eab9e8a2f149e JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MS GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) splash10-00sl-3910000000-75af6e42d4cc12d798f4 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MS GC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized) splash10-0006-9000000000-8aef9a64d926571c2de0 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MS GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized) splash10-0002-0900000000-eaa92cf80964dd7d345a JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MS GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized) splash10-0002-0900000000-b9206a3a54b5be6f07d9 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MS GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized) splash10-00dj-9500000000-e5db327eab9e8a2f149e JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MS GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) splash10-00sl-3910000000-75af6e42d4cc12d798f4 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MS GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized) splash10-0002-0900000000-3cee49bf06349fbe625e JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MS Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positive splash10-000f-9000000000-f5e8094c68372ab25a63 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MS Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positive splash10-00xr-9510000000-28b0e365a156d2091afd JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MS LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated) splash10-00di-9000000000-cb3d53cc3c40c1cbbba7 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MS LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated) splash10-0uk9-9000000000-53a009b344e3920ffca1 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MS LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated) splash10-000i-9000000000-2bafb6c472ab1030cd0f JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MS LC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positive splash10-0006-9000000000-8aef9a64d926571c2de0 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MS Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive splash10-0006-9000000000-d1ff7c94a720b1eecaf2 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MS Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive splash10-0006-9000000000-21d33d1d99d80526ee71 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MS Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive splash10-0006-9000000000-ac27102ff43446c313d3 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MS Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative splash10-000i-9000000000-fe58eaea122c39178fbe JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MS Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative splash10-000i-9000000000-3850c6a7016e2874d55b JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MS Predicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative splash10-000i-9000000000-32ac4118fe0eb9a5abb2 JSpectraViewer | MoNA
MS Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization) splash10-0002-9000000000-538465f019815d5e1b4a JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Show more...
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
Extracellular
Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
Blood
Feces
Saliva
Sweat
Urine
Tissue Locations
Bladder
Epidermis
Eye Lens
Fibroblasts
Intestine
Kidney
Liver
Pancreas
Testes
Pathways
Not Available
Name SMPDB/Pathwhiz KEGG
Normal Concentrations
Biospecimen Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference Details
Blood Detected and Quantified 6.43 +/- 1.06 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
9573551
Blood Detected and Quantified 22.2 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
21359215
Blood Detected and Quantified 9.2 +/- 2.7 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Geigy Scientific ...
Blood Detected and Quantified 3.33 +/- 1.11 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
2026685
21359215
15353324
9573551
24023812
22626821
978-0-911910-19-3
Geigy Scientific ...
Geigy Scientific ...
David F. Putnam C...
Feces Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
27543620
Saliva Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
22308371
Saliva Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
22308371
Saliva Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
22308371
Saliva Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
22308371
Saliva Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
22308371
Saliva Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
22308371
Saliva Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
22308371
Saliva Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
22308371
Saliva Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
22308371
Saliva Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
22308371
Sweat Detected but not Quantified Adult Both Normal
26755145
Urine Detected and Quantified 8.2 (3.9-14.0) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
24023812
Urine Detected and Quantified 3.26 +/- 9.04 umol/mmol creatinine Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
2026685
Urine Detected and Quantified 1.11-33.34 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
David F. Putnam C...
Urine Detected and Quantified 6.2-13 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
27012787
Urine Detected and Quantified <52.55 umol/mmol creatinine Children (1 - 18 years old) Both Normal
BC Children's Hos...
Urine Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
24023812
Urine Detected and Quantified <50.229 umol/mmol creatinine Infant (0-1 year old) Male Normal
26078636
Urine Detected and Quantified 18.4 +/- 6.5 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Geigy Scientific ...
Urine Detected and Quantified <= 30.0 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
978-0-911910-19-3
Urine Detected and Quantified 7.7-10 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
27012787
Urine Detected and Quantified 0-101 umol/mmol creatinine Children (1-13 years old) Both Normal
Primary Hyperoxal...
Show more...
Abnormal Concentrations
Biospecimen Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference Details
Blood Detected and Quantified 47.2 +/- 22.9 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Hemodialysis
15353324
Blood Detected and Quantified 16.9 +/- 10.5 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Hemodialysis
15353324
Blood Detected and Quantified 43.32 +/- 6.66 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both uremia
2026685
21359215
15353324
9573551
24023812
22626821
978-0-911910-19-3
Geigy Scientific ...
Geigy Scientific ...
David F. Putnam C...
Blood Detected and Quantified 37.310-243.200 uM Children (1-13 years old) Both Primary hyperoxaluria I
705974
Urine Detected and Quantified 84.134 umol/mmol creatinine Infant (0-1 year old) Male Fumarase deficiency
26078636
Urine Detected and Quantified 651.333 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Male Primary hyperoxaluria I
705974
Urine Detected and Quantified 629.333-1636 umol/mmol creatinine Children (1-13 years old) Both Primary hyperoxaluria I
705974
Urine Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old) Both Bladder cancer
28157703
Urine Detected and Quantified >101 umol/mmol creatinine Children (1-13 years old) Both Glycolic aciduria
Primary Hyperoxal...
Show more...
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hemodialysis
Ogawa Y, Machida N, Jahana M, Gakiya M, Chinen Y, Oda M, Morozumi M, Sugaya K: Major factors modulating the serum oxalic acid level in hemodialysis patients. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:2901-8. [PubMed:15353324 ]
Uremia
Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [PubMed:22626821 ]
Psychogios N, Hau DD, Peng J, Guo AC, Mandal R, Bouatra S, Sinelnikov I, Krishnamurthy R, Eisner R, Gautam B, Young N, Xia J, Knox C, Dong E, Huang P, Hollander Z, Pedersen TL, Smith SR, Bamforth F, Greiner R, McManus B, Newman JW, Goodfriend T, Wishart DS: The human serum metabolome. PLoS One. 2011 Feb 16;6(2):e16957. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016957. [PubMed:21359215 ]
Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [PubMed:2026685 ]
Hoppe B, Kemper MJ, Hvizd MG, Sailer DE, Langman CB: Simultaneous determination of oxalate, citrate and sulfate in children's plasma with ion chromatography. Kidney Int. 1998 May;53(5):1348-52. [PubMed:9573551 ]
Bouatra S, Aziat F, Mandal R, Guo AC, Wilson MR, Knox C, Bjorndahl TC, Krishnamurthy R, Saleem F, Liu P, Dame ZT, Poelzer J, Huynh J, Yallou FS, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bogumil R, Roehring C, Wishart DS: The human urine metabolome. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 4;8(9):e73076. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073076. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24023812 ]
Ogawa Y, Machida N, Jahana M, Gakiya M, Chinen Y, Oda M, Morozumi M, Sugaya K: Major factors modulating the serum oxalic acid level in hemodialysis patients. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:2901-8. [PubMed:15353324 ]
(). Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. . . [ISBN:978-0-911910-19-3 ]
(). David F. Putnam Composition and Concentrative Properties of Human Urine. NASA Contractor Report. July 1971. .
(). Geigy Scientific Tables, 8th Rev edition, pp. 130. Edited by C. Lentner, West Cadwell, N.J.: Medical education Div., Ciba-Geigy Corp. Basel, Switzerland c1981-1992.. .
(). Geigy Scientific Tables, 8th Rev edition, pp. 165-177. Edited by C. Lentner, West Cadwell, N.J.: Medical education Div., Ciba-Geigy Corp., Basel, Switzerland c1981-1992.. .
Primary hyperoxaluria I
Holmgren G, Hornstrom T, Johansson S, Samuelson G: Primary hyperoxaluria (glycolic acid variant): a clinical and genetical investigation of eight cases. Ups J Med Sci. 1978;83(1):65-70. [PubMed:705974 ]
Fumarase deficiency
Bastug O, Kardas F, Ozturk MA, Halis H, Memur S, Korkmaz L, Tag Z, Gunes T: A rare cause of opistotonus; fumaric aciduria: The first case presentation in Turkey. Turk Pediatri Ars. 2014 Mar 1;49(1):74-6. doi: 10.5152/tpa.2014.442. eCollection 2014 Mar. [PubMed:26078636 ]
Glycolic aciduria
Coulter-Mackie MB, White CT, Lange D, et al. (2002). Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1. 2002 Jun 19 [Updated 2014 Jul 17]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2017. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1283/. University of Washington, Seattle.
Associated OMIM IDs
606812 (Fumarase deficiency)
259900 (Glycolic aciduria)
External Links
DrugBank ID DB03902
Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
FoodDB ID FDB003357
KNApSAcK ID C00001198
Chemspider ID 946
KEGG Compound ID C00209
BioCyc ID OXALATE
BiGG ID 34265
Wikipedia Link Oxalic_acid
METLIN ID 113
PubChem Compound 971
PDB ID OXD
ChEBI ID 16995
Owens SC, Piotrowska-Jastrzebska J, Kaczmarski M: A potential pathogenic role of oxalate in autism. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2012 Sep;16(5):485-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2011.08.004. Epub 2011 Sep 10. [PubMed:21911305 ]
Show more...
Enzymes
1. Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate
Gene Name:
SRC
Uniprot ID:
P12931
Molecular weight:
59834.3
1. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost
Gene Name:
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID:
O94956
Molecular weight:
76697.9
OXALIC ACID DIHYDRATE ICSC: 0707
Ethanedioic acid dihydrate November 2009
CAS #: 6153-56-6
UN #: 3261
EC Number: 205-634-3

ACUTE HAZARDS PREVENTION FIRE FIGHTING
FIRE & EXPLOSION Combustible. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. NO open flames. Use water spray, powder, foam, carbon dioxide. In case of fire: keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water.

PREVENT DISPERSION OF DUST!
SYMPTOMS PREVENTION FIRST AID
Inhalation Cough. Sore throat. Burning sensation. Shortness of breath. Laboured breathing. Headache. Use ventilation (not if powder), local exhaust or breathing protection. Fresh air, rest. Half-upright position. Refer immediately for medical attention.
Skin Redness. Pain. Skin burns. Protective gloves. Protective clothing. Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower for at least 15 minutes. Refer for medical attention .
Eyes Redness. Pain. Blurred vision. Burns. Wear face shield or eye protection in combination with breathing protection. Rinse with plenty of water (remove contact lenses if easily possible). Refer immediately for medical attention.
Ingestion Sore throat. Burning sensation. Abdominal pain. Laboured breathing. Convulsions. Paralysis. Cardiac dysrhythmia. Shock or collapse. Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Wash hands before eating. Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer immediately for medical attention.

SPILLAGE DISPOSAL CLASSIFICATION & LABELLING
Personal protection: particulate filter respirator adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance, protective gloves and safety goggles. Sweep spilled substance into covered plastic containers. If appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Wash away remainder with plenty of water.
According to UN GHS Criteria

correxcl mark;warn
DANGER
Harmful if swallowed
Causes severe skin burns and eye damage
May cause respiratory irritation
Transportation
UN Classification
UN Hazard Class: 8; UN Pack Group: III

STORAGE
Separated from strong oxidants and food and feedstuffs.
PACKAGING
Do not transport with food and feedstuffs.

Prepared by an international group of experts on behalf of ILO and WHO, with the financial assistance of the European Commission.
© ILO and WHO 2017
OXALIC ACID DIHYDRATE ICSC: 0707
PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL INFORMATION
Physical State; Appearance
COLOURLESS CRYSTALS.

Physical dangers
No data.

Chemical dangers
Decomposes on contact with hot surfaces or flames. This produces formic acid and carbon monoxide. The solution in water is a medium strong acid. Reacts violently with strong oxidants. This generates fire and explosion hazard. Reacts with some silver compounds. This produces explosive silver oxalate. Attacks some forms of plastic.

Formula: C2H2O4 . 2 H2O / (COOH)2 . 2 H2O
Molecular mass: 126.1
Melting point: 101-102 °C
See Notes.
Density: 1.65 g/cm³
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: 13-14
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: -0.81


EXPOSURE & HEALTH EFFECTS
Routes of exposure
The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol and by ingestion. Serious local effects by all routes of exposure.

Effects of short-term exposure
The substance is corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Corrosive on ingestion. The substance may cause effects on the calcium balance after ingestion. Exposure at high levels could cause death.

Inhalation risk
Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly when dispersed.

Effects of long-term or repeated exposure
Repeated or prolonged contact with skin may cause dermatitis. Exposure may result in kidney stones, slow-healing ulcers and black finger nails.


OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS
TLV: 1 mg/m3, as TWA; 2 mg/m3 as STEL.
EU-OEL: 1 mg/m3 as TWA

ENVIRONMENT

NOTES
The apparent melting point caused by loss of crystal water is given.
The substance can be dehydrated by careful drying at 100 °C, but considerable loss occurs through sublimation.
See ICSC 0529.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
EC Classification
Symbol: Xn; R: 21/22; S: (2)-24/25

All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied.
Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material.IDENTIFICATION
Name
Oxalic Acid
Accession Number
DB03902 (EXPT02457, DB02737)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental
Description
A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
Categories
Acids, Acyclic
Compounds used in a research, industrial, or household setting
Dicarboxylic Acids
Indicators and Reagents
Laboratory Chemicals
OAT3/SLC22A8 Substrates
Oxalates
Reducing Agents
UNII
9E7R5L6H31
CAS number
144-62-7
Weight
Average: 90.0349
Monoisotopic: 89.995308552
Chemical Formula
C2H2O4
InChI Key
MUBZPKHOEPUJKR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C2H2O4/c3-1(4)2(5)6/h(H,3,4)(H,5,6)
IUPAC Name
oxalic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)C(O)=O
PHARMACOLOGY
Indication
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action
TARGET ACTIONS ORGANISM
UProto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src Not Available Humans
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available
INTERACTIONS
Drug Interactions
ALL DRUGS
APPROVED
VET APPROVED
NUTRACEUTICAL
ILLICIT
WITHDRAWN
INVESTIGATIONAL
EXPERIMENTAL
Show entries
Search

USAGE AREAS Traditional industries:
Textile industry
Tanning
Whitening
Antibiotics
Marble polishing
Fertilisers
Food industry
Fast-growing emerging industries:
Metal recovery
Metal purification
Energy storage
Rare earth element purification and plastics.
Oxalic acid dihydrate is a reducing agent. Oxalic acid, also known as Ethanedioic acid is a diprotic acid, which means it can give away 2 protons (hydrogen ions) to a base. Oxalic acid dihydrate has been evaluated as a treatment for reducing populations of naturally occurring microorganisms. Used as a buffer in chromatographic separation, dechelation and deproteinization in tandem with acetonitrile and/or other solvents.

Synonym:Ethanedioic acid
Application:A diprotic reducing agent used as a buffer
CAS Number:6153-56-6
Purity:>98%
Molecular Weight:126.07
Molecular Formula:C2H2O4•2H2O
Supplemental Information:This is classified as a Dangerous Good for transport and may be subject to additional shipping charges.
Oxalic acid and oxalates are used as bleaches, metal cleaners, and rust removers and in chemical synthesis and leather tanning. A laundry powder containing sachets of oxalic acid and potassium permanganate was reported to cause an epidemic of fatal self-poisonings in Sri Lanka. Soluble and insoluble oxalate salts are found in several species of plants.

Mechanism of toxicity
Oxalic acid solutions are highly irritating and corrosive. Ingestion and absorption of oxalate cause acute hypocalcemia resulting from precipitation of the insoluble calcium oxalate salt. Calcium oxalate crystals may then deposit in the brain, heart, kidneys, and other sites, causing serious systemic damage.

Insoluble calcium oxalate salt found in Dieffenbachia and similar plants is not absorbed, but it causes local mucous membrane irritation.

Toxic dose. Ingestion of 5-15 g of oxalic acid has caused death. The recommended workplace limit (ACGIH TLV-TWA) for oxalic acid vapor is 1 mg/m3 as an 8-hour time-weighted average. The level considered immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is 500 mg/m3.

Clinical presentation. Toxicity may occur as a result of skin or eye contact, inhalation, or ingestion.
Acute skin or eye contact causes irritation and burning, which may lead to serious corrosive injury if the exposure and concentration are high.

Inhalation may cause sore throat, cough, and wheezing. Large exposures may lead to chemical pneumonitis or pulmonary edema.

Ingestion of soluble oxalates may result in weakness, tetany, convulsions, and cardiac arrest due to profound hypocalcemia. The QT interval may be prolonged, and variable conduction defects may occur. Oxalate crystals may be found on urinalysis. Insoluble oxalate crystals are not absorbed but can cause irritation and swelling in the oropharynx and esophagus.

Diagnosis is based on a history of exposure and evidence of local or systemic effects or oxalate crystalluria.
Specific levels. Serum oxalate levels are not available.

Other useful laboratory studies include electrolytes, glucose, BUN, creatinine, calcium, ECG monitoring, and urinalysis.

Treatment
Emergency and supportive measures
Protect the airway (See Airway), which may become acutely swollen and obstructed after a significant ingestion or inhalation. Administer supplemental oxygen and assist ventilation if necessary (See Airway and Breathing).

Treat coma (See Coma and stupor), seizures (See Seizures), and arrhythmias (See QRS interval prolongation, Tachycardia, and Ventricular dysrhythmias) if they occur.

Monitor the ECG and vital signs for at least 6 hours after significant exposure and admit symptomatic patients to an intensive care unit.

Specific drugs and antidotes. Administer 10% calcium solution (chloride or gluconate) to counteract symptomatic hypocalcemia (See Calcium).

Decontamination (See Decontamination)
Insoluble oxalates in plants. Flush exposed areas. For ingestions, dilute with plain water; do not induce vomiting or give charcoal.

Oxalic acid or strong commercial oxalate solutions. Immediately flush with copious water. Do not induce vomiting because of the risk for aggravating corrosive injury; instead, give water to dilute, and on arrival in the hospital perform gastric lavage.

Plants containing soluble oxalates. Attempt to precipitate ingested oxalate in ...XALIC ACID ICSC: 0529
Ethanedioic acid November 2009
CAS #: 144-62-7
UN #: 3261
EC Number: 205-634-3

ACUTE HAZARDS PREVENTION FIRE FIGHTING
FIRE & EXPLOSION Combustible. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. NO open flames. Use water spray, powder, foam, carbon dioxide. In case of fire: keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water.

PREVENT DISPERSION OF DUST!
SYMPTOMS PREVENTION FIRST AID
Inhalation Cough. Sore throat. Burning sensation. Shortness of breath. Laboured breathing. Headache. Use ventilation (not if powder), local exhaust or breathing protection. Fresh air, rest. Half-upright position. Refer immediately for medical attention.
Skin Redness. Pain. Skin burns. Protective gloves. Protective clothing. Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower for at least 15 minutes. Refer for medical attention .
Eyes Redness. Pain. Blurred vision. Burns. Wear face shield or eye protection in combination with breathing protection. Rinse with plenty of water (remove contact lenses if easily possible). Refer immediately for medical attention.
Ingestion Sore throat. Burning sensation. Abdominal pain. Laboured breathing. Convulsions. Paralysis. Cardiac dysrhythmia. Shock or collapse. Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Wash hands before eating. Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer immediately for medical attention.

SPILLAGE DISPOSAL CLASSIFICATION & LABELLING
Personal protection: particulate filter respirator adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance, protective gloves and safety goggles. Sweep spilled substance into covered plastic containers. If appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Wash away remainder with plenty of water.
According to UN GHS Criteria

correxcl mark;warn
DANGER
Harmful if swallowed
Causes severe skin burns and eye damage
May cause respiratory irritation
Transportation
UN Classification
UN Hazard Class: 8; UN Pack Group: III

STORAGE
Separated from strong oxidants and food and feedstuffs. Dry. Well closed.
PACKAGING
Do not transport with food and feedstuffs.

Prepared by an international group of experts on behalf of ILO and WHO, with the financial assistance of the European Commission.
© ILO and WHO 2017
OXALIC ACID ICSC: 0529
PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL INFORMATION
Physical State; Appearance
HYGROSCOPIC COLOURLESS CRYSTALS OR WHITE POWDER.

Physical dangers
No data.

Chemical dangers
Decomposes on contact with hot surfaces or flames. This produces formic acid and carbon monoxide. The solution in water is a medium strong acid. Reacts violently with strong oxidants. This generates fire and explosion hazard. Reacts with some silver compounds. This produces explosive silver oxalate. Attacks some forms of plastic.

Formula: C2H2O4 / (COOH)2
Molecular mass: 90.0
Decomposes: see Notes.
Melting point: 189.5°C
Density (at °C): 1.9 g/cm³
Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: 9-10 (moderate)
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: -0.81


EXPOSURE & HEALTH EFFECTS
Routes of exposure
The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol and by ingestion. Serious local effects by all routes of exposure.

Effects of short-term exposure
The substance is corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Corrosive on ingestion. The substance may cause effects on the calcium balance after ingestion. Exposure at high levels could cause death.

Inhalation risk
Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly when dispersed.

Effects of long-term or repeated exposure
Repeated or prolonged contact with skin may cause dermatitis. Exposure may result in kidney stones, slow-healing ulcers and black finger nails.


OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS
TLV: 1 mg/m3, as TWA; 2 mg/m3 as STEL.
EU-OEL: 1 mg/m3 as TWA

ENVIRONMENT

NOTES
Oxalic acid may sublime at temperatures >100 °C at reduced pressure. Optimal sublimation temperature is 157 °C. At higher temperatures it partly decomposes.
Specific treatment is necessary in case of poisoning with this substance; the appropriate means with instructions must be available.
Some producers do not classify this substance under UN 3261.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
EC Classification
Symbol: Xn; R: 21/22; S: (2)-24/25

All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material.


Name
Oxalate;
Oxalic acid;
Ethanedioic acid
Formula
C2H2O4
Exact mass
89.9953
Mol weight
90.0349
Structure
Mol fileKCF fileDB search
Reaction
R00273 R00338 R00466 R00522 R00646 R01558 R01559 R07290
R09157 R09486 R10614 R11617
Pathway
map00230 Purine metabolism
map00625 Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
map00630 Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
map01100 Metabolic pathways
map01120 Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
Enzyme
1.2.3.4 1.2.3.5 1.2.7.10 2.8.3.2
2.8.3.16 2.8.3.19 3.5.1.126 3.7.1.1
3.8.1.- 4.1.1.2 6.2.1.8
Brite
Compounds with biological roles [BR:br08001]
Organic acids
Carboxylic acids
Dicarboxylic acids
C00209 Oxalate
BRITE hierarchy
Other DBs
CAS: 144-62-7
PubChem: 3509
ChEBI: 16995 30623
ChEMBL: CHEMBL146755
KNApSAcK: C00001198
PDB-CCD: OXD[PDBj] OXL[PDBj]
3DMET: B00059
NIKKAJI: J2.954H
OXALİC ACID

 


ANALYSIS PARAMETERS

SPESIFICATION

Formula

H2C2O4.2H2O

H2C2O4.2H2O %

99 Min.

Ash %

0,1 Max.

Appearance

White Crystals

Oxalic acid Formula
Oxalic acid is a toxic organic acid, which is also called ethanedioic acid. It is a strong dicarboxylic acid.

Formula and structure: The chemical formula of oxalic acid is (COOH)2 and its molecular formula is C2H2O4. Its molar mass is 90.03 g/mol. Its chemical structure is shown below. It is the simplest dicarboxylic acid, and consists of just two carboxylic acid groups (COOH) directly attached to each other at the carbon atoms.

 

Occurrence: Oxalic acid and its oxalate derivatives are found in several natural sources such as plants, vegetables, leaves, wood and coal, among others. It is also produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid

Preparation: Oxalic acid is commonly prepared by the oxidation of carbohydrates such as sucrose or glucose using nitric acid, and catalyzed by vanadium pentoxide. It can also be prepared by reacting alcohols with carbon monoxide in the presence of oxygen to give the diesters of oxalic acid, which are then subjected to hydrolysis to give oxalic acid.

Physical properties: Oxalic acid is an odorless, crystalline white solid with density of 1.9 g/mL and melting point of 190 °C. It is commonly found in the hydrate form (COOH)2 · 2H2O. It is water soluble and forms a colorless and acidic solution in water.

Chemical properties: Anhydrous oxalic acid is very hydrophilic and readily absorbs water. It is a strong acid. It is the simplest dicarboxylic acid, and reacts as a typical carboxylic acid, forming the acid chloride and ester derivatives. It is a good reducing agent and acts as a good chelating ligand for various metal cations.

Uses: As a strong acid, it finds uses as an acid rinse in laundries, removing scales, and in dyeing and bleaching applications. It is also used in extraction of lanthanide metals and as a reducing agent and analytical reagent.

Health effects/safety hazards: Oxalic acid is toxic and harmful. If inhaled, it can severely damage the mucous membranes and respiratory tract, with symptoms such as cough, wheezing, laryngitis, and shortness of breath. Contact with skin or eyes can cause severe irritation, burns and tissue damage. It is toxic when swallowed and it leads to kidney failure.

Oxalic acid
Oxalic acid is a weak acid is used in different sectors including beekeeping drugs cleaning and sanitation industry.

Oxalic acid as a solid organic acid catalyzed the synthesis of bis(indolyl)methanes by the reaction of indole derivatives and different carbonyl compounds. All the reactions were performed at ambient temperature and completely heterogeneous conditions and the products were obtained in high yields.
Oxalic acid is a widely occurring natural product of animals, plants and other organisms. It sometimes occurs as a free acid, but more commonly as a calcium salt. Organisms exhibit various levels of oxalate content which even show fluctuations among the organs of the same individual. Although oxalate seems to engage in the metabolism and adaptation of animals, plants and fungi, its mechanism is far from being completely understood. There is now an appreciable body of information regarding the occurrence and significance of oxalic acid in living tissues but the data are widely scattered in various scientific areas due to the broad distribution of oxalate among organisms. It is my goal in the present review to gather this information together to make it available for forthcoming research in the area of oxalate.Oxalic acid
Description Present in many plants and vegetables. Toxin from rhubarb, especies the leaves but also present in the stems A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent. -- Pubchem; Bodily oxalic acid may also be synthesized via the metabolism of either glyoxylic acid or unused ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which is a serious health consideration for long term megadosers of vitamin C supplements. 80% of kidney stones are formed from calcium oxalate. Some Aspergillus species produce oxalic acid, which reacts with blood or tissue calcium to precipitate calcium oxalate. There is some preliminary evidence that the administration of probiotics can affect oxalic acid excretion rates (and presumably oxalic acid levels as well.) -- Wikipedia; Oxalate, the conjugate base of oxalic acid, is an excellent ligand for metal ions. It usually binds as a bidentate ligand forming a 5-membered MO2C2 ring. An illustrative complex is potassium ferrioxalate, K3[Fe(C2O4)3]. The drug Oxaliplatin exhibits improved water solubility relative to older platinum-based drugs, avoiding the dose-limiting side-effect of nephrotoxicity. Oxalic acid and oxalates can be oxidized by permanganate in an autocatalytic reaction.; Oxalic acid (IUPAC name: ethanedioic acid, formula H2C2O4) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure (HOOC)-(COOH). Because of the joining of two carboxyl groups, this is one of the strongest organic acids. It is also a reducing agent. The anions of oxalic acid as well as its salts and esters are known as oxalates. -- Wikipedia; Oxalic acid is an important reagent in lanthanide chemistry. Hydrated lanthanide oxalates form readily in strongly acid solution in a densely crystalline easily filtered form, largely free from contamination by non-lanthanide elements. Lanthanide oxalates figure importantly in commercial processing of lanthanides, and are used to recover lanthanides from solution after separation. Upon ignition, lanthanide oxalates are converted to the oxides, which are the most common form in which the lanthanides are marketed.; Oxalic acid is the chemical compound with the formula H2C2O4. This dicarboxylic acid is better described with the formula HOOCCOOH. It is a relatively strong organic acid, being about 3,000 times as strong as acetic acid. The di-anion, known as oxalate, is also a reducing agent as well as a ligand in coordination chemistry. Many metal ions form insoluble precipitates with oxalate, a prominent example being calcium oxalate, which is the primary constituent of the most common kind of kidney stones. Oxalic acid is found in many foods, some of which are lettuce, chinese chives, red beetroot, and cherry tomato.
CAS Number 144-62-7
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Show entriesSearch:
Synonym Source
2dua biospider
2hwg biospider
553-91-3 (DILITHIUM) biospider
Acid, oxalic HMDB
Acido ossalico biospider
Acidum oxalicum biospider
Acidum Oxalicum-Injeel Forte Liq (D6-D200) biospider
Aktisal biospider
Aluminum oxalate HMDB
Ammonium oxalate HMDB
Showing 1 to 10 of 86 entriesPrevious12345...9Next
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 65.7 g/L ALOGPS
logP -0.51 ALOGPS
logP -0.26 ChemAxon
logS -0.14 ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic) 1.36 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge -2 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 4 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 2 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 74.6 Ų ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 1 ChemAxon
Refractivity 14.44 m³·mol⁻¹ ChemAxon
Polarizability 6.23 ų ChemAxon
Number of Rings 0 ChemAxon
Bioavailability 1 ChemAxon
Rule of Five Yes ChemAxon
Ghose Filter Yes ChemAxon
Veber's Rule Yes ChemAxon
MDDR-like Rule Yes ChemAxon
Chemical Formula C2H2O4
IUPAC name oxalic acid
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C2H2O4/c3-1(4)2(5)6/h(H,3,4)(H,5,6)
InChI Key MUBZPKHOEPUJKR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILES OC(=O)C(O)=O
Average Molecular Weight 90.0349
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 89.995308552
Classification
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super Class Organic acids and derivatives
Class Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Carboxylic acids
Organic oxides
Hydrocarbon derivatives
Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
Carboxylic acid
Organic oxygen compound
Organic oxide
Hydrocarbon derivative
Organooxygen compound
Carbonyl group
Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acid (CHEBI:16995 )
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Show entriesSearch:
Property Value Reference
Boiling Point Not Available
Charge Not Available
Density d18.54 1.65 DFC
Experimental logP Not Available
Experimental pKa pKa2 3.85 (25°,H2O) DFC
Experimental Water Solubility 220 mg/mL at 25 oC YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
Isoelectric point Not Available
Mass Composition C 26.68%; H 2.24%; O 71.08% DFC
Melting Point Mp 101.5° (dihydrate) DFC

MS Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization) splash10-0002-9000000000-538465f019815d5e1b4a View in MoNA

 

Title: Oxalic Acid
CAS Registry Number: 144-62-7
CAS Name: Ethanedioic acid
Molecular Formula: C2H2O4
Molecular Weight: 90.03
Percent Composition: C 26.68%, H 2.24%, O 71.08%
Line Formula: (COOH)2
Literature References: Present in many plants and vegetables, notably in those of the Oxalis and Rumex families, where it occurs in the cell sap of the plant as the potassium or calcium salt. It is a product of the metabolism of many molds. Several species of Penicillium and Aspergillus convert sugar into calcium oxalate with 90% yields under optimum conditions. Oxalic acid was formerly manuf by fusion of cellulose matter, e.g. sawdust, with NaOH or by oxidation with HNO3; it is now made by passing carbon monoxide into concd NaOH or by heating sodium formate in the presence of NaOH or Na2CO3: Wallace, US 1602802 (1926); Beckman, US 2687433 (1951 to Allied Chem.). Efficient laboratory prepn of anhydrous form: H. T. Clarke, A. W. Davis, Org. Synth. coll. vol. I, 421 (2nd ed., 1941). Toxicity study: E. H. Vernot et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 42, 417 (1977). Review: Wilson, "Miscellaneous Aspergillus Toxins" in Microbial Toxins vol. VI, A. Ciegler et al., Eds. (Academic Press, New York, 1971) pp 268-273; C. A. Bernales in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 16 (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 3rd ed., 1981) pp 618-636.

Derivative Type: Dihydrate
Properties: Monoclinic tablets, prisms, granules. Poisonous! d418.5 1.653. mp 101-102° giving off water of crystn and starting to sublime. pK1 1.27; pK2 4.28. pH of 0.1M soln 1.3. One gram dissolves in about 7 ml water, 2 ml boiling water; 2.5 ml alcohol, 1.8 ml boiling alcohol, 100 ml ether, 5.5 ml glycerol. Practically insol in benzene, chloroform, petr ether. d417.5 of aq solns: 1% (w/w) 1.0035; 3% 1.0105; 5% 1.0175; 10% 1.0350; 13% 1.0455. Oxalic acid can be dehydrated by careful drying at 100°, but considerable loss occurs through sublimation; this, moreover, is harmful to the oven. LD50 orally in rats (5% solution): 9.5 ml/kg (Vernot).
Melting point: mp 101-102° giving off water of crystn and starting to sublime
pKa: pK1 1.27; pK2 4.28
Density: d418.5 1.653; d417.5 of aq solns: 1% (w/w) 1.0035; 3% 1.0105; 5% 1.0175; 10% 1.0350; 13% 1.0455
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats (5% solution): 9.5 ml/kg (Vernot)

Derivative Type: Anhydr oxalic acid
Properties: Crystallized from glacial acetic acid, is orthorhombic, the crystals being pyramidal or elongated octahedra. Hygroscopic, mp 189.5° (dec). Sublimes best at 157°. At higher temps dec into CO2, CO, formic acid, and H2O. d417 1.90. 100 g of aq soln satd at 15° contain 6.71 g, at 20° 8.34 g, at 25° 9.81 g.
Melting point: mp 189.5° (dec)
Density: d417 1.90

CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure by ingestion are corrosion of alimentary tract mucosa; localized pain; vomiting, shock, hypotension, cardiovascular collapse; headache, muscle cramps, tatany; convulsions, stupor, coma; kidney damage. Direct contact may cause eye, skin and mucous membrane irritation; eye burns. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 238; Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Ed. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) Section III, pp 326-328.
Use: As analytical reagent; in calico printing and dyeing; for bleaching straw (hats) and leather; removing paint or varnish, rust or ink stains; cleaning wood; manuf oxalates; blue ink; celluloid; intermediates and dyes; in metal polishes; in indigo dyeing; in purifying methanol; for decolorizing crude glycerol; for stabilizing hydrocyanic acid. As a general reducing agent; in ceramics and pigments; in metallurgy as cleanser; in the paper industry; in photography; in process engraving; in the rubber mfg industry; in making glucose from starch; as condensing agent in organic chemistry. In vitro blood specimen anticoagulant.
Therap-Cat-Vet: In 5% solution with 5% malonic acid as hemostatic agent.

 

The formation of oxalic acid and its mixing state in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were studied using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) in the summer and winter of 2014 in Heshan, a supersite in the rural area of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China. Oxalic-acid-containing particles accounted for 2.5 and 2.7 % in total detected ambient particles in summer and winter, respectively. Oxalic acid was measured in particles classified as elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), elemental and organic carbon (ECOC), biomass burning (BB), heavy metal (HM), secondary (Sec), sodium-potassium (NaK), and dust. Oxalic acid was found predominantly mixing with sulfate and nitrate during the whole sampling period, likely due to aqueous-phase reactions. In summer, oxalic-acid-containing particle number and ozone concentration followed a very similar trend, which may reflect the significant contribution of photochemical reactions to oxalic acid formation. The HM particles were the most abundant oxalic acid particles in summer and the diurnal variations in peak area of iron and oxalic acid show opposite trends, which suggests a possible loss of oxalic acid through the photolysis of iron oxalato-complexes during the strong photochemical activity period. In wintertime, carbonaceous particles contained a substantial amount of oxalic acid as well as abundant carbon clusters and BB markers. The general existence of nitric acid in oxalic-acid-containing particles indicates an acidic environment during the formation process of oxalic acid. The peak areas of nitrate, sulfate and oxalic had similar temporal change in the carbonaceous type oxalic acid particles, and the organosulfate-containing oxalic acid particles correlated well with total oxalic acid particles during the haze episode, which suggests that the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.


Cat # +Size K663-100
Size 100 assays
Detection Method Absorbance (OD 450 nm)
Applications Measurement of Oxalate level in various samples.
Analysis of kidney and liver functions.
Features & Benefits • Simple, convenient and high throughput adaptable
• Kit can detect Oxalate levels lower than 20 µM.
Kit Components • Oxalate Assay Buffer
• Oxalate Development Buffer
• Oxalate Converter
• Oxalate Enzyme Mix (lyophilized)
• Oxalate Probe (lyophilized)
• Oxalate Standard (lyophilized)
Storage Conditions -20°C
Shipping Conditions Gel Pack
USAGE For Research Use Only! Not For Use in Humans.

 

Abstract:
Porous anodic alumina is a self-organizing porous material suitable as a template for obtaining nanostructured semiconductor materials. However, low temperature is generally used for the synthesis of porous anodic alumina. In this study, porous anodic alumina films were synthesized by a simple one-step anodizing technique at constant potential 40V using different volume percentage of ethanol in 0.5M oxalic acid at the temperatures of 25 °C. The current versus time transient was recorded by using Keithley sourcemeter. The morphology of the samples was viewed by a scanning electron microscopy. The current versus time transient decreased with the volume percent of ethanol, indicating reduction of growth rate of porous anodic alumina. Porous anodic alumina formed in oxalic acid without ethanol exhibit a complicated structure with irregular pore size and pore shape. Increasing volume percent of ethanol in the oxalic acid improved the pore size and shape. This is probably due to the cooling effect of the ethanol and prolonged time for pore organization. Typical morphology of porous anodic alumina can be formed by anodizing at 40 V at room temperature of 25 °C in 0.5 M oxalic acid with the addition of minimum of 30 volume percent of ethanol.
How to Use the Oxalic Acid Dribble Method
Oxalic Acid Dribble is a method which uses oxalic acid mixed with sugar syrup. It is applied using a large syringe to squirt the mixture on to the bees clustered between the frames.

The bees are not harmed by physical contact with the oxalic acid-laced syrup but, inevitably, they consume a small amount of the oxalic acid containing-syrup which is mildly harmful. For this reason, oxalic acid dribble is best done in a single treatment, not in a repeated series. This is particularly important in winter when individual bees must stay alive for a much longer time. Fortunately, during the brood pause, a single treatment is usually all that's needed, so oxalic acid dribble is a satisfactory option at this of year. The method works best when there are only two boxes on the hive. It can be used when there are more boxes (such as in a hive made up of three or more medium boxes) but that makes for extra work.

EQUIPMENT NEEDED TO DO AN OXALIC ACID DRIBBLE
The equipment needed for mixing and applying the treatment is modest and inexpensive: a gram scale, glass containers to mix the oxalic acid and sugar syrup, a plastic or wood stirrer, and a 60 cc plastic syringe to do the dribbling in controlled and measured amounts. You can assemble the mixing items on your own from household items and add our oxalic acid dribble kit which comes with everything else you need: the oxalic acid, the syringe and the personal protective gear.

The required personal protective gear includes a particulate (N-95) mask, eye protection to protect your eyes from any splashes while mixing and applying the solution and gloves to protect your skin from the acid.

We've done the math!
To make enough syrup to treat:

Oxalic Acid (g.) Hot Water (g. or fl. oz.) Sugar (g. or cups)
20 Hives 35 grams 600 g. or 24 fl. oz. 600 g. or 3 cups
10 Hives 17.5 grams 300 g. or 12 fl. oz. 300 g. or 1.5 cups
5 Hives 8.75 grams 150 g. or 6 fl. oz 150 g. or ¾ cup
Even if you only need enough for 1 or 2 hives, use the 5-hive recipe and discard the surplus. It's hard to accurately mix tiny quantities.

HOW TO MIX THE OXALIC ACID SOLUTION:
You will need an accurate way to measure the oxalic acid, a scale that reads in grams is the best choice. Use mask, gloves and goggles when mixing. See the table at right for mixing recipes. Mix the correct amount of oxalic acid with the appropriate amount of hot water. Stir the mixture until the crystals of the oxalic acid are dissolved. Do not shake the container. Stir in the sugar until it is dissolved. Close the container tightly and add a label: POISON 2.5% Oxalic Acid. Never place the mixed syrup in repurposed food containers, especially drink bottles where it might be mistaken for a beverage. Do not keep any unused syrup after treating; dispose of it by diluting with a large volume of water and pouring down the drain.

When working with oxalic acid in syrup, always have a source of clean water available to use to flush any accidental contact with skin or eyes.Take a couple of gallons of fresh water to the bee yard with you when you go out to do the treatment.

HOW TO APPLY THE OXALIC ACID AND SUGAR SYRUP MIXTURE
Always wear your safety equipment (mask, eye protection, and gloves) when working with the mixture.

Winter oxalic acid dribbles can be done in temperatures as low as the low 40s, when the bees will likely remain clustered during the few minutes the hive is open. While oxalic acid dribbling can successfully be done by one person alone, it will go more quickly if you have a helper. One person can then do the box-opening part and the other person can do the actual dribbling. The helper, if you have one, should also be wearing a mask, eye protection, and gloves.

To begin, draw 50 cc (this is the maximum that can be used in a single colony) into your syringe and set it aside.

Remove the telescoping cover, but not the inner cover. Then use your hive tool to break the propolis seals between the boxes. If you have more than two boxes in your stack be prepared with a temporary base on which to set the upper boxes while you work on the lower ones.

Tilt up the top box and look underneath it to see if there are bees in it. (See the box below for how to safely tilt up a box.) If you have more than two boxes on the hive, move the tipped-up box to the temporary stack, cover it, and continue to work your way downward. Repeat until you have tilted up the next-to-lowest box. When you have the bees in the lowest box exposed, you're ready to begin the treatment. No need to remove the next-to-lowest box, just keep it tilted up while you treat the box below.

Once you've exposed the lowest box where the bees are visible, use the syringe to trickle 5 cc of the oxalic acid/sugar syrup mixture over the bees in each of the seams (spaces) between the frames. Do not apply the mixture to any empty seams where there are only a few, or no, bees. Try to get exactly the right amount per seam. When you've done the first box, set the tilted box back down and do the same thing to it if there are bees in it: apply 5 cc of the mixture on any seam where the bees are visible. Repeat, as needed, with any additional boxes that have bees. Do not exceed a total of 50 cc per hive. Then replace any remaining boxes from the temporary stack and close the hive back up.

If you have a screened bottom board on the hive and can monitor mite drop on a sticky board, expect to see the largest drop beginning in about 24 hours from the treatment. You may be startled (and maybe gratified) to see how many mites were removed from your wintering colony as a result of treatment. Those are mites that would have jump-started an early mite build-up in the spring.

1-Oksalik asit nedir?

 

Oksalik asit, bitki kökenli en tanınmış organik asitlerden birisidir.

Kimyasal formülü (COOH)2'dir.

Tabiatta; sodyum tuzu halinde kuzukulağı bitkisinde, kalsiyum tuzu olarak ravent bitkisinde ve birçok başka bitkinin hücre öz suyunda bulunur.

Birçok bitkisel kaynakta içerik olarak bu organik asit bulunur.

Bunlar kuzukulağı, domates ve ıspanağı saymak mümkündür.

Asit olması ortamdaki mevcut bir iyonla tuz oluşturmasını beraberinde getirir.

Vücuda ya da biyolojik canlı sisteme girmiş oksalit asit bu iyonlarla tuz oluşturur.

Kalsiyum oksalat en çok karşıya çıkan tuzu olup, vücutta özellikle üriner sistemde böbrekte birikmelere yol açarak böbrektaşı oluşmasında başrolü üstlenebilir.

Balarılarında Varroa mücadelesinde kullanılacak Oksalik Asit, kimyasal formülü C2H2O4-2H2O Oksalik asit dihidrat tır.

Kesinlikle kalıntı ve ağır metal riski olan ürünlerden uzak durmalı, güvenilir kaynaklardan temin edilmiş Oksalik Asit Dihidrat kullanmalıyız.

 

 

2-Uygulama alanları

 

Dihidrat (iki sulu) oksalik asit, titrasyon standardı olarak alkalimetri ve manganometride, keza kalsiyumun kantitatif analizinde ve nadir toprak metallerinin ayrılmasında kullanılır.

Endüstride oksalik asit ve antimonlu tuzları, tekstil boyamada mordan olarak kullanılır.

Alıntı, http://www.turkcebilgi.com

Bunların dışında gıda sektöründe, Organik ve Konvansiyonel arıcılıkta Varroa mücadelesinde de kullanıldığını biliyoruz.

Bizi ilgilendiren kısmı, arıcılıkta Varroa mücadelesindeki uygulamalardır.

 

3-Uygulama metotları

 

a) Çözelti şeklinde sıvı damlatma metodu

Bir miktar Oksalik asidi ılık suyla hazırlanmış şeker şerbeti içerisine karıştırıp, dış ortam sıcaklığının 10 derece altında, tercihen 0 +5 derce civarında arının salkımda olduğu ve kapalı yavrunun olmadığı dönemde arılar üzerine damlatma şeklinde uygulanır.

Çözelti hazırlarken şeker ve su miktarı aynı fakat Oksalik asit dihidrat miktarı bölgesel sıcaklık farklarına göre değişkenlik arz etmektedir.

Her bölgede aynı reçete geçerli değildir.

Yılda bir defa uygulanması tavsiye edilir.

Zayıf kolonilerde salkım sıcaklık dengesi bozulduğu için, zayıf üç çerçeveden az kolonilerde uygulanması tavsiye edilmez

 

b) Buharlaştırma metodu

 

Oksalik Asit Dihidrat'ın teknik özelliklerinden yararlanıp, üzerine ısı uygulandığında katı halden direkt gaz haline geçmesi yani sublimleşme özelliğini kullanarak yapılan mücadeledir.

Bu uygulamaları yapabilmek için kovan içerisinde açıkta buharlaştırma aparatları olduğu gibi, Oksalik asidi dışarda buharlaştırıp bir boru vasıtasıyla kovan içerisine göndermek suretiyle yapılan uygulamalardır.

 

Bu metodun bana göre olumlu tarafları oldukça fazla.

1-Kovan kapağı açmadan arının mevcut düzenini bozmadan uygulama yapabilirsiniz.

2-Arılar ıslanmadığı için üşütme ve sindirim sistemine olumsuz etkisi hiç yok.

3- Uygulama esnasında arı üzerinde aşırı stres oluşmuyor.

4- Yıl içerisinde birden fazla uygulama yapabilirsiniz.

 

Görünümü : Beyaz Krital Toz

Kimyasal Adı : Ethanedioic Acid, Dihydrate; Oxalic Acid Dihydrate

Kimyasal Formülü : C2H2O4

 

Tanımı ve Kullanımı :

Okzalik asit esas olarak karbonhidratların veya glikozun vanadyum pentoksit varlığında nitrik asit veya hava kullanarak oksidasyonu ile üretilir. Glikolik asit ve etilen glikol dahil olmak üzere çeşitli öncüler kullanılabilir. Daha yeni bir yöntem oksalik asit diesterleri vermek üzere alkollerin oksidatif karbonilasyonunu gerektirir.

4 ROH + 4 CO + 02 → 2 (CO2R) 2 + 2H20

Oksalik asit, en bilinen bitki kökenli organik asitlerden biridir. COOH2 kimyasal formülle gösterilen oksalik asit, doğada kalsiyum tuzu olarak ravent bitkisinde, sodyum tuzu olarak kuzukulağı denilen bitkide ve bazı bitkilerin özsuyunda bulunmaktadır. Bitkisel kaynakların çoğunda bu organik asit bulunmaktadır. Ispanak, domates, kuzukulağı gibi bitkiler bunun içindedir. Asit olması yüzünden ortamdaki bir iyonla tuz oluşturabilir. Biyolojik olarak canlı bir sisteme ve vücuda giren oksalik asit burada iyonlarla tuz oluşturur. En fazla görülen tuzu olan kalsiyum oksalat, vücutta genellikle üriner sistemde özellikle böbreklerde birikerek taş oluşumuna neden olur.

Ilık suyla hazırlanan şeker şerbeti içine bir miktar oksalik asidi karıştırarak, 10 derecenin altındaki dış ortam sıcaklığında arının salkımda olduğu, kapalı yavrunun bulunmadığı zamanda arıların üzerine damlatma şeklinde uygulanmaktadır. Çözeltide şeker ve su miktarı aynı kalırken, bölgesel sıcaklığa göre oksalik asit oranı değişebilir. Yani her yöre için oranlar değişiklik gösterir. Bunun yılda bir defa uygulanması önerilir. Arıların zayıf olduğu kolonilerdeki salkım sıcaklık dengesinin bozulması nedeniyle, üç çerçeveden az olan kolonilerde bunun uygulanmaması tavsiye edilir.

Oksalik asit dihidrat üzerine ısı uygulandığı zaman, katı durumdan gaz haline geçmesiyle yani süblimleşme özelliğiyle yapılan mücadeledir. Bunların yapılması için, kovanın içinde buharlaştırma aparatları olup, oksalik asit dışarda buharlaştırarak, bir boruyla kovan içine gönderilir.

Kullanım Alanları

İki sulu dihidrat oksalik asit, alkalimetri ve manganometride, nadiren toprak metallerinin ayrıştırılmasında ve kalsiyumun kantitatif analizinde kullanılır.
Oksalik asit ve antimonlu tuzları endüstri alanında tekstil boyamada mordan olarak kullanılmaktadır.
Gıda alanında organik ve konvansiyonel arıcılıkta varroa mücadelesinde kullanılmaktadır. Bal arılarındaki varroa mücadelesinde kullanılan oksalik asit, C2H2O4 - 2H2O kimyasal formülüyle oksalik asit hidrattır. İçeriğinde ağır metal ve kalıntı olan ürünler yerine, güvenilir yerlerden alınan oksalik asit hidrat kullanılmalıdır.
Oksalik asit ana uygulamaları, özellikle pası gidermek için temizleme veya ağartma (demir kompleks yapıcı ajan) içerir. Bar Keepers Friend , oksalik asit içeren bir ev temizleyicisine bir örnektir. Pas giderme ajanlarındaki faydası, demirli demir, ferrioksalat iyonu ile dengeli, suda çözünür bir tuz oluşturmasıdır .
Okzalik asit, lantanid kimyasında önemli bir reaktiftir . Hidratlı lantanit oksalat , yoğun olarak kristalleşmiş , kolayca süzülmüş halde, esas olarak non-lanantid olmayan elementlerin bulaşmasından bağımsız olarak, çok kuvvetli asidik solüsyonlarda kolayca oluşur. Bu oksalatın termal olarak ayrışması , bu elementlerin en çok pazarlanan şekli olan oksitleri verir .
Şeker şurubu içinde buharlaştırılmış okzalik asit veya% 3.2'lik bir oksalik asit çözeltisi bazı arıcılar tarafından paraziter böceklere karşı bir öldürücü olarak kullanılır .
Tamamlanmış mermer heykeller üzerine oksalik asit sürülür ve yüzeyi sızdırmaz hale getirir ve parlaklık kazandırır. Oksalik asit aynı zamanda kuvars kristallerinden demir ve manganez yataklarını temizlemek için kullanılır .
Oksalik asit, suya nüfuz etmenin neden olduğu siyah lekeleri gidermek için odun için bir ağartıcı olarak kullanılır.


Oksalik Asit nedir? Nerelerde kullanılır?***
1-Oksalik asit nedir

Oksalik asit, bitki kökenli en tanınmış organik asitlerden birisidir.

Kimyasal formülü (COOH)2'dir.

Tabiatta; sodyum tuzu halinde kuzukulağı bitkisinde, kalsiyum tuzu olarak ravent bitkisinde ve birçok başka bitkinin hücre özsuyunda bulunur.

Birçok bitkisel kaynakta içerik olarak bu organik asit bulunur.

Bunlar kuzukulağı, domates ve ıspanağı saymak mümkündür.

Asit olması ortamdaki mevcut bir iyonla tuz oluşturmasını beraberinde getirir.

Vücuda ya da biyolojik canlı sisteme girmiş oksalit asit bu iyonlarla tuz oluşturur.

Kalsiyum oksalat en çok karşıya çıkan tuzu olup, vücutta özellikle üriner sistemde böbrekte birikmelere yol açarak böbrektaşı oluşmasında başrolü üstlenebilir.

2-Uygulama alanları

Dihidrat (iki sulu) oksalik asit, titrasyon standardı olarak alkalimetri ve manganometride, keza kalsiyumun kantitatif analizinde ve nadir toprak metallerinin ayrılmasında kullanılır.

Endüstride oksalik asit ve antimonlu tuzları, tekstil boyamada mordan olarak kullanılır.


3-Uygulama metodları

a) Çözelti şeklinde sıvı damlatma netodu

Bir miktar Oksalik asidi ılık suyla hazırlanmış şeker şerbeti içersine karıştırıp, dış ortam sıcaklığının10 derece altında, tercihen 0 +5 derce civarında arının salkımda olduğu ve kapalı yavrunun olmadığı dönemde arılar üzerine damlatma şeklinde uygulanır.

Çözelti hazırlarken şeker ve su miktarı aynı fakat Oksalik asit dihidrat miktarı bölgesel sıcaklık farklarına göre değişkenlik arzetmektedir.

Her bölgede aynı reçete geçerli değildir.

Yılda bir defa uygulanması tavsiye edilir.

Zayıf kolonilerde salkım sıcaklık dengesi bozulduğu için, zayıf üç çerçeveden az kolonilerde uygulanması tavsiye edilmez

b) Buharlaştırma metodu

Oksalik Asit Dihidrat'ın teknik özelliklerinden yararlanıp, üzerine ısı uygulandığında katı halden direkt gaz haline geçmesi yani sublimleşme özelliğini kullanarak yapılan mücadeledir.

Bu uygulamaları yapabilmek için kovan içersinde açıkta buharlaştırma aparatları olduğu gibi, Oksalik asidi dışarda buharlaştırıp bir boru vasıtasıyla kovan içersine göndermek suretiyle yapılan uygulamalardır.

Bu metodun bana göre olumlu tarafları oldukça fazla.

1-Kovan kapağı açmadan arının mevcut düzenini bozmadan uygulama yapabilirsiniz.

2-Arılar ıslanmadığı için üşütme ve sindirim sistemine olumsuz etkisi hiç yok.

3- Uygulama esnasında arı üzerinde stres oluşturmuyor.

4. Yıl içersinde birden fazla uygulama yapabilirsiniz.

4-Uygulama zamanı

Bal akımı dönemleri hariç, günün arı uçuşunun olmadığı saatlerde tüm sene boyunca yapılabilirfakat sadece ergin arı üzerindeki Varroaya etki eder.

Esas uygulama geç sonbahar ve kış mevsiminde yapılır, kapalı yavrunun olmadığı veya en az olduğu dönemde yapılırsa başarı yüzdesi o oranda artar.
İ
OKSALİK ASİT

Standart Verileri

CAS numarası: 144-62-7
PubChem: 971
ChemSpider: 946
UNII: 9E7R5L6H31
EC Numarası: 205-634-3
UN numarası: 3261
DrugBank: DB03902
KEGG: C00209
MeSH: + Oksalik asit
Cheb: 16 995
CHEMBL146755
RTECS numarası: RO2450000
ATCvet kodu: QP53AG03
Beilstein Referans: 385 686
Gmelin Referans: 2208
Moleküler formülü: C2H2O4
Molar kütle: 90.03 g mol-1 (susuz) 126,07 g mol-1 (dihidrat)
Görünüm: Beyaz kristaller
Yoğunluk: 1.90 g cm-3 (susuz) 1.653g cm-3 (dihidrat)
Erime noktası: 189-191 ° C, 462 dan 464 N, 372 376 ° F (101.5 ° C (214.7 ° C) dihidrat)
Suda çözünürlük: 3.14 g/100ml (25 ° C)
Çözünürlük: Etanol içinde 7.23 g/100 mL (15 ° C) Dietil eter içinde 1.4 g/100 ml (15 ° C)
Asit (pK a): 1.25, 4.14
Parlama noktası: 166 ° C (331 ° F)

Genel Bilgi

Kimyasal formülü C2H2O4 olan oksalik asit, zayıf asit özelliğinde renksiz, kokusuz kristal ya da toz halinde bitki kökenli bir kimyasal olup en bilinen organik asitlerden birisidir. Sadece birbirine bağlı iki karboksil kökünden oluşur. Suda ve polar organik çözücülerde olay cözünür. Arıcılıkta kullanılan oksalik ise, içerisine iki molekül su ilave edilmiş olan Dihidrat formudur.Havadan nem kapma özelligi oldugu icin ticari olarak genelde dihidrat yani H2C2O4.2H2O halinde satilir.Kalsiyum oksalat en çok karşılaşılan tuz formudur.

Üretim ve Reaksiyonları

Oksalik asit, ticari olarak sodyum formiyattan (H-COONa) elde edilir. Bunun için sodyum formiyat, sodyum hidroksitle hızlı bir şekilde, 360°C'ye kadar ısıtılır; Reaksiyonuna göre, oksalik asidin sodyum tuzu elde edilir. Buna kireç sütü ilavesiyle kalsiyum oksalat, sonra sülfürik asit muamelesiyle oksalik asit elde edilir.

Kullanım Alanları

Kimya

Dihidrat formu bu sektörde titrasyon standardı olarak alkalimetri ve manganometride kullanılmaktadır. Kalsiyumun kantitatif analizinde ve nadir toprak metallerinin ayrılmasında kullanımı diğer kullanım çeşitlerindendir.

Arıcılık
Organik ve Konvansiyonel arıcılıkta Varroa mücadelesinde de kullanıldığını biliyoruz.

İlaç
İlaç sanayinde; saflaştırma ajanı olarak kullanılmaktadır.

Su
Atık su işleme sanayiinde kalsiyum iyonlarını sudan uzaklaştırmada kullanılmaktadır.

Hijyen

Formik asit dışındaki diğer karboksilik asitlerden farklı olarak oksalik asit, kolayca yükseltgenebilir. Bu özelliğinden dolayı, beyazlatma , pas ve mürekkep lekesini çıkarma gibi işlemlerde kullanılmaktadır.

 

1. Madde/preparat ve s¸irket/tedarikçi bilgileri
Ürün bilgileri
Ürün Kodu : A 04
Ürün ismi : Oksalik Asit İki Hidrat
Madde/preparat kullanımı:
Kimyasal üretim
2. Biles¸im/içerikler bilgisi
CAS-No.: 6153-56-6 EC-I˙ndex-No. 607-006-00-8
M: 126.07 g/mol EC-No: 205-634-3
Formülü: C2H2O4 * 2 H2O
Kimyasal formül: (COOH)2 * 2 H2O
3. Tehlikeler tespiti
Deri ile temas etmesi ve yutulması halinde zararlıdır.
4. I˙lk yardım tedbirleri
Teneffüs ettikten sonra: temiz hava.
Cilt temasından sonra: Bol su ile yıkayın. Kirlenen giysiyi çıkarın.
Göz temasından sonra: bol su ile göz kapag˘ı açık olarak yıkayın.
Yuttuktan sonra: hastaya bol su içirin, kötü hissediliyorsa doktora danıs¸ın.
5. Yangınla mücadele tedbirleri
Uygun yangın söndürme maddeleri:
toz, köpük, su püskürtün.
Özel riskler:
Yanıcıdır. Yangın durumunda tehlikeli yanıcı gazlar veya buharlar gelis¸ebilir.
Yangınla mücadelede özel koruyucu ekipmanlar:
Tehlikeli bölgede solunum aparatı olmaksızın durmayınız. Cilt ile temasını engellemek için güvenli
uzaklıkta durun ve uygun koruyucu kıyafet giyin.
Dig˘er bilgiler:
Yangın söndürme suyunun yüzey suyuna ya da yeraltı suyuna sızmasını engelleyin.
MALZEME GÜVENLİK BİLGİ FORMU
OKSALİK ASİT BASIM TARİHİ : 07.01.2009
Sayfa 2 / 5
6. Kaza sonucu salıverme tedbirleri
Kis¸i ile ilgili önlemler. Madde temasını engelleyin. Tozları teneffüs ettikten sonra. Kapalı odalara
temiz hava sag˘layın.
Çevre koruyucu önlemler: Kanalizasyon sistemine girmesine izin vermeyin.
Temizlik/absorpsiyon için prosedürler: Kuru alın. Atılması için gönderin. Etkilenmis¸ bölgeyi
temizleyin. Tozların çog˘almasını engelleyin.
7. Kullanma ve depolama
Kullanma:
Bas¸kaca ihtiyaç yoktur.
Depolama:
Sıkıca kapatılmıs¸. Kuru. Depo sıcaklıg˘ı: sınırlama yok.
8. Maruz kalma kontrolleri/kis¸isel koruma
Kis¸isel koruyucu ekipmanlar:
Koruyucu giysi, kullanılan tehlikeli madde konsantrasyonu ve miktarına bag˘lı olarak , is¸yerine
özgüsel olarak seçilmelidir. Kimyasallardan korunmak için, koruyucu giysilerde bulunan resistanslar
her bir tedarikçi tarafından saptanmalıdır.
Solunum koruması: tozlar olus¸tug˘unda gerekir.
El koruması: Tam temas halinde:
Eldiven materyali: nitril kauçuk
Yüzey kalınlıg˘ı: 0.11 mm
Etkileme zamanı: > 480 Min.
Sıçrama ile temas durumunda:
Eldiven materyali: nitril kauçuk
Yüzey kalınlıg˘ı: 0.11 mm
Etkileme zamanı: > 480 Min.
Kullanılacak eldivenler EC talimatı 89/686/EEC spesifikasyonlarına ve
sonuç standard EN374'e uymalıdır, örneg˘in KCL.
740 Dermatril∨ (tam temas), 740 Dermatril∨ (sıçrama ile temas).
Yukarıda belirtilen etkileme zamanı, tavsiye edilen eldiven çes¸idi
örneg˘i ile EN374'e uygun olarak laboratuarda KCL ile belirlenmis¸tir.
Bu öneri güvenlik bilgi formunda ve tarafımızdan tedarik edilen ve
tarafımızdan belirlenen amaçta kullanılan ürünlere uygulanır. Dig˘er
maddelerle çözme ve karıs¸tırma ve EN374de belirtilen kos¸ullardan sapma
durumunda CE-onaylı eldiven üreticisi ile temasa geçin. (örneg˘in KCL
GmbH, D-36124 Eichenzell, Internet: www.kcl.de).
Endüstriyel hijyen:
Kirlenen giysiyi deg˘is¸tirin. Cilt koruyucu krem uygulayın. Madde ile çalıs¸tıktan sonra ellerinizi
yıkayın.
MALZEME GÜVENLİK BİLGİ FORMU
OKSALİK ASİT BASIM TARİHİ : 07.01.2009
Sayfa 3 / 5
9. Fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikler
Form: katı
Renk: beyaz
Koku: kokusuz
pH deg˘eri
de 10 g/l H2O (20 ˚C) ~ 1
Erime noktası 101 ˚C
Kaynama noktası 149-160 ˚C (ayrıs¸ma)
Ates¸leme derecesi uygulanamaz
Parlama noktası 157 ˚C (ayrıs¸ma)
Patlama limitleri düs¸ük mevcut deg˘il
yüksek mevcut deg˘il
Buhar basıncı (20 ˚C) ~ 25 hPa
Yog˘unluk (20 ˚C) 1.65 g/cm3
Adı geçenin içindeki çözünürlüg˘ ü:
su (20 ˚C) 102 g/l
Termal ayrıs¸ma > 157 ˚C (susuz madde)
log Pow: (30 ˚C) -0.81 (susuz madde)
10. Stabilite ve reaktivite
Kaçınılması gereken durumlar
Isıtma (dekompozisyon).
Kaçınılması gereken maddeler
amonyak, oksihalojenik asitlerin tuzları, oksitleyici ajan; metaller ve su / ısı, bazlar, gümüs¸.
Tehlikeli ayrıs¸ma ürünleri
hiçbir bilgi yok
11. Toksikolojik bilgi
Akut zehirlilik
LD50 (dermal, tavs¸an): 20000 mg/kg (susuz madde).
LD50 (oral, sıçan): 375 mg/kg (susuz madde).
Hayvanlar üzerindeki çalıs¸malarda spesifik semptomlar: Göz irritasyon testi: yanmalar (susuz madde).
Elimizdeki mevcut literatür bilgisi EC tarafindan tavsiye edilen etiketlendirmeye uymaz. EC'de
yayınlanmamıs¸ dosyalar vardır.
Akuta yakından kronik zehirlilig˘e
Bakteriyel mutajenite: Salmonella typhimurium: negatif (susuz madde)
Bakteriyel mutajenite: Esherichia coli: pozitif (susuz madde)
Dig˘er toksikolojik bilgi
Teneffüs ettikten sonra: Mukoza zarında tahris¸, öksürme ve dyspnoea.
Cilt temasından sonra: tahris¸ edici ve kostik etkiler, doku zararı. Cilt emilmesi riski.
Göz temasından sonra: tahris¸ edici ve kostik etkiler.
Yuttuktan sonra: ag˘ız, pharynx, oesophagus ve gastrointestinal sistemlerdeki mukoza zarının tahris¸i.
Hızlı emilim. (gastrointestinal sistem, cilt).
Emiliminden sonra: ajitasyon, spazmlar, mide bulantısı, kusma, kardiovasküler hastalık, çökmek.
bozulmus¸ elektrolit denge
I˙kincil ürün nedeni: ...'nın zararı: böbrekler.
Dig˘er notlar:
As¸ag˘ıdaki genel olarak oksalatları kapsar: yuttuktan sonra mide bulantısı ve kusma. Solunumundan
sonra mukozal tahris¸, öksürük, dispnoea. Sistemik etki: kandaki kalsiyum seviyesinin düs¸mesi,
MALZEME GÜVENLİK BİLGİ FORMU
OKSALİK ASİT BASIM TARİHİ : 07.01.2009
Sayfa 4 / 5
böbreklerde toksik etki, kardiyovasküler rahatsızlıklar.
Dig˘er veriler
Kimyasallarla ug˘ras¸ırken ürün her zamanki dikkat ile kullanılmalıdır.
12. Ekolojik bilgi
Biyolojik degradasyon: Biyodegradasyon: 40 % /5 d (susuz madde). Biyodegrade olabilir.
Çevre bölümlerinde davranıs¸: Dag˘ılım: log p(o/w): -0.81 (30 ˚C) (susuz madde).
Biyoakümülasyonbeklenemez (log P(o/w) <1).
Ekotoksik etkiler: Biyolojik etkiler:
Balık zehirlenmesi: L.idus LC50: 160 mg/l /48 h (susuz madde).
Dafnia toksiklig˘i: Daphnia EC50: 137 mg/l /48 h (susuz madde).
I˙leri ekolojik veri: COD: 0.18 g/g (susuz madde).
BOD5: 0.16 g/g (susuz madde).
TOD: 0.18 g/g (susuz madde).
Sulara, atık sulara ya da toprag˘a karıs¸masına izin vermeyin!
13. I˙mha edilirken gözönünde bulundurulması gerekenler
Ürün:
Kimyasallar ulusal kurallara uygun s¸ekilde atılmalıdır. www.retrologistik.de adresinde ülke ve
maddeye spesifik bilgileri ve temas edilecek kis¸ileri bulabilirsiniz.
Ambalaj:
Ürün ambalajı ülkeye spesifik kurallara uygun bir s¸ekilde imha edilmeli yada ambalaj geri
dönüs¸üm sistemine gönderilmelidir. www.retrologistik.de adresinde ülke kos¸ullarına uygun özel
bilgileri ve temas edilecek kis¸ileri bulabilirsiniz.
14. Nakliye bilgisi
Nakil kanunlarına bag˘lı deg˘ildir.
15. Yönetmelik bilgisi
EC talimatlarına uygun etiketlendirme
Sembol: Xn Sagliga zararli
R-ibareleri: 21/22 Deri ile temas etmesi ve yutulması halinde
zararlıdır.
S-ibareleri: 24/25 Deri ve gözlerle temasından kaçınınız.
EC-No: 205-634-3 EC etiketi
I˙ndirgenmis¸ sınıflandıma (1999/45/EEC,Art.10,4)
Sembol: Xn Sagliga zararli
R-ibareleri: 21/22 Deri ile temas etmesi ve yutulması halinde
zararlıdır.
S-ibareleri:


Carl Roth GmbH + Co KG
Schoemperlenstr. 3-5
D-76185 Karlsruhe
Almanya
Telefon: +49 (0) 721 - 56 06 0
Faks: +49 (0) 721 - 56 06 149
e-posta: sicherheit@carlroth.de
Web sitesi: www.carlroth.de
BÖLÜM 1: Maddenin/karışımın ve şirketin/dağıtıcının kimliği
1.1 Madde ve karışımın kimliği
Maddenin kimliği Oxalic acid dihydrate
Ürün numarası 8879
Tescil numarası (REACH) Bu bilgi mevcut değil.
İndeks No 607-006-00-8
EC numarası 205-634-3
CAS numarası 6153-56-6
1.2 Madde veya karışımın belirlenmiş kullanımları ve tavsiye edilmeyen kullanımları
Belirlenmiş kullanımlar: laboratuvar kimyasalı
1.3 Güvenlik bilgi formu tedarikçisinin bilgileri
Güvenlik bilgi formundan sorumlu olan yetkli kişi : Department Health, Safety and Environment
e-posta (yetkili kişi) : sicherheit@carlroth.de
1.4 Acil durum telefon numarası
Acil durum bilgi hizmetleri Poison Centre Munich: +49/(0)89 19240
BAŞLIK 2: Zararlılık tanımlanması
2.1 Madde veya karışımın sınıflandırması
1272/2008 (CLP) Sayılı (AB) Tüzüğündeki sınıflandırma kurallarının uygulanmasından doğan
sınıflandırma
GHS uyarınca sınıflandırma
Bölüm Zararlılık sınıfı Zararlılık sınıfı ve
kategorisi
Zararlılık
ifadesi
3.1O akut toksisite (ağız) (Acute Tox. 4) H302
3.1D akut toksisite (cilt) (Acute Tox. 4) H312
güvenlik bilgi formu
R.G. 13/12/2014 - 29204
Oxalic acid dihydrate ≥99 %, cryst.
ürün numarası: 8879
Versiyon: 1.1 tr
... Versiyonunun yerini alir: 22.04.2016
Versiyon: (1.0)
hazırlama tarihi: 22.04.2016
Güncelleme: 26.04.2016
Türkiye (tr) Sayfa 1 / 12
Tehlikelerin ve AB Tehlike ifadelerinin tam metni için: Bakınız BAŞLIK 16.
Uyarı kelimesi: Dikkat
Ek bir bilgi mevcut değildir.
Notlar
2.2 Etiket unsurları
1272/2008/EC (CLP) Sayılı AT Tüzüğü uyarınca etiketleme
Uyarı kelimesi Dikkat
İşaretler
Zararlılık ifadeleri
H302+H312 Yutulması halinde veya ciltle teması halinde zararlıdır.
Önlem ifadeleri
Önlem ifadeleri - tedbir
P264 Elleçlemeden sonra iyice yıkayın.
P270 Bu ürünü kullanırken hiçbir şey yemeyin, içmeyiniz veya sigara içmeyin.
P280 Koruyucu eldiven/koruyucu kıyafet/göz koruyucu/yüz koruyucu kullanın.
Önlem ifadeleri - müdahale
P302+P352 DERİ İLE TEMAS HALİNDE İSE: Bol su ile yıkayın.
P312 Kendinizi iyi hissetmezseniz, ULUSAL ZEHİR DANIŞMA MERKEZİNİN 114 NOLU
TELEFONUNU veya doktoru arayın.
P321 Özel müdahale gerekli (etikete bakın).
P330 Ağzınızı çalkalayın.
Önlem ifadeleri - bertaraf
P501 İçeriği/kabı endüstriyel yakma tesisinde bertaraf edin.
İçeriğin 125 ml'yi geçmediği ambalajların etiketlenmesi
İşaret/işaretler
2.3 Diğer zararlar
güvenlik bilgi formu
453/2010/EU ile değiştirilen 1907/2006 sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü uyarınca (REACH)
Oxalic acid dihydrate ≥99 %, cryst.
ürün numarası: 8879
Türkiye (tr) Sayfa 2 / 12
Kirlenmiş giysilerinizi çıkarın ve yeniden kullanmadan önce yıkayın.
Temiz hava sağlayın. Şüphe halinde veya belirtiler sürüyorsa bir doktora başvurun.
Tedavi edilmeyen kostik yanıkların zor iyileşen yaralara neden olmaları nedneniyle derhal tıbbi yardım
gereklidir.
Su ile birkaç dakika dikkatlice durulayın. Şüphe halinde veya belirtiler sürüyorsa bir doktora başvurun.
Ağzı suyla çalkalayın (yalnızca hastanın bilinci yerindeyse). Doktoru arayın.
Ajitasyon, Kan dolaşımı bozukluğu, Öksürük, Kusma, Bulantı, Kasılmalar, Nefes darlığı
hiçbiri
BAŞLIK 3: Bileşim/İçindekiler hakkında bilgi
3.1 Maddeler
Maddenin adı Oxalic acid dihydrate
İndeks No 607-006-00-8
EC numarası 205-634-3
CAS numarası 6153-56-6
Moleküler formül C₂H₂O₄ * 2 H₂O
Molar kütle 126 g
/mol
BAŞLIK 4: İlk yardım önlemleri
4.1 İlk yardım önlemlerinin açıklaması
Genel notlar
Solunumdan sonra
Cilt temasından sonra
Göz temasından sonra
Yutulmadan sonra
4.2 Akut ve sonradan görülenler dâhil, en önemli belirtiler ve etkiler
4.3 Özel ve acil tedavi sağlamak amacıyla özel yöntemlerin işyerinde bulunmasının vurgulanması
güvenlik bilgi formu
453/2010/EU ile değiştirilen 1907/2006 sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü uyarınca (REACH)
Oxalic acid dihydrate ≥99 %, cryst.
ürün numarası: 8879
Türkiye (tr) Sayfa 3 / 12
Söndürme tedbirlerini çevreye uygun belirleyin
su spreyi, köpük, kuru söndürme tozu, karbon dioksit (CO2)
su jeti
Yanıcı.
Yangında oluşabilecekler: karbon monoksit (CO), karbon dioksit (CO2)
Yangına makul bir mesafeden normal önlemler alarak müdahale edin. Kendiliğinden depolu solunum
cihazı kullanın.
Cilt, göz, kişisel giyisideki blaşmaları önlemek için uygun koruyucu donanımın giyilmesi (Güvenlik bilgi
formunun sekizinci bölümünde belirtilen kişisel koruyucu donanım dâhil). Tozlarını solumayın. Deri,
göz ve giysi temasını engelleyin.
Kanallardan, yer üstü ve yer altı sularından uzak tutun.
Tahliye deliklerinin kapatılması.
Mekanik olarak toplayın. Tozun kontrolü.
Bertaraf için uygun kaplara koyun.
Zararlı yanma ürünleri: bakınız başlık 5. Kişisel koruyucu donanım: bakınız başlık 8. Uyuşmayan
maddeler: bakınız başlık 10. Bertaraf bilgileri: bakınız başlık 13.
BAŞLIK 5: Yangınla mücadele önlemleri
5.1 Söndürücü maddeler
Uygun söndürücü maddeler
Uygun olmayan söndürücü maddeler
5.2 Madde veya karışımdan kaynaklanan özel zararlar
Zararlı yanma ürünleri
5.3 Yangın söndürme ekipleri için tavsiyeler
BAŞLIK 6: Kaza sonucu yayılmaya karşı önlemler
6.1 Kişisel önlemler, koruyucu donanım ve acil durum prosedürleri
Acil durum personeli olmayanlar için
6.2 Çevresel önlemler
6.3 Muhafaza etme ve temizleme için yöntemler ve materyaller
Dökülmenin nasıl kontrol altına alınacağına ilişkin uygun tavsiye
Dökülmenin nasıl temizleneceğine dair uygun tavsiye
Dökülmeler ve yayılmalarla ilgili diğer bilgiler
Diğer bölümlere atıflar
güvenlik bilgi formu
453/2010/EU ile değiştirilen 1907/2006 sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü uyarınca (REACH)
Oxalic acid dihydrate ≥99 %, cryst.
ürün numarası: 8879
Türkiye (tr) Sayfa 4 / 12
Yeterli havalandırmanın sağlanması. Seyreltme/parçalama aşamasında hazır su bulundurun ve ürünü
yavaşça karıştırın.
Ara vermelerden önce ve iş bitişinde eller yıkanmalı. Yiyeceklerden, içeceklerden ve hayvan
yemlerinden uzak tutun.
Kuru yerde depolayın.
Birlikte depolama tavsiyelerine uyun.
Yerel ve genel havalandırma kullanın.
Tavsiye edilen depolama ısısı: 15 - 25 °C.
Bilgi bulunmamaktadır.
Kullanılabilir veriler yok.
BAŞLIK 7: Elleçleme ve depolama
7.1 Güvenli elleçleme için önlemler
Genel mesleki hijyen üzerine tavsiyeler
7.2 Uyuşmazlıkları da içeren güvenli depolama için koşullar
Uyuşmayan maddeler veya karışımlar
Diğer tavsiyeler
• Havalandırma gereklilikleri
• Saklama odaları veya tanklar için spesifik tasarımlar
7.3 Belirli son kullanım(lar)
BAŞLIK 8: Maruz kalma kontrolleri/kişisel korunma
8.1 Kontrol parametreleri
Ulusal limit değerleri
Mesleki maruz kalma sınır değerleri (İşyeri Maruziyet Limitleri)
Ülke Maddenin adı CAS-No Simgele
m
Tanımlayı

TWA (8
Saat)
[mg/m³]
STEL (15
Dak.)
[mg/m³]
Kaynak
EU oxalic acid 144-62-7 IOELV 1 2006/15/EC
TR Oksalik asit 144-62-7 MMSD 1 Resmi Gazete
Sayısı-28733
Simgelem
STEL (15
Dak.)
Kısa süreli maruziyet sınırı: Başka bir süre belirtilmedikçe, 15 dakikalık bir süre için aşılmaması gereken maruziyet
üst sınır değeri
TWA (8 Saat)Zaman ağırlıklı ortalama (uzun süreli maruziyet sınırı): 8 saatlik belirlenen referans süre için ölçülen veya
hesaplanan zaman ağırlıklı ortalama
8.2 Maruz kalma kontrolleri
Bireysel koruyucu önlemler (kişisel koruyucu donanım)
güvenlik bilgi formu
453/2010/EU ile değiştirilen 1907/2006 sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü uyarınca (REACH)
Oxalic acid dihydrate ≥99 %, cryst.
ürün numarası: 8879
Türkiye (tr) Sayfa 5 / 12
Yan siperlikli koruyucu gözlük kullanın.
Uygun koruyucu eldiven takın. EN 374 uyarınca test edilmiş kimyasal koruyucu eldiven uygundur.
Belli amaçlar için, yukarıda bahsedilen koruyucu eldivenlerin kimyasallara karsi dayanıklılığının
eldiven tedarikçisi ile beraber kontrol edilmesi önerilir.
NBR (Nitril kauçuk)
>0,11 mm.
> 480 dakika (nüfuz: seviye 6)
Cildin rejenerasyonu için süre tanıyın. Önleyici cilt koruması (koruyucu kremler/merhemler) önerilir.
De solunum koruması gereklidir: Toz oluşumu. Toz filtre cihazı (EN 143). P2 (hava partiküllerinin en az
% 94'ünü filtreler, renk kodu: Beyaz).
Kanallardan, yer üstü ve yer altı sularından uzak tutun.
Göz/yüz korunması
Cildin korunması
• ellerin korunması
• materyalin tipi
• materyalin kalınlığı
• eldiven materyalinin aşınma zamanları
• ek koruma önlemleri
Solunum sisteminin korunması
Çevresel maruz kalma kontrolleri
BAŞLIK 9: Fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikler
9.1 Temel fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikler hakkında bilgi
Görünüm
Fiziksel hali katı
Rengi beyaz
Koku kokusuz
Koku eşiği Veriler mevcut değil
Diğer fiziksel ve kimyasal parametreler
pH (değeri) 1,25 (su: 10 g
/l
, 20 °C)
Erime noktası/donma noktası 101 °C
Başlangıç kaynama noktası ve kaynama aralığı Bu bilgi mevcut değil.
Parlama noktası 157 °C
Buharlaşma hızı veriler mevcut değil
Alevlenirlik (katı, gaz) Yanıcı olmayan
Patlayıcı limitleri
• alt patlayıcı limiti (LEL) bu bilgi mevcut değil
• üst patlayıcı limiti (UEL) bu bilgi mevcut değil
Toz bulutlarının patlama limitleri bu bilgiler mevcut değil
Buhar basıncı 21 hPa ...'da 50 °C
Yoğunluk 1,65 g
/cm³ ...'da 20 °C
güvenlik bilgi formu
453/2010/EU ile değiştirilen 1907/2006 sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü uyarınca (REACH)
Oxalic acid dihydrate ≥99 %, cryst.
ürün numarası: 8879
Türkiye (tr) Sayfa 6 / 12
Ek bir bilgi mevcut değildir.
Ürün teslim edilmiş haliyle toz patlamasına yol açmaz; ancak ince toz zenginleşmesi toz patlaması
zararına yol açar.
Materyal normal çevre koşullarında ve depolama ve elleçleme için beklenen sıcaklık ve basınç
koşullarında kararlıdır.
Patlama tehlikesi: Kloratlar, Gümüş, Güçlü oksitleyici,
Ekzotermik reaksiyon ile: Alkaliler, Amonyak, Cıva
Kaçınılması gereken durumlar yoktur.
Ek bir bilgi mevcut değildir.
Zararlı yanma ürünleri: bakınız başlık 5.
Buhar yoğunluğu Bu bilgi mevcut değil.
Kütle yoğunluğu 900 - 1.000 kg/m³
Bağıl yoğunluk Özelliğe dair bilgiler mevcut değildir.
Çözünürlük/çözünürlükler
Suda çözünürlüğü 100 g
/l
...'da 20 °C
Dağılım katsayısı
n-oktanol/su (log KOW) -0,81 (anhydrous)
Alev alma sıcaklığı Özelliğe dair bilgiler mevcut değildir.
Bozunma sıcaklığı veriler mevcut değil
Akışkanlık anlamlı olmayan (katı madde)
Patlayıcı özellikler hiçbiri
Oksitleyici özellikler hiçbiri
9.2 Diğer bilgiler
BAŞLIK 10: Kararlılık ve tepkime
10.1 Tepkime
10.2 Kimyasal kararlılık
10.3 Zararlı tepkime olasılığı
10.4 Kaçınılması gereken durumlar
10.5 Uyuşmayan maddeler
10.6 Zararlı bozunma ürünleri
güvenlik bilgi formu
453/2010/EU ile değiştirilen 1907/2006 sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü uyarınca (REACH)
Oxalic acid dihydrate ≥99 %, cryst.
ürün numarası: 8879
Türkiye (tr) Sayfa 7 / 12
Cilt için aşındırıcı/tahriş edici olarak sınıflandırılmaz.
Göz için tahriş edici veya göze ciddi hasar veren madde olarak sınıflandırılmaz.
Solunum veya cilt hassaslaştırıcı olarak sınıflandırılmaz.
Eşey hücre mutajeni, kanserojen veya üreme sistemine toksik olarak sınıflandırılmaz
Belirli bir hedef organ için toksik olarak sınıflandırılmaz (tek maruz kalma).
Belirli hedef organ için toksik olarak sınıflandırılmaz (tekrarlı maruz kalma).
Aspirasyon zararlı olarak sınıflandırılmaz.
veriler mevcut değildir
veriler mevcut değildir
veriler mevcut değildir
veriler mevcut değildir
Kan dolaşımı bozukluğu, Kasılmalar, Bulantı, Ajitasyon
BAŞLIK 11: Toksikolojik bilgiler
11.1 Toksikolojik etkilerin açıklaması
Akut toksisite
Maruz kalma yolu Bitiş noktası Değer Türler Yöntem
ağız LD50 375 mg/kg sıçan anhydrous
cilt LD50 20.000 mg/kg tavşan
Cilt aşınması/tahrişi
Ciddi göz hasarı/göz tahrişi
Solunum veya cilt hassaslaştırıcılığı
CMR özelliklerinin değerlendirmesinin bir özeti
• Spesifik hedef organ toksisitesi (STOT) - tekli maruziyet
• Spesifik hedef organ toksisitesi (STOT) - tekrarlı maruziyet
Aspirasyon zararı
Fiziksel, kimyasal ve toksikolojik özellikler ile ilgili bilgiler
• Yutulması halinde
• Gözle teması halinde
• Solunması halinde
• Cildin üzerinde olması halinde
Diğer bilgiler
güvenlik bilgi formu
453/2010/EU ile değiştirilen 1907/2006 sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü uyarınca (REACH)
Oxalic acid dihydrate ≥99 %, cryst.
ürün numarası: 8879
Türkiye (tr) Sayfa 8 / 12
1272/2008/EC uyarınca: Sucul ortam için zararlı olarak sınıflandırılmaz.
Hazır olarak biyolojik nitelik kaybetmiyor. Teorik Oksijen İhtiyacı: 0,1269 mg/mg
Teorik Karbon Dioksit: 0,6984 mg/mg
Biyokimyasal oksijen ihtiyacı: 0,16 g
/g
Organizmalarda anlamlı düzeyde birikmez.
Veriler mevcut değildir.
Veriler mevcut değildir.
Suya hafif zararlı.
Atığını ve kabını tehlikeli atık olarak bertaraf edin/ettirin. İçeriği/kabı
yerel/bölgesel/ulusal/uluslararası yönetmelik uyarınca bertaraf edin.
Kanalizasyona boşaltmayın.
Atık anahtar numaralarının/atık tanımlamalarının tahsisi EAKV'ye göre branşa ve işleme spesifik
yapılmalıdır.
Atıkların yerel ve ulusal atık yönetimi tesislerince ayrı ayrı elleçlenebilecek kategorilere ayrılması
gerekir. Lütfen ilgili ulusal ve yerel hükümleri dikkate alın.
BAŞLIK 12: Ekolojik bilgiler
12.1 Toksisite
Sucul toksisite (akut)
Bitiş noktası Değer Türler Yöntem Maruziyet
süresi
EC50 137 mg/l su piresi anhydrous 48 saat
LC50 160 mg/l altın orfe (Leuciscus
idus)
anhydrous 48 saat
12.2 Nitelik kaybı süreci
Süreç Bozunma oranı Zaman
biyotik/abiyotik 40 % 5 d
12.3 Biyobirikim potansiyeli
n-oktanol/su (log KOW) -0,81
12.4 Toprakta hareketlilik
12.5 PBT ve vPvB değerlendirmesinin sonuçları
12.6 Diğer olumsuz etkiler
BAŞLIK 13: Bertaraf etme bilgileri
13.1 Atık işleme yöntemleri
Kanalizasyon bertarafı - ilgili bilgiler
13.2 Atık için ilgili hükümler
13.3 Notlar
güvenlik bilgi formu
453/2010/EU ile değiştirilen 1907/2006 sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü uyarınca (REACH)
Oxalic acid dihydrate ≥99 %, cryst.
ürün numarası: 8879
Türkiye (tr) Sayfa 9 / 12
Ek bir bilgi mevcut değildir.
Kargo dökme taşımacılık için değildir.
ADR, RID ve ADN'ye tabi değildir.
IMDG'ye tabi değildir.
Listelenmemiştir.
Listelenmemiştir.
Listelenmemiştir.
listelenmemiştir
listelenmemiştir
listelenmemiştir
BAŞLIK 14: Taşımacılık bilgileri
14.1 UN numarası (taşımacılık yönetmeliklerine tabi değildir)
14.2 Uygun UN taşımacılık adı anlamlı olmayan
14.3 Taşımacılık zararlılık sınıf(lar)ı anlamlı olmayan
Sınıf -
14.4 Ambalajlama grubu anlamlı olmayan
14.5 Çevresel zararlar hiçbiri (tehlikeli mallar yönetmelikleri uyarınca çevreye
zararsız)
14.6 Kullanıcı için özel önlemler
14.7 MARPOL 73/78 Ek II ve IBC Koduna göre dökme taşımacılık
14.8 UN Model Mevzuatına ilişkin bilgiler
• Tehlikeli malların karayolu, demiryolu ve iç suyolları ile taşınması (ADR/RID/ADN)
• Tehlikeli Mallar Uluslararası Denizcilik Kodu (IMDG)
BAŞLIK 15: Mevzuat bilgileri
15.1 Madde veya karışıma özgü güvenlik, sağlık ve çevre mevzuatı
İlgili Avrupa Birliği (AB) hükümleri
• 649/2012/EU Sayılı Tehlikeli Kimyasalların İthalat ve İhracatına İlişkin Tüzük
• 1005/2009/EC Sayılı Ozon Tabakasını İncelten Maddelerin Azaltılmasına İlişkin Tüzük
• 850/2004/EC Sayılı Kalıcı Organik Kirletici Maddelere İlişkin Tüzük
• REACH, Ek XVII uyarınca kısıtlamalar
• İzne tabi maddelerin listesi, (REACH, Ek XIV)
• Directive on industrial emissions (VOCs, 2010/75/EU)
VOC içeriği 100 %
2011/65/EU Sayılı elektrikli ve elektronik donanımlarda bazı tehlikeli maddelerin kullanımının
kısıtlanmasına ilişkin Direktif (RoHS) - Ek II
güvenlik bilgi formu
453/2010/EU ile değiştirilen 1907/2006 sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü uyarınca (REACH)
Oxalic acid dihydrate ≥99 %, cryst.
ürün numarası: 8879
Türkiye (tr) Sayfa 10 / 12
listelenmemiştir
listelenmemiştir
Madde aşağıdaki ulusal envanterlerde kaydedilmiştir:
Bu madde için herhangi bir kimyasal güvenlik değerlendirmesi gerçekleştirilmemiştir.
166/2006/EC Sayılı Avrupa Kirletici Salım ve Taşınım Kayıt Sisteminin (PRTR) Oluşturulmasına
İlişkin Tüzük
2000/60/EC Sayılı Su Politikası Alanında Topluluk Faaliyeti için bir Çalışma Çerçevesi Oluşturan
Avrupa Birliği Su Çerçeve Direktifi (SÇD)
Ulusal envanterler
- EINECS/ELINCS/NLP (Avrupa)
15.2 Kimyasal Güvenlik Değerlendirmesi
BAŞLIK 16: Diğer bilgiler
Kısaltmalar ve kısa adlar
Kıs. Kullanılan kısaltmaların açıklamaları
2006/15/EC 98/24/EC sayılı Konsey Direktifinin uygulanmasında mesleki maruziyet sınır değerlerinin ikinci listesinin
oluşturulmasıyla ilgili ve 91/322/EEC sayılı ve 2000/39/EC sayılı Direktiflerini değiştiren Komisyon Direktifi
ADN Accord européen relatif au transport international des marchandises dangereuses par voies de navigation
intérieures (Tehlikeli Malların Kıta İçi Suyolları İle Uluslararası Taşımacılığına İlişkin Avrupa Anlaşması)
ADR Accord européen relatif au transport international des marchandises dangereuses par route (Tehlikeli
Malların Karayolu İle Uluslararası Taşımacılığına İlişkin Avrupa
Anlaşması)
CAS Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) (kimyasal maddelerin en geniş kapsamlı listesini sağlayan hizmet)
CLP 1272/2008 Sayılı Maddelerin ve Karışımların Sınıflandırılması, Etiketlenmesi ve Ambalajlanması Konulu (AT)
Tüzüğü
CMR kanserojen, mutajenik veya üreme için toksik
EINECS Avrupa Mevcut Ticari Kimyasal Maddeler Envanteri
ELINCS Avrupa Bildirilmiş Kimyasal Maddeler Envanteri
GHS Birleşmiş Milletler tarafından geliştirilen "Kimyasalların Sınıflandırılması ve Etiketlenmesi İçin Küresel
Uyumlaştırılmış Sistem"
IMDG Uluslararasi Denizcilik Tehlikeli Mallar Kanunnamesi
IOELV gösterge mesleki maruz kalma sınır değeri
indeks No Endeks numarası, 1272/2008 Sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü Ek 6 Bölüm 3'te kimyasal maddeye verilen tanımlama
kodudur
MARPOL Gemilerden Kirliliğin Önlenmesi için Uluslararası Konvansiyon
MMSD işyeri maruziyet limiti
NLP Artık Polimer Olmayan Madde
PBT Kalıcı, Biyobirikimli ve Toksik
REACH Kimyasalların Kaydı, Değerlendirilmesi, İzni ve Kısıtlanması
Resmi Gazete
Sayısı-28733
Kimyasal maddelerle çalişmalarda sağlik ve güvenlik önlemleri hakkinda yönetmelik
RID Tehlikeli Malların Demiryolu İle Uluslararası Taşınmasına İlişkin Düzenlemeler
STEL (15
Dak.)
kısa süreli maruziyet sınırı
TWA (8 Saat) zaman ağırlıklı ortalama
güvenlik bilgi formu
453/2010/EU ile değiştirilen 1907/2006 sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü uyarınca (REACH)
Oxalic acid dihydrate ≥99 %, cryst.
ürün numarası: 8879
Türkiye (tr) Sayfa 11 / 12
Bu veri formunun bilgileri baskı sırasındaki bilgi düzeyimizi yansıtmaktadırlar. Bilgiler, bu emniyet veri
formunda adı geçen ürünün emniyetli bir şekilde depolanması, işlemi, transportu ve atılımına yönelik
yardımlar vermek içindir. Bu bilgiler başka ürünler için kullanılamaz. Ürün başka materyallerle
karıştırıldığında veya işlendiğinde, bu emniyet veri formunun bilgileri yeni ürüne basitçe
aktarylamazdyr.
Kıs. Kullanılan kısaltmaların açıklamaları
VOC Uçucu Organik Bileşikler
vPvB çok kalıcı ve çok biyobirikimli
Kilit literatür referansları ve bilgi kaynakları
- 453/2010/EU ile değiştirilen 1907/2006 Sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü (REACH)
- 1272/2008 Sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü (CLP), AB-GHS)
İlgili ifadelerin listesi (bölüm 2 ve 3'te belirtilen kod ve tam metin)
Kod Metin
H302 yutulması halinde zararlıdır
H312 cilt ile teması halinde zararlıdır
Feragat beyanı
güvenlik bilgi formu
453/2010/EU ile değiştirilen 1907/2006 sayılı (AT) Tüzüğü uyarınca (REACH)
Oxalic acid dihydrate ≥99 %, cryst.
ürün numarası: 8879
Türkiye (tr) Sayfa 12 / 12

 

Acar Kimya A.Ş. © 2015 Tüm Hakları Saklıdır.