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TAMOL PP

TAMOL PP

SYNONYMS: TAMOL PP; TAMOLPP; TAMOL, PP; tamolpp; tamol pp; tamol, pp; Powder; TAMOL Pp; TAMOLPp; TAMOL, Pp; TAMOL DN; TAMOLDN; TAMOL, DN; tamoldn; tamol dn; tamol, dn; TAMOL Dn; TAMOLDn; TAMOL, Dn; taml ,pp, dn; tmol, dn, pp; tamo, dene, pepe; tml, dd, pp; TAMOL ,FB, PP; tamol, DN, 40, liquid; TAMOL, NN9401; POLYMOL, -, DN, Powder, TAMOL, -, DN; ASVOL, JN, DADAMOL, DN/TAMOL, DN; Borresperse Na; Sodium Ligno Sulphonate; Sodium Sulphate Dispersing Suspending agent; Sodium ligonsulphate; Tamol DN; Lomar PWA; Dispersing agent; naphthalenesulfonic acid condensates with formaldehyde; phenolsulfonic acid; formaldehyde and urea; Thiophenate methyl; Precipitated silica; SODIUM LIGNO SULPHATE; salt of Naphthalene Sulphonic Acid and Phenol Sulphonic Acid; Dispersing Agent for Chemical and Allied Industries; sulfonic acid condensation product; sodium salt; BENZENSULFONIC ACID, HYDROXY POLYMER WITH FORMALDEHYDE, PHENOL AND UREA, SODIUM SALT TAMOL DN; Sulphur WDG 80% & 90% , Carbondezim 50% WDG, Carbondezim 86% WDG, Copper Oxy Chloride 50% WDG; HANSMOL- Off White Powder Technical Grade Dispersing Agent, For Dispersing Agent DN Lqud 40%; Sulphur WDG 80% & 90%, Carbondezm 50% WDG, Carbondezm 86% WDG, Copper Oxy Chlorde 50% WDG, Sulphur 52% SC; Chemical Nature Mixture of salt of Naphthalene Sulphonic Acid and Phenol; Color Brownish; AMOL PP; TAMOLPP; TAMOL, PP; tamolpp; tamol pp; tamol, pp; Pudra; TAMOL Pp; TAMOLPp; TAMOL, Pp; TAMOL DN; TAMOLDN; TAMOL, DN; tamoldn; tamol dn; tamol, dn; TAMOL Dn; TAMOLDn; TAMOL, Dn; taml, pp, dn; tmol, dn, pp; tamo, dene, pepe; tml, dd, pp; TAMOL, FB, PP; tamol, DN, 40, sıvı; TAMOL, NN9401; POLİMOL, -, DN, Toz, TAMOL, -, DN; ASVOL, JN, DADAMOL, DN / TAMOL, DN; Borresperse Na; Sodyum Ligno Sülfonat; Sodyum Sülfat Dispersiyon Süspansiyon ajanı; Sodyum ligonsülfat; Tamol DN; Lomar PWA; Dispersiyon maddesi; formaldehit ile naftalensülfonik asit yoğunlaşmaları; fenolsülfonik asit; formaldehit ve üre; Tiyofenat metil; Çökeltilmiş silika; SODYUM LIGNO SÜLFAT; Naftalen Sülfonik Asit ve Fenol Sülfonik Asit Tuzu; Kimyasal ve Müttefik Endüstriler İçin Dispersiyon Maddesi; sülfonik asit yoğuşma ürünü; Sodyum tuzu; BENZENSULFONİK ASİT, FORMALDEHİT, FENOL VE ÜRE İLE HİDROKSİ POLİMER, SODYUM TUZ TAMOL DN; Kükürt WDG% 80 ve% 90, Carbondezim% 50 WDG, Carbondezim% 86 WDG, Bakır Oksi Klorür% 50 WDG; HANSMOL - Beyaz Toz Teknik Dereceli Dispersiyon Ajanı, Dispersiyon ajanı DN Lqud için% 40; Kükürt WDG% 80 ve% 90, Carbondezm% 50 WDG, Carbondezm% 86 WDG, Bakır Oksi Klor% 50 WDG, Kükürt% 52 SC; Naftalin Sülfonik Asit ve Fenol Tuzu Kimyasal Yapısı; Rengi kahverengimsi; TAMOL PP; TAMOLPP; TAMOL, PP; tamolpp; tamol pp; tamol, pp; Powder; TAMOL Pp; TAMOLPp; TAMOL, Pp; TAMOL DN; TAMOLDN; TAMOL, DN; tamoldn; tamol dn; tamol, dn; TAMOL Dn; TAMOLDn; TAMOL, Dn; taml ,pp, dn; tmol, dn, pp; tamo, dene, pepe; tml, dd, pp; TAMOL ,FB, PP; tamol, DN, 40, liquid; TAMOL, NN9401; POLYMOL, -, DN, Powder, TAMOL, -, DN; ASVOL, JN, DADAMOL, DN/TAMOL, DN; Borresperse Na; Sodium Ligno Sulphonate; Sodium Sulphate Dispersing Suspending agent; Sodium ligonsulphate; Tamol DN; Lomar PWA; Dispersing agent; naphthalenesulfonic acid condensates with formaldehyde; phenolsulfonic acid; formaldehyde and urea; Thiophenate methyl; Precipitated silica; SODIUM LIGNO SULPHATE; salt of Naphthalene Sulphonic Acid and Phenol Sulphonic Acid; Dispersing Agent for Chemical and Allied Industries; sulfonic acid condensation product; sodium salt; BENZENSULFONIC ACID, HYDROXY POLYMER WITH FORMALDEHYDE, PHENOL AND UREA, SODIUM SALT TAMOL DN; Sulphur WDG 80% & 90% , Carbondezim 50% WDG, Carbondezim 86% WDG, Copper Oxy Chloride 50% WDG; HANSMOL- Off White Powder Technical Grade Dispersing Agent, For Dispersing Agent DN Lqud 40%; Sulphur WDG 80% & 90%, Carbondezm 50% WDG, Carbondezm 86% WDG, Copper Oxy Chlorde 50% WDG, Sulphur 52% SC; Chemical Nature Mixture of salt of Naphthalene Sulphonic Acid and Phenol; Color Brownish; AMOL PP; TAMOLPP; TAMOL, PP; tamolpp; tamol pp; tamol, pp; Pudra; TAMOL Pp; TAMOLPp; TAMOL, Pp; TAMOL DN; TAMOLDN; TAMOL, DN; tamoldn; tamol dn; tamol, dn; TAMOL Dn; TAMOLDn; TAMOL, Dn; taml, pp, dn; tmol, dn, pp; tamo, dene, pepe; tml, dd, pp; TAMOL, FB, PP; tamol, DN, 40, sıvı; TAMOL, NN9401; POLİMOL, -, DN, Toz, TAMOL, -, DN; ASVOL, JN, DADAMOL, DN / TAMOL, DN; Borresperse Na; Sodyum Ligno Sülfonat; Sodyum Sülfat Dispersiyon Süspansiyon ajanı; Sodyum ligonsülfat; Tamol DN; Lomar PWA; Dispersiyon maddesi; formaldehit ile naftalensülfonik asit yoğunlaşmaları; fenolsülfonik asit; formaldehit ve üre; Tiyofenat metil; Çökeltilmiş silika; SODYUM LIGNO SÜLFAT; Naftalen Sülfonik Asit ve Fenol Sülfonik Asit Tuzu; Kimyasal ve Müttefik Endüstriler İçin Dispersiyon Maddesi; sülfonik asit yoğuşma ürünü; Sodyum tuzu; BENZENSULFONİK ASİT, FORMALDEHİT, FENOL VE ÜRE İLE HİDROKSİ POLİMER, SODYUM TUZ TAMOL DN; Kükürt WDG% 80 ve% 90, Carbondezim% 50 WDG, Carbondezim% 86 WDG, Bakır Oksi Klorür% 50 WDG; HANSMOL - Beyaz Toz Teknik Dereceli Dispersiyon Ajanı, Dispersiyon ajanı DN Lqud için% 40; Kükürt WDG% 80 ve% 90, Carbondezm% 50 WDG, Carbondezm% 86 WDG, Bakır Oksi Klor% 50 WDG, Kükürt% 52 SC; Naftalin Sülfonik Asit ve Fenol Tuzu Kimyasal Yapısı; Rengi kahverengimsi; TAMOL PP; TAMOLPP; TAMOL, PP; tamolpp; tamol pp; tamol, pp; Powder; TAMOL Pp; TAMOLPp; TAMOL, Pp; TAMOL DN; TAMOLDN; TAMOL, DN; tamoldn; tamol dn; tamol, dn; TAMOL Dn; TAMOLDn; TAMOL, Dn; taml ,pp, dn; tmol, dn, pp; tamo, dene, pepe; tml, dd, pp; TAMOL ,FB, PP; tamol, DN, 40, liquid; TAMOL, NN9401; POLYMOL, -, DN, Powder, TAMOL, -, DN; ASVOL, JN, DADAMOL, DN/TAMOL, DN; Borresperse Na; Sodium Ligno Sulphonate; Sodium Sulphate Dispersing Suspending agent; Sodium ligonsulphate; Tamol DN; Lomar PWA; Dispersing agent; naphthalenesulfonic acid condensates with formaldehyde; phenolsulfonic acid; formaldehyde and urea; Thiophenate methyl; Precipitated silica; SODIUM LIGNO SULPHATE; salt of Naphthalene Sulphonic Acid and Phenol Sulphonic Acid; Dispersing Agent for Chemical and Allied Industries; sulfonic acid condensation product; sodium salt; BENZENSULFONIC ACID, HYDROXY POLYMER WITH FORMALDEHYDE, PHENOL AND UREA, SODIUM SALT TAMOL DN; Sulphur WDG 80% & 90% , Carbondezim 50% WDG, Carbondezim 86% WDG, Copper Oxy Chloride 50% WDG; HANSMOL- Off White Powder Technical Grade Dispersing Agent, For Dispersing Agent DN Lqud 40%; Sulphur WDG 80% & 90%, Carbondezm 50% WDG, Carbondezm 86% WDG, Copper Oxy Chlorde 50% WDG, Sulphur 52% SC; Chemical Nature Mixture of salt of Naphthalene Sulphonic Acid and Phenol; Color Brownish; AMOL PP; TAMOLPP; TAMOL, PP; tamolpp; tamol pp; tamol, pp; Pudra; TAMOL Pp; TAMOLPp; TAMOL, Pp; TAMOL DN; TAMOLDN; TAMOL, DN; tamoldn; tamol dn; tamol, dn; TAMOL Dn; TAMOLDn; TAMOL, Dn; taml, pp, dn; tmol, dn, pp; tamo, dene, pepe; tml, dd, pp; TAMOL, FB, PP; tamol, DN, 40, sıvı; TAMOL, NN9401; POLİMOL, -, DN, Toz, TAMOL, -, DN; ASVOL, JN, DADAMOL, DN / TAMOL, DN; Borresperse Na; Sodyum Ligno Sülfonat; Sodyum Sülfat Dispersiyon Süspansiyon ajanı; Sodyum ligonsülfat; Tamol DN; Lomar PWA; Dispersiyon maddesi; formaldehit ile naftalensülfonik asit yoğunlaşmaları; fenolsülfonik asit; formaldehit ve üre; Tiyofenat metil; Çökeltilmiş silika; SODYUM LIGNO SÜLFAT; Naftalen Sülfonik Asit ve Fenol Sülfonik Asit Tuzu; Kimyasal ve Müttefik Endüstriler İçin Dispersiyon Maddesi; sülfonik asit yoğuşma ürünü; Sodyum tuzu; BENZENSULFONİK ASİT, FORMALDEHİT, FENOL VE ÜRE İLE HİDROKSİ POLİMER, SODYUM TUZ TAMOL DN; Kükürt WDG% 80 ve% 90, Carbondezim% 50 WDG, Carbondezim% 86 WDG, Bakır Oksi Klorür% 50 WDG; HANSMOL - Beyaz Toz Teknik Dereceli Dispersiyon Ajanı, Dispersiyon ajanı DN Lqud için% 40; Kükürt WDG% 80 ve% 90, Carbondezm% 50 WDG, Carbondezm% 86 WDG, Bakır Oksi Klor% 50 WDG, Kükürt% 52 SC; Naftalin Sülfonik Asit ve Fenol Tuzu Kimyasal Yapısı; Rengi kahverengimsi;

 

TAMOL FB PP phenol sulfonic acid condensation product, sodium salt tamol DN 40 liquid, tamol DN, Tamol pp POLYMOL - DN Powder TAMOL - DN
ASVOL JNDADAMOL DN/TAMOL DN Dispersing agent WP,WDG Powder 
Borresperse Na, Sodium Ligno Sulphonate, Sodium Sulphate Dispersing Suspending agent (Sodium ligonsulphate or Tamol DN or Lomar PWA)
naphthalenesulfonic acid condensates with formaldehyde, Tamol NN, Tamol NH (AG) or Morwet D 425 and condensates of phenolsulfonic acid, formaldehyde and urea, for example those available under the trade name Tamol DN 
Chemical composition: Thiophenate methyl tech. ( Based on 94% w/w a.i) 74.46% , Precipitated silica 17.54% w/w, sticking agent (glue) 2.00% w/w, suspending agent (CMC) 2.00% w/w, wetting agent( alkyl aryl suphonate ) ( Idet- 10) 2.00% w/w, dispersing agent( alkyl napthyl sulphonate ) Tamol DN 2.00% w/w. Total: 100.00% w/w
SODIUM LIGNO SULPHATE

 

 

Tamol DN is a Mixture of salt of Naphthalene Sulphonic Acid and Phenol Sulphonic Acid condensation product used as Dispersing Agent for Chemical and Allied Industries.
PREPARATION BASED ON BENZENSULFONIC ACID,HYDROXY POLYMER WITH FORMALDEHYDE,PHENOL AND UREA,SODIUM SALT TAMOL DN

 

Available in : Asia, Australia, Central America, North America, South America, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Middle East, Africa, All India, UAE, Dubai, Russia, New Zealand, Canada, USA

 

Atrazine Technical
2. Wetting agent (Naphthalene sulphonate or Dadanol 3% or Tamol FBP-1 or Nopcowet PL)
3. Dispersing Suspending agent (Sodium ligonsulphate or Tamol DN or Lomar PWA)
4. Precipitated Silica (Synthetic Silica)
5. Kaolin (Aluminium silicate)

 

 


Tamol DN is a Mixture of salt of Naphthalene Sulphonic Acid and Phenol Sulphonic Acid condensation product.

 

 

Dispersing agent for the chemical and allied industries.
Dispersing Agents in Agro and Pesticides Formulation like Sulphur WDG 80% & 90% , Carbondezim 50% WDG, Carbondezim 86% WDG, Copper Oxy Chloride 50% WDG HANSMOL - Off White Powder Technical Grade Dispersing Agent, For Dispersing Agent DN Lqud 40% TAMOL -DN Lqud 
Usage DISPERSING AGENT
Color OFF WHITE POWDER

 

 

Data Sheet Tamol DN
Chemical Nature Mixture of salt of Naphthalene Sulphonic Acid and Phenol which are widely used in dyestuff, textile, rubber and agrochemical industries. We manufacture equivalents of UDA powder, Tamol DN, Tamol SN, Tamol NN etc. We are the only company in India manufacturing off-white colored dispersing agents, for specialty use in pigments.
Features:
Smooth finish
Longer shelf life
High performance
Agrochemical (or agrichemical), a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a generic term for the various chemical products used in agriculture. In most cases, agrichemical refers to the broad range of pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. It may also include synthetic fertilizers, hormones and other chemical growth agents, and concentrated stores of raw animal manure.
Many agrichemicals are toxic, and agrichemicals in bulk storage may pose significant environmental and/or health risks, particularly in the event of accidental spills. In many countries, use of agrichemicals is highly regulated. Government-issued permits for purchase and use of approved agrichemicals may be required. Significant penalties can result from misuse, including improper storage resulting in spillage. On farms, proper storage facilities and labeling, emergency clean-up equipment and procedures, and safety equipment and procedures for handling, application and disposal are often subject to mandatory standards and regulations. Usually, the regulations are carried out through the registration process.
Sulphonic Acid condensation product.
Properties
Color Brownish
Dispersing Agent
Pioneers in the industry, we offer snf liquid, dispersing agent, lignosulphonates powder and dispersing powder
Physical Appearance Powder
Solubility (10% solution in water) Should be clear
pH (10% solution in water) 6.5 - 7.5
Active Content (U.V. method) 75 % min.
Storage The product is hygroscopic and must be stored in its original packing in a dry place.
Application Dispersing agent for the chemical and allied industries.
Safety We know of no ill effects that could have resulted from using Tamol DN for the purpose for which it is intended and from processing it in accordance with the current practice. According to the experience we have gained up to now and other information at our disposal, Tamol DN does not exert any harmful effects on health, provided that it is used properly, due attention is given to the precautions necessary for handling chemicals, and the information and advice given in our Safety Data Sheet are observed.

 

 

Note The data contained in this publication are based on our current knowledge and experience. In view of the many factors that may affect processing and application of our product, these data do not relieve processors from carrying out their own investigations and tests; neither do these data imply any guarantee of certain properties, nor the suitability of the product for a specific purpose. Any descriptions, drawings, photographs, data, proportions, weights etc. given herein may change without prior information and do not constitute the agreed contractual quality of the product. It is the responsibility of the recipient of our products to ensure that any proprietary rights and existing laws and legislation are observed Navigate through our chemicals and applications world and find the solution which fits best to your needs
Acrylate applications
Detergents and cleaning agents
Inorganics and intermediates applications
Metal surface treatment
Mining applications
Oilfield chemicals applications
Preservative additives
Process / Formulation / Synthesis agents
Silicates applications

 

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Various complexing agents
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DISPERSING AGENTS > FOR STABILISATION OF DISPERSIONS IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
BTC's product portfolio covers a wide range of dispersing agents. In general dispersing agents provide the property of keeping solids dispersed and they provide the flowability of the solid-liquid mixture. They keep the fluid behaviour (viscosity) on a low level and long-lasting after they are embedded in the formulation. Depending on industries they are also described as deflocculants.
BTC's Sokalan®, Tamol® and Pluronic® types belong chemically to the class of water soluble polymers. They are either homopolymers or copolymers of acrylic sources (Sokalan®), condensation products of naphthalene sulfonic acid with formaldehyde (Tamol®).
Besides the anionic polymers also nonionic water soluble polymers are available (Pluronic®). They provide the same properties but their chemical backbone is versatile.

 

 

Brands
Sokalan® NR (narrow range homo-polyacrylates)
Sokalan® PA (homo-polyacrylates) 
Sokalan® CP (co-polyacrylates)
Tamol® types (condensation products of naphthalene, or phenol sulfonic acid with formaldehyde) 
Pluronic® types (EO/PO, PO/EO Block polymers)
Properties of dispersing agents for stabilisation of dispersions
Sokalan® NR are water soluble homo polymers of acrylic acid and available as non-neutralized, partly neutralized or fully neutralized product. Sokalan® NR have outstanding performance:

 

 

Due to a specific polymerization process the distribution of the molecular weight is narrowed.
The most effective molecular weight for dispersing properties is provided.
Partly and fully neutralized polyacrylates are neutralized with caustic soda.
Partly neutralized polyacrylates are able to form bi-neutralized polyacrylates (in-situ).
They are cost efficient compared to polyacrylates with a broad distribution of molecular weight.
Sokalan® PA are anionic water soluble polymers of acrylic acid. They are used as

 

 

fully neutralized products, like polyacrylate sodium salt or partly neutralized (PN) product or as an acidic polyacrylate (S).
They are available as polymers with low molecular weight, medium molecular weight, high molecular weight.
They are provided as liquids or solid (granules) products. Sokalan® PA types with the index "CL" indicate the compatibility to chlorine containing substances. Compared to Sokalan® NR Sokalan® PA types have a classical broad molecular weight distribution.
Sokalan® CP are water soluble copolymers of acrylic acid and other monomers. Certain Sokalan® CP types are specifically polymerized, thus they provide certain properties like hydrophilic or hydrophobic property.
Tamol® NN and Tamol® NH are condensation products of naphthalene sulfonic acid with formaldehyde. Tamol NN types have a low degree of polycondensation, whereas Tamol NH has a high degree of polycondensation. 
Tamol® DN and PP are phenol sulfonic acid polymer with formaldehyde, phenol and urea, sodium salt.
Pluronic® types are chemically EO/PO or PO/EO blockpolymers. Pluronic® PE types use a core of propylene oxide and are then ethoxylated. Pluronic® RPE types use a core of ethylene oxide and are then propoxylated. Due to their nonionic character and the molecular structure they are also useable as dispersing additive. In addition and in relation to the alkoxylation distribution they provide defoaming properties as well.
Applications of dispersing agents for stabilisation of dispersions Sokalan® NR, PA and CP types for paper & pulp 
Dispersing agents provide a very good performance in paper and pulp applications. They

 

 

serve as pitch and deposit control agent, disperse water insoluble sticky materials,
prevent agglomeration of sticky materials, are used as disperants for minerals which improve brightness and opacity,
enable a visible whiter appearance of the pulp.
Sokalan® NR, PA and CP types for mineral processing The mineral processing industry uses dispersing agents besides others for minerals like grounded calcium carbonate (GCC), synthetic CaCO -precipitated CaCO (PCC), talcum, kaolin (china clay). The narrow ranged Sokalan® NR polyacrylates are performing excellent. They are leading to a long-lasting low viscosity of the produced water based slurry of solids and liquids. By choosing partly neutralized dispersing additives a fully bi-neutralized polyacrylate is formed in-situ. Those fully in-situ bi-neutralized polyacrylates are ideal dispersing additives for various minerals with excellent performance profile.

 

 

Sokalan®, Pluronic® and Tamol® types for textile applications In the textile industry our Sokalan®, Pluronic® and Tamol® polyacrylates are used as sizing agents, dispersing agents, lubricants, defoamers, and protective colloids.
Sokalan® and Tamol® types for rubber applications Within our Sokalan® polyacrylates range we have specified types for dispersing rubber. BTC's Tamol® products are used as dispersant agents in the production of rubbers.
Sokalan®, Pluronic® and Tamol® types for various industry applications In various industries BTC's dispersing agents are used as protective coloid, stabilizers for emulsions and suspensions.
Tamol® types for the construction applications
In the construction industry Tamol® types are used as plasticizers.

 

 

Sokalan®, Pluronic® and Tamol® types for agriculture applications
In the agriculture industry our dispersing agents are used in plant protection formulations to provide dispersing and compatibility properties with the used pesticide. Pluronic® types are typically used in crop protection formulations, especially those where the solid pesticide (active ingredient) is suspended in water (Suspension Concentrate - SC).

 

For the manufacture of fertilizers our Tamol® types can be used as an anticaking product.

 

Further products for industrial applications
Explore also our

 

 

Nonionic surfactants > for chemical-technical applications,
Anionic surfactant > for chemical-technical applications,
Agro chemical additives > for crop protection,
Agro chemical additives > for fertilizer,
Pigments and pigment preparations > for colouration of fertilizer, seed and agriculture crop protection,
agriculture industry.

 

 

Application
As a dispersant or emulsifier in technical applications, where a particular homogenity of this product is required.
Chemical Description:
Water-soluble phenolsulfonic polymer
The Tamol® N types are very versatile stabilizers for aqueous dispersions and emulsions, and for aqueous solutions of surfactants and other auxiliaries. They can also be employed as grinding aids and dispersing agents for pigments and dyes in aqueous media, and as precipitants for basic dyes and cationic compounds. Tamol® N types may also be used as auxiliaries in metal finishing. All the Tamol® N types have an excellent dispersing action and perform well as protective colloids. They are not surface-active, with the result that they have low wetting power and very little foaming effect.

 

 

Applications
Tamol® NH types are special products with a high degree of condensation that can be used for stabilisation of emulsions and dispersions as well as for the construction industry.
TAMOLTM Dispersants
TAMOLTM Dispersants offer Polyacid, and Hyrophiliic and Hydrophobic Copolymers for improved paint stabilization.
Uses:

 

 

For use as a pigment dispersant in a wide range of latex paint formulations
For use as a dispersant in a wide range of latex paint formulations
Semi-gloss and gloss paint
For Additive Applications
For flooring adhesive formulations
For interior and exterior latex paints
Scale inhibitor for aqueous water treatment systems air washersboilers
Dispersant for latex paints
For use as a pigment dispersant in low sheen latex paint formulations
Water-based paint and coatings formulations
Scale inhibitor within aqueous systems
High pressure boiler water
A secondary dispersant for emulsion and suspension polymerization processes, especially in the manufacture of synthetic rubbers
Preparation of aqueous dispersions of pigments
Dispersion of natural pitches in paper pulp slurries
Recovery of tall oil from papermaking waste liquors
For use as a pigment dispersant in gloss and semigloss latex paint formulations
For use as a secondary dispersant in rubber production
For use as a treating agent within paper mills for recovering tall oil
Water treatment applications
Advantages:

 

 

Polyacid, hydrophilic comonomer, and hydrophobic comonomer dispersants
compatibility with ACRYSOLTM HASE or HEUR rheology modifiers
compatible with TiO2, functional, and extender pigments
versatility in flat to gloss interior/exterior paints
usage in economy/standard/premium paints
APEO-free
offers excellent heat-age and shelf stability in paints
Appearance
TAMOL NH 7519
TAMOL NN 2406
TAMOL NN 3501
TAMOL NN 8906
TAMOL NN 9104
TAMOL NN 9401
TAMOL PP
physical form powder
ph 7
na sulphate 8
phenol sulfonic acid condensation product, sodium salt
tamol DN 40 liquid, tamol DN, Tamol pp
Further Information
Find more information about this product on WorldAccount - information and order management platform
TAMOL®
The Tamol® N types are very versatile stabilizers for aqueous dispersions and emulsions, and for aqueous solutions of surfactants and other auxiliaries. They can also be employed as grinding aids and dispersing agents for pigments and dyes in aqueous media, and as precipitants for basic dyes and cationic compounds. Tamol® N types may also be used as auxiliaries in metal finishing. All the Tamol® N types have an excellent dispersing action and perform well as protective colloids. They are not surface-active, with the result that they have low wetting power and very little foaming effect.
Tamol PP Phenol sulphonic acid condensation product, sodium salt
Tamol DN 
low molar mass
Naphthalenesulphonic acid condensation types Stabilizers, dispersing agents, plasticizers and precipitants for the chemical and allied industries
High molar mass

 

 

Tamol NH 7519 Naphthaline sulphonic acid condensation
Low molar mass

 

 

Tamol NN 2406 Sodium salt
Tamol NN 2901 Sodium salt
Tamol NN 4501 Sodium salt
Tamol NN 7718 Sodium salt
Tamol NN 8906 Sodium salt
Tamol NN 9104 Sodium salt
Tamol NN 9401 Sodium salt

 

 

Applications
Tamol® NH types are special products with a high degree of condensation that can be used for stabilisation of emulsions and dispersions as well as for the construction industry.
New remedy for hereditary alopecia

 

A new medicament for local treatment of the androgenetic alopecia, the hereditary hair loss, has been presented by lecturer Dr. med. Hans Wolff from the Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik (Dermatologic Clinic and Outpatient Department) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich on the occasion of the Society's 4th Annual Meeting on 23 and 24 May in Freiburg. The preparation's name is RegaineTM solution and it will be sold on prescription in Germany starting September of this year. This preparation contains the active substance Minoxidil in a five percent concentration. The preparation's field of application will be limited to the male androgenetic alopecia for the time being. As Wolff explained in Freiburg, the new hair restorer distinguishes mainly from other locally applicable preparations by the fact that its effectiveness has been unequivocally proven in various placebo-controlled double-blind studies. Although Minoxidil being a hypotensive substance, the preparation has no significant influence on the blood pressure.

Cortisone-free treatment of skin inflammations

Tanning agents have been applied for centuries for the treatment of skin diseases. In former times tanning agents of natural origin had been exclusively used, e.g. bark extracts; in the meantime they have been replaced to a large extent by chemically clearly defined, synthetically produced tanning agents. Their fields of application are among others minor forms of eczema, skin irritations as sun burns, chickenpox and shingles, weeping dermatoses as well as wound treatment above all in the genito-anal sector. Current scientific examinations for the clearing-up of the effectivity mechanism of the synthetic tanning agent Tamol PP have shown that "tanning" properties can only be achieved by very high, medicinal not customary concentrations. As professor Dr. med. Ulrich Mrowietz, dermatologist at the University clinics in Kiel explained, its most important effect is the inhibition of proteolytical enzymes which are of importance regarding inflammatory reactions of the skin. Furthermore, latest examinations have shown that Tamol PP inhibits the stimulated release of histamines from human mast cells. This property can explain the clinical observation of the itch-soothing effect of synthetic tanning agents and underlines the importance of these substances as cortisone-free alternatives for the treatment of minor forms of inflammatory skin diseases.

Skin protection at the place of work has to be intensified

Skin is exposed to several types of stress at the place of work. Regular contact with potential skin irritating or allergizing working substances may have a damaging effect on the skin barrier especially at hands and as a consequence thereof entail the occurrence of eczema. The chairman of the Gesellschaft für Dermopharmazie e.V. (Society for Dermopharmacy), pharmacist Dr. Joachim Kresken, reported of statements according to which costs of more than a billion marks accrue per year by occupational skin diseases which have to be born by employers, accident insurance bodies and health insurance companies. The persons concerned may have to face considerable social problems caused by the loss of working place or professional retraining measures. All these reasons give cause to generate a stronger awareness for prevention. Now it is for the employers to introduce a skin protection management system in their respective companies. This comprises besides direct skin protection and regenerating skin care measures also the realization of mild skin cleaning. Aggressive or incorrectly applied strong skin cleaners lead to dehydration and degreasing of the horny layer of epidermis and thus favor the damaging of the skin barrier. In order to prevent this consequence, skin cleaners having a soiling-adequate cleaning effect and at the same time optimal skin tolerability are to be used.

Research for cosmetics at skin models

Dr. Thomas Förster of Henkel, Duesseldorf, is head of a group of interdisciplinary research scientists which works on the "deciphering" of the ageing process of human skin. He presented the in-vitro skin models developed for this purpose at the 4th annual meeting of the Gesellschaft für Dermopharmazie e.V. (Society for Dermopharmacy ) in Freiburg on 23 and 24 May. "Henkel's skin equivalent", the internal name of the skin model, contains all general skin layers (dermis, epidermis and horny layer of epidermis) and has thus the identical structure of the natural human skin.

The active ingredients can be applied under realistic conditions for instance in a cream or gel basis and examined as to their effectiveness. For a selected phytokinin from the soy plant an increase of the collagen synthesis by 37 percent could be proven. The subsequent dermatologic analysis has impressively confirmed the results of the in-vitro skin model in the case of the examined phytokinin: after a two-week application of a cream containing phytokinin, the content of collagen has increased by 29 percent on average. In addition, wrinkles have been visibly reduced.

 


Active substances in cosmetics protect from skin ageing

 

 

The protection from environmentally caused damages and biological ageing processes in skin gain increasingly importance in the cosmetic product development. As exterior barrier of the body, skin is exposed to a multitude of environmental influences as UV-radiation, ozone and cigarette smoke. Free radicals are caused by these influences which on their part cause oxidative stress in skin. The oxidative stress is one of the reasons for producing pathological processes as light-induced skin ageing and the development of skin cancer. In order to protect the skin from free radicals, antioxidative protection mechanisms are indispensable. Elements of non-enzymatic protection systems are the vitamines C and E. Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinon) and its reduced form (Ubiquinol) act as antioxidants and transmissioners of electrons at the interior mitochondrial membrane. In general the vitamines C and E as well as the coenzyme Q10 can be supplemented by topical application. Topically applied vitamin E enhances the natural UV-protection of the skin and has a positive effect on skin smoothness and skin humidity. Both parameters have a strong link with the functioning principle of the skin barrier. It could be proven for topically applied coenzyme Q10 that it inhibits in-vitro and in-vivo the formation of free radicals. In addition, the results of biophysical and clinical studies supply evidence for the fact that the wrinkle depth of the facial skin can be reduced by the long-term application of creams containing coenzyme Q10.
Local treatment of the androgenetic alopecia
New hair restorer introduced in the market starting September 2000
Freiburg - A new medicament for the local treatment of the androgenetic alopecia, the hereditary hair loss has been presented by lecturer Dr. med. Hans Wolff of the Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik (Dermatologic Clinic and Outdoor Department) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität of Munich at the 4th Annual Meeting of the Gesellschaft für Dermopharmazie e.V. (Society for Dermopharmacy) in Freiburg on 23 and 24 May 2000. The preparation's name is Regaineâ solution, it contains the active substance Minoxidil in a five-percent concentration and will be available on prescription in Germany starting September. The field of application of the preparation will be for the present limited to the male androgenetic alopecia.
As Wolff explained, the new hair restorer mainly distinguishes from other locally applicable preparations by the fact that its effectiveness has been unequivocally proven in numerous placebo-controlled double-blind studies. In a large American multicenter-study comprising altogether 393 men at the age of 18 to 49 years a five- and two-percent solution have been clinically tested in comparison to a a placebo solution for a period of one year (application: one milliliter twice a day)..
Assessment criterion for the effectiveness of the test preparations has been the number of strong terminal hair on a test area of one square centimeter. This number has increased by 30 hair on average after 8 weeks when applying the five-percent solution, after 16 weeks by 35 and after 48 weeks by 19 hair compared with the initial findings. This result shows that the five-percent solution is more effective (increase by 25, 29, respectively 13 hair) and the latter still more effective than the placebo-solution (increase by 14, 15 respectively four hair).
When making a judgment concerning the systemic side effects no significant differences could be detected between the three test preparations regarding blood pressure, pulse, body weight, electrocardiogram, blood count, libido and potency. Due to the fact that Minoxidil is a hypotensive substance, the Minoxodil serum level have been equally measured. For the group treated with the two (0,7 ng/ml) as well as for the group treated with the five-percent Minoxidil solution (2,2 ng/ml) they have been significantly under the serum concentration (21,7 ng/ml) for which a pulse und blood pressure change is measurable at all. As local side effects a reddening and itching of the scalp appeared occasionally.
Latest findings about synthetic tanning agents
Cortisone-free treatment of inflammatory skin diseases
Freiburg - one of the numerous objectives of the Gesellschaft für Dermopharmazie e.V. (Society for Dermopharmacy) is the spreading of latest findings in the field of prevention and treatment of skin diseases. Correspondingly several medicaments recently introduced in the dermatotherapy as well as latest findings about long-known dermatologic active agents have been presented at the GD's 4th annual meeting in Freiburg on 23 and 24 May 2000. A major issue have been the tanning agents which have already been used for centuries for the treatment of skin diseases.
In former times exclusively tanning agents of natural origin had been used for therapeutical purposes, as for instance bark extracts. The effect of these complex substance mixtures should be based on a protein precipitation, hence a "tanning" of the skin and thus generate an artificial barrier against infections and skin inflammations.
In the meantime mainly chemically clearly defined, synthetically produced tanning agents are applied in the dermatatological local therapy which have proven their effectiveness in numerous clinical applications. Some of the fields of application are: light forms of eczema diseases, skin irritations as sunburns, chickenpox and shingles, oozing dermatoses as well as wound treatment mainly in the genito-anal sector. The corresponding ready-to-use drugs are available in different bases: cream, fat cream, lotio, hydrogel, powder and bath preparations - and allow thus a treatment according to the various disease stages in relation to the localization in the body.
Current investigations concerning the assessment of the effectiveness mechanisms of the synthetic tanning agent Tamol PP have shown that "tanning" properties can only be obtained by very high, medicinal not customary concentrations. As professor Dr. med. Ulrich Mrowietz, dermatologist at the University Clinics in Kiel, explained, Tamol PP is a substance which is effective in pharmacological concentrations.
Their most important effect is the inhibition of proteolytic enzymes which play a part for inflammatory skin reactions. Furthermore, latest findings have shown that Tamol PP inhibits the stimulated release of histamine from human mast cells. This property can explain the clinical observation of the effect of the tanning agents to soothe itches and supports the importance of these substances as cortisone-free alternatives for the treatment of lighter forms of inflammatory skin diseases.
Skin protection at the place of work
Mild skin cleaning likewise important
Freiburg - Skin protection at the place of work was one of the issues of the 4th Annual Meeting of the Gesellschaft für Dermopharmazie e.V. (Society for Dermopharmacy) in Freiburg on 23 and 24 May 2000. As the society's chairman, pharmacist Dr. Joachim Kresken, Viersen, explained in a press conversation, skin is exposed to numerous strains. Regular contacts to potentially skin irritating or allergizing working substances can entail a damaging of the skin barrier especially at hands and as a consequence thereof cumulative-toxical respectively allergic contact eczema may come into being.
Kresken reported of assessments according to which costs of more than a billion marks accrue from occupational skin diseases. These costs are born by employers, accident insurance bodies and health insurance funds. The persons concerned can suffer from considerable social problems caused by the loss of working place or professional retraining measures. The reasons mentioned have to be taken into consideration in order to create an increased awareness for prevention. Employers therefore are asked to introduce a skin protection management system in their respective firms.
A complete skin prevention program includes besides direct skin protection and regenerating skin care measures also the realization of a mild skin cleaning. Aggressive or incorrectly applied strong skin cleaning products lead to dehydration and degreasing of the horny layer and entail thus the damaging of the skin barrier. In order to prevent this consequence, skin cleaning products with a soiling-adequate cleaning effect and at the same time having the best possible skin tolerance should be used.
Skin cleaning products are available to remove heavy soiling, e.g. by waste oil, grease, adhesives or smuts. They contain besides surfactants a rubbing agent and partly also an organic solvent. Since in general a major risk potential for skin irritations emanates from these components, dermatological oriented product manufacturers try to achieve a comparable cleaning effect by using other substances. Kresken mentioned as example a natural oil which is used in combination with mild surfactants as replacement for solvents in hand cleaners containing rubbing agents. Finally in many cases it can be done without. Pasty hand cleaners without scratching and rubbing effects are especially recommendable from a dermopharmaceutical point of view.
Innovation in cosmetical research
Skin Models simulate Tests at Humans
Freiburg - Dr. Thomas Förster of Henkel in Duesseldorf is head of an interdisciplinary research group which is analyzing the ageing process of human skin. He presented the in-vitro models developed for this purpose at the 4th Annual Meeting of the Gesellschaft für Dermopharmazie e.V. (Society for Dermopharmacy) in Freiburg on 23 and 24 May 2000. Furthermore, he reported about the latest investigation results concerning cosmetical active agents and formulations subject to analysis in these models.
The active agent research covers three stages, explained Förster. In the beginning there is the so-called substance screening with tests to be performed rapidly at simple skin cell cultures. As promising bio-active substances certain plant extracts have been identified in this test screen which stimulate the skin cells as messenger substances (phytokinin) to enhance the collagen synthesis. Other active agents hold up the synthesis of collagen reducing enzymes started by UV-radiation.
In stage two of the test hierarchy the new in-vitro skin models are made use of. These models had caused an enormous sensation in the media shortly before the meeting in Freiburg. "The vision of an eternally young skin will be reality within a few years' time", this remark by the recently retired ex-Henkel head Hans Dietrich Winkhaus at the last shareholder assembly drew the public's attention to the work of Thomas Förster's team.
skin equivalent" so the internal name of the skin model contains all principal skin layers (dermis, epidermis and horny layer) and has thus the identical structure as human skin. The active agents can be applied under realistic conditions as for instance in a cream or gel basis and its effectiveness can be analyzed. In this model an increase of the collagen synthesis by 37 percent could be proven for a selected phytokinin from a soy bean plant.
Finally in the third stage of the active agent research the dermatologic test is effected. In the case of the examined phytokinin the results of the in-vitro skin model could be confirmed in an impressive way: after a two-week application of a Phytokin-containing cream the collagen content in skin has increased by 29 percent on average. Furthermore, wrinkles have been visibly reduced.
Prophylaxis from oxidative stress in skin
Active substances in cosmetics protect from skin ageing
Freiburg - The department Dermocosmetics in the Gesellschaft für Dermopharmazie [GD] (Society for Dermopharmacy) devotes special emphasis to the development of interdisciplinary concepts for documentation and quality assurance of cosmetical preparations. Subject of a workshop organized in the course of the 4th Annual Meeting in Freiburg on 23 and 24 May have been current cosmetical active substances for the protection from skin ageing.
The workshop revealed that in the field of cosmetical product development increasing importance is given to the protection from environmentally impairing effects and biological ageing processes in skin. As exterior barrier of the body, skin is exposed to a multitude of environmental influences as UV-radiation, ozone and cigarette smoke. These influences generate free radicals which on their part cause oxidative stress in skin. The oxidative stress plays a part in the producing of pathologic processes as the light-induced skin ageing and the emergence of skin cancer.
In order to protect the skin from free radicals antioxidative protection mechanisms are indispensable. Elements of the non-enzymatic protection system are the vitamins C and E. Whereas the vitamin C is the most important water-soluble antioxidant, vitamin E belongs to the lipid-soluble radical scavengers which are localized in the cell membrane. Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinon) and its reduced form (Ubiquinol) act as antioxidant and electron transmitter at the interior mitochondrial membrane. Ubiquinol is able to reduce oxidized vitamin E and it is that antioxidant which is used up first after the emergence of oxidative stress in skin. 
In principle it is possible to supplement the vitamins C and E as well as the coenzyme Q10 by means of topical application. Topically applied vitamin E enhances the natural UV-protection of skin and takes a positive effect on skin smoothness and skin humidity. Both parameter are firmly connected with the functioning of the skin barrier. It could be proven for topically applied coenzyme Q10 that it inhibits in-vitro and in-vivo the formation of free radicals. Furthermore, the results of biophysical and clinical studies have supplied evidence that by using of creams containing coenzyme Q10 in long-term application the depth of wrinkles of the face skin can be reduced. 
Hope for men with bald head: Starting from September 2000 there is a new medicament in Germany against the hereditary caused hair loss. The effectiveness of this medicament which is available on prescription only has been proven in extensive studies.
Cosmetics Research
Decoding of the aging process of the human skin: Dr. Thomas Förster (l.) and his team developed skin models for the cosmetics research, at which new active substances can be examined.
Active substances against wrinkles
Critical view into the mirror: Environmental influences and sun baths stress the skin and accelerate the development of wrinkles. Studies showed that creams which contain so-called antioxidants can reduce wrinkle depth of the facial skin.
Water soluble Polymers
phenol-methanal-harnstoff-polykondensat, sulfoniert, natriumsalz (synthetischer gerbstoff) = tamol PP
Gut geeignet bei wunden Babypos sowie in Bereichen, in denen Hautpartien aneinanderreiben, z. B. Entzündungen im Windelbereich (Windeldermatitis).
Schenkt der Haut wohltuende, juckreizstillende Hilfe. Besonders geeignet für die Behandlung von Ekzemen (z. B. Neurodermitis).
Bei Hauterkrankungen mit Entzündung oder Juckreiz im Anal-/Genitalbereich.
Tamol® PP durch ein Bad oder durch Auftragen mit den betroffenen Hautstellen in Kontakt kommt, bewirkt er eine Verdichtung der obersten Hautschicht und bildet so einen Schutzfilm gegen reizende Stoffe und Erreger. Durch die zusammenziehende (adstringierende) und abschwellende Wirkung kann das Nässen bei akuten Wunden eingedämmt und die äußere Hautschicht gestärkt werden.
Der Wirkstoff hat gleichzeitig eine schmerzstillende und entzündungshemmende Wirkung. 
Für Hämorrhoiden muss man sich nicht schämen, dennoch ist das Thema vielen Patienten peinlich. Insbesondere Schwangere sind prädestiniert während der Schwangerschaft oder nach der Geburt ein Hämorrhoidalleiden zu entwickeln. Die Apotheke bietet Salben, Sitzbäder und Zäpfchen, die bei Hämorrhoiden helfen - und die auch Schwangere anwenden dürfen. Welche sind das? Und welche Zusatztipps können PTA und Apotheker den werdenden Müttern noch mitgeben?
Durchstöbert man einschlägige Internet-Foren werdender Mütter, stolpert man bei der Stichwort-Suche „Schwangerschaft Hämorrhoiden" nicht selten über lange Diskussionen der Schwangeren untereinander zur möglichen Behandlung. Und über Aussagen, dass die Schwangeren einen Arzt wegen dieses Leidens nicht fragen möchten, da ihnen das Thema peinlich sei. In der Tat lässt sich das nachempfinden, keiner hat wohl gern Hämorrhoiden und genauso wenigen fällt es leicht, über sie zu sprechen. Dabei sind Hämorrhoidalleiden insbesondere während der Schwangerschaft oder nach der Entbindung recht verbreitet. Rund die Hälfte aller Schwangeren kämpft mit ihnen. Das Positive: Es gibt gute Arzneimittel aus der Apotheke, die auch Schwangere verwenden dürfen und die gegen Hämorrhoiden helfen.
Warum leiden Schwangere unter Hämorrhoiden?
Rund die Hälfte aller Schwangeren leidet unter Hämorrhoiden, entweder bereits während der Schwangerschaft oder nach der Entbindung. Gründe hierfür sind die hormonelle Umstellung, Wassereinlagerungen und das zunehmende Gewicht der Schwangeren sowie die wachsende Gebärmutter während der Schwangerschaft. Doch auch starkes Pressen beim Geburtsvorgang kann Hämorrhoiden „auslösen". Wobei das Problem meist nicht völlig neu ist. Die Gefäßerweiterungen bestanden auch bereits zuvor, nur erweitern sich diese durch den Einfluss der Schwangerschaft oder den Pressdruck bei der Entbindung.
Basistherapie bei Hämorrhoiden - ballaststoffreiche Ernährung, Bewegung, Analhygiene
Wie für alle anderen Patienten auch, die unter Hämorrhoiden leiden, sollten Schwangere, so sie mit dem Problem kämpfen, zunächst mit der „Basistherapie" beginnen. Was gehört hier dazu? Ernährung, Bewegung und Analhygiene. Tipps, die PTA und Apotheker den Schwangeren hierzu geben können, zielen auf die Vermeidung einer Obstipation. Schwangere sollten auf eine ballaststoffreiche Kost achten - Getreide, Gemüse, Hülsenfrüchte - und auf eine ausreichende Trinkmenge. So gut es geht - je nach Stadium der Schwangerschaft und Dicke des Bauches - fördert auch Bewegung die Darmtätigkeit und beugt Verstopfung vor.
Falls - trotz faserreicher Ernährung, ausreichender Trinkmenge und Bewegung - dennoch eine behandlungsbedürftige Obstipation persistiert, kann die Apotheke der Schwangeren zusätzlich Macrogol-haltige Arzneimittel empfehlen. Movicol® dürfen sowohl Schwangere als auch Stillende anwenden.
Sitzbäder für eine gute Analhygiene
Wie sieht nun eine gute Analhygiene aus? Eine gute Analhygiene fördert zum einen das Abheilen von Hämorrhoiden und hilft zum anderen, neuen Beschwerden vorzubeugen. Sitzbäder haben hier einen hohen Stellenwert und zweierlei Effekt: Sie lindern zum einen akute Beschwerden (Sitzbäder mit entzündungshemmenden Wirkstoffen, beispielsweise Kamillosan® Wund- und Heilbad), zum anderen säubern sie die Analregion. Sie können vor allem bei akuten Beschwerden mehrmals täglich praktiziert werden. Ansonsten ist für eine gute Analhygiene feuchtes Toilettenpapier hilfreich - ohne reizende Zusätze wie Duftstoffe (Feuchtpflegetücher von Hametum®, Faktuclean®) - oder auch einfach warmes Wasser. Auch bei „normalem" Toilettenpapier sollten die Schwangeren auf ein „weiches" achten, das ebenfalls frei von Duft- oder Farbstoffe sein sollte.
Welche Hämorrhoidensalben dürfen Schwangere anwenden?
Studien an schwangeren Frauen verbietet die Ethik, häufig fehlen Daten. So heißt es auch beim Hamamelis-haltigen Arzneimitteln Hametum® Hämorrhoidensalbe und Hametum® Hämorrhoidenzäpfchen: „Zur Anwendung dieses Arzneimittels in Schwangerschaft und Stillzeit liegen keine Erfahrungen vor. Die Behandlung von Hämorrhoidalleiden mit gerbstoffhaltigen Präparaten sollte in Schwangerschaft und Stillzeit nur nach Rücksprache mit dem Arzt über höchstens 2 Wochen erfolgen", erklärt der Hersteller Schwabe. Auch bei Faktu® lind Salbe, Faktu® lind Zäpfchen, Haenal® fact hamamelis Zäpfchen und Posterisan® Salbe und Posterisan® Zäpfchen heißt es: „Nur nach Rücksprache mit dem Arzt". Bei den Zubereitungen mit lokalanästhetischen Wirkstoffen wie Lidocain in Posterisan® akut und Quinisocain in Haenal® akut gilt eine strenge Indikationsstellung.
Posterisan® protect und Kamillosan® Salbe: auch in der Schwangerschaft
Doch das Erfreuliche: Es gibt auch zahlreiche Salben, weniger Zäpfchen, die auch Schwangere mit Hämorrhoidalbeschwerden anwenden dürfen. Als wirksame Bestandteile enthalten sie unter anderem Zinkoxid. Von Zinkoxid profitieren insbesondere Hämorrhoiden-Patienten mit nässenden Wunden. Salben, die PTA und Apotheker werdenden Müttern mitgeben können, sind: Retterspitz® Zinksalbe oder Zinksalbe® Lichtenstein beispielsweise, eine Kombination aus Zinkoxid, Harnstoff und Lebertran enthält Mirfulan®.
Auf ätherische Öle setzt Retterspitz® Wund- und Heilsalbe, was von einigen Patienten als angenehm empfunden wird, da ätherische Öle auch vermögen, unangenehme Gerüche zu überdecken. Auch beide Posterisan® protect-Präparate, Salbe und Zäpfchen, sind in der Schwangerschaft möglich. Wer es pflanzlich mag, für den ist Kamillosan® Salbe eine Alternative zur entzündungshemmenden Behandlung von Hämorrhoiden.
In aller Regel erfolgt die Applikation der Salben nach dem Stuhlgang, Posterisan® protect empfiehlt jedoch die Anwendung zusätzlich davor: Die Salbe fettet den Analkanal und erleichtert den Stuhlgang. Im Anschluss aufgetragen schützt das Wachs die gereizte Haut- und Schleimhaut.
Wirkstoff Handelsname Darreichungsform Dosierung
Kamillenblütenextrakt Kamillosan® Salbe Salbe Mehrmals täglich
Fichtennadelöl, Latschenkieferöl, Thymol, Arnikatinktur Retterspitz® Wund- und Heilsalbe Salbe Nach jedem Stuhlgang
Jojobawachs, gelbes Bienenwachs, Cetylstearylisononanoat Posterisan® protect Salbe / Zäpfchen Mehrmals täglich, vor und nach dem Stuhlgang
Zinkoxid Retterspitz® Zinksalbe Mehrmals täglich
Zinkoxid, Harnstoff, Lebertran Mirfulan® Mehrmals täglich
Welche Sitzbäder eignen sich für Schwangere?
Auch Sitzbäder dürfen Schwangere machen. Sie reinigen und wirken entzündungshemmend. Gerbstoffe haben einen adstringierenden und auch blutungsstillenden Effekt. Tannolact®, Tannosynt® und Delagil® enthalten einen synthetischen Gerbstoff, Tamol PP (Phenol-Methanal-Harnstoff-Polykondensat als sulfoniertes Natriumsalz). Dieser ist sowohl als pulverförmiger Badezusatz (Tannolact®, Delagil®) als auch als flüssiger (Tanosynt®) im Handel.
Wie auch in Salben wirkt Kamillenblütenextrakt in Bädern entzündungshemmend. Kamillosan® Wund und Heilbad dürfen Schwangere anwenden, bei Kamillin® extern Robugen ist die Anwendung möglich, jedoch ärztliche Rücksprache empfohlen.
Wirkstoff Handelsname Darreichungsform Dosierung
Kamillenblütenextrakt Kamillosan® Wund- und Heilbad Bad 30 ml in 1 Liter Waser
Kamillenblütenextrakt Kamillin® extern Robugen Lösung 15 ml in 1 Liter Wasser
Tamol PP (Gerbstoff) Badezusatz (Pulver) Etwa 10 g in 25 Liter Wasser
Tamol PP (Gerbstoff) Tanosynt® Badezusatz (flüssig) 5 ml in 5 Liter Wasser
Tamol PP (Gerbstoff) Delagil® Badezusatz (Pulver) Etwa 10 g in 25 Liter Wasser
Tamol DN is a Mixture of salt of Naphthalene Sulphonic Acid and Phenol Sulphonic Acid condensation product used as Dispersing Agent for Chemical and Allied Industries.
Transformations in Hydrocarbon-Mineral Mixture
Contacting with Tamol Solution at High-Voltage Electric
Discharge

 

 

ABSTRACT
Experimental results referring to hydrocarbonmineral mixture contacting with the water solution tamol at high voltage pulse electric discharge (ED) are presented. The objects of such a process are compositions containing the contacting solid backings (porous stone rocks), sediments (organomineral substances), water, tamol. Work results may be used for the elaboration of scientific control bases for filtration properties of porous materials of any origin, rheological, capillary and other characteristics of fluids (solutions of tamol, oil, hydrocarbon gas-condensate). The practical importance of these researches was proved in the oil output conditions.
Key words: hydrocarbon-mineral sediments, porous medium, oil, solution tamol, surfactant species solution, electric discharge, pulse pressure 
I. INTRODUCTION
Solid-phase objects, contacting with fluids (liquid, gas, plasma), occur rather often in technique and nature. The processes taking place in them, and especially at interfacial areas and adjacent layers, often play a large role in the changes of structure and characteristics of a solid-phase part of this pair, as well as adhesion degree ("agglutination") of condensed pair components. Chemical reactions, mechanical and physical agents may have a material effect on the stated processes. Sometimes the process, in which, for example, only the solid and liquid phases took part initially, can be complicated due to the gas phase intervention. The essential transformations happen, for instance, when the reactions of a number of carbonaceous materials with the oxidizing gas occur /I/. The state of a solid-phase organomineral composition, formed by organic substances (59.9 %), mineral matters (16.7%) and water (23.4%), is attracting the attention of researchers at present. Paraffin, ceresin, resins and asphaltenes are contained in- the organic part of this composition (see Section 3 for details). The mineral part contains chlorides, carbonates, sodium, calcium and magnesium bicarbonates, aluminum, silicon, ferric oxides. Exuding from oil, these multi-compo Vol. 26, No. 2, 2007 Transformations in Hydrocarbon-Mineral Mixture Contacting With Tamol Solution at High-Voltage Electric Discharge transformations (spontaneous or in the course of undertaken technical processing) play a large role in petroleum production. Most often it is necessary to get rid of these sediments as they constrict or completely plug channels up in a bed, through which oil is flowing. The understanding of all behavior aspects of ATW S and MSS allows development of effective methods of getting rid of them, which can "renew" supposedly exhausted oil fields or raise the productive capacity of wells running today. At the present time, one of the most effective methods of intensification of fluid intrusion into the wells is the electric discharge (ED) influence.
2. ELECTRIC DISCHARGE INFLUENCE
Deep transformations in dispersion run under the
influence of high-voltage ED in a liquid 121. The
following processes take place at the ED: heterogeneous
catalysis, adsorption slowing down of heterogeneous
processes, including corrosion. The slowing down (and
sometimes cessation) of corrosion can take place under
the influence of passivating films, adsorption layers of
inhibitors (attenuated in interfacial fluid), other
chemical compounds or other solid phases on the metal
surface. As is well known from a great number of
surface phenomena investigations, specially processed
surfaces can prevent the rising of surface inter-phase
processes as well. In the past it has already been
ascertained that coatings can serve both for chemical
(preventing from reactions) and thermal protection /3/.
When the voltage from alternating current circuit
380V through the voltage adjuster (VA) is applied to the
high-voltage transformer (T), it rises up to several tens
of thousands volt, rectifies in a high-voltage rectifier (R)
and through the current-limiting resistor R1 rectified
current enters the high-voltage pulse condenser C and
charges it up to the given voltage U0 (Fig. 1). Running
up to the voltage U(1 at the condenser, air spark
discharger R2 breakdown occurs and energy,
accumulated in condenser C, come s through the
electrodes to the inter-electrode interval (II). As a result,
liquid breakdown in an inter-electrode interval with
energy liberation, accumulated by the condenser C,
takes place.
At a high-voltage ED through the liquid, a highly conductive channel (with resistance /?,) is formed in it; the electric energy is brought in it for a few microseconds, at the same time current rises sharply, running up to the current strength of the order of 10 kA. In case of such currents, the substance in a channel 
Fig. I: Equivalent installation diagram for the electric discharge (ED) through the liquid (explanations are in the text).
132 Unauthenticated
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?. ?. Syzonenko et al. High Temperature Materials and Processes the ED warms up to plasma state with the temperature of ??4 ? order. The fundamental equation describing ED dynamics in terms of a current strength is given by 74-7/ where t is the time, s, is the current strength. A,L is the circuit inductance, H, R, is the discharge filament resistance, ohm, Rwis the wires of a discharge circuit resistance, ohm, C is the capacity, F, Ui? is the initial potential, V. The equation, equal to the equation (1), can also be written in terms of voltage /5-7/. Th e character current / depends on the relation of active resistance (Rc+Ru) and circuit reactance (2 ) (similarly to the electric pulse sintering in powde r metallurgy 15-11). 
Atinequality Rr+RW >2 J- (2) the electric discharge has an aperiodic character, at inequality (3) - the character of exhaustive vibration process.
It is interesting that as long as the ED of a capacitor bank through the weakly conducting liquid (e.g., water) is a rapidly variable process, in which the parameters of an equivalent electric circuit are changing, the transfer from one character of discharge to another one is possible. For example, if the inequality (2) existed at the beginning of a discharge, and active resistance of a plasma channel would fall sharply, the inequality (3) would come to take the place of the inequality (2), and the aperiodic discharge would change into the decaying alternating discharge with the damping factor -R/2L,s"1. A similar peculiarity of the changing of discharge character has already been registered on electric pulse sintering examination /5,6/.
At the contact of a surrounding liquid with the plasma channel its decomposition accompanied by gas release occurs. If there is a foam forme r in a medium, its molecules, adsorbing on the gas bubbles, would promote the strengthening of their hydrated coats, mechanical firmness prevents the increase ol bubbles, their destruction and merging in case of their collisions. Such a strengthening of a bubble coat in mechanical relation is similar to the strengthening of air bubbles coat in a molten metal in consequence of a firm oxide "crust " formation, as a product of reaction between atmospheric oxygen in a bubble and molten metal surrounding it (e.g., aluminum) /8/. When a gas-liquid medium is mixed in the presence ol a loam former, its foaming occurs (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2: Foamed water solution with tamol after the ED treatment.
A discharge and its consequences can have different characteristic features at transfer from a homogeneous liquid (water, water solution tamol which is the surfactant species solution) to a group of particles of weakly conductive materials (granular media of a dispersible semi-conductors type, dielectrics, soil, rocks.
Unauthenticated 133
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Vol. 26, No. 2, 2007 Transformations in Hydrocarbon-Mineral Mixture Contacting
With Tamol Solution at High-Voltage Electric Discharge
emulsions and suspensions with different continuous phases). As it is understood from the aforesaid, water, water tamol solution, saline, hydrocarbon gas condensates and oil can serve as continuous phases.
One of the chief factors of a high-voltage ED in a liquid is the initiation of an air-blast mechanical wave, generated as a result of a high-speed expansion of a plasma-filled channel. At the same time, the temperature of a channel-surrounding medium slightly rises. Both the high-voltage ED and processes, connected with the secondary aspects of rising of a high temperature (up to 104
K) and pressure (up to 280 ? Pa) in a plasma channel were in a sphere of attention of this work.
3. SUBJECTS OF INQUIRY. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE
The combinations containing contacting solid substrates, solid sediments (ATWS, MSS), flow media (water, water tamol solution) were chosen as the objects of inquiry (Fig. 3).
The following ingredients are contained in the organic part of sediments:
• paraffin and ceresin (1.5-2.0% of the whole mass of sediments), composed of solid high-molecular hydrocarbons C| 7 CV) hs5 of a limiting character of normal and isometric structure;
• resins (up to 25% of the whole mass of sediments), composed of benzene hydrocarbons with long chains, condensed aromatic and naphtheno-aromatic compounds with short chains, phenol and nitrogen bases, sulfur-, sulfuroxygen- and sulfuroxygennitrogenated compounds; 
• asphaltenes (5-10% of the whole mass of sediments), composed of the mixture of polycyclic hydrocarbon compounds, C 80-86 %, S 0-9 %, 0 2 1- 9 % , ? 2%, ?, 8-10%.
The composition of mineral matters forming the sediments is described in Section 1. The experimental test bench made it possible both to realize the high-voltage ED in tamol solution in a flash chamber, and to detach it from the contact with the plasma channel by an elastic rubber membrane. It was > Q\¥.' ? ? O'O p mM^IM ? £? ? JVöq ro.&KVCr 3 - D oP-frit-G?-'·°.'??·??'0: O ' ?
Fig. 3: Combination substrate (rock) /ATWS+MSS/
tamol solution (scheme).
1 - substrate (porous liquid-filled medium);
2 - sediments (ATWS+MSS);
3 - flow medium (water, water tamol solution) of interest to examine the disconnection of a layer ATWS + MSS conditions and prevention from adhesion of ATWS+MSS to the substrate once again. It was necessary to determine the inhibitory ability (sediments sorption prevention) with respect of ATWS+MSS/tamol solutions before and after the ED processing. These investigations were carried out by the principles of "cold" cylinder at the installation, in which, due to the temperature difference in the first and second cylinders, a sediment ATWS 19/ is formed on the surface of the first one (Fig. 4). ATWS on the "cold" cylinder are formed from the tarry oil of one of the Ukrainian deposits.
134 Unauthenticated
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?. ?. Syzonenko et a!. High Temperature Materials and Processes
Fig. 4: Installation for investigation of sediments initiation.
1 - "cold" cylinder; 2 - glass with the thermostatting casing; 3 - working mixture;
4 - intermixing rod; 5 - magnetic stirrer; 6 - thermometer; 7 - nipple for thermostat connection;
8 - liquid thermostat.
4. PRIMARY EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
As stated above, the conducted investigations have,
in particular, a great significance for petroleum
production. The practical purposes in this concrete case
were the following:
• the creation of methods of more complete extraction
of fluid components (oil, carbonic gas condensate)
from the well,
• improvement of these hydrocarbon materials.The temperature jump in discharge filament has as decisive role here. By means of its transformation it is possible to influence the heterogeneous medium in the form of a geological stratum (matrix), interstices in which are filled with the liquid hydrocarbon. In case of pulse energy liberation at high-voltage ED, the plasma channel generating the pressure pulse is formed /10, 11/ in the interval between electrodes which are in the liquid, for instance, filling into the well. If there is oil between anode and cathode of the discharge installation, then at the ED as a result of the contact with plasma, whose temperature rises to 104 K, its decomposition, accompanied by the isolation of gaseous hydrocarbons, which intrude into the oil-bearing bed, takes place. Thus, the heterogeneous medium (porous and (or) fractured ground + ATWS + MSS + oil) undergoes a twofold influence: "plasma attack" and mechanical pressure. The incidence of the mechanical pressure is essentially larger than plasma incidence. The primary result of such a treatment is the detachment from matrix and partial destruction of ATWS and MSS, i.e. the refinement of porous channels from them, and also (what is of no small importance for petroleum production) an additional rise of new interconnected pores and cracks in a stratum matrix. As a result, sediments (ATWS+MSS) were refined and stratum penetrated with the additional interconnected porosity provides with the increased ingress of oil. A simultaneous use of tamol in solution, injected into the well before the treatment, can promote pore channels refinement largely, and increase petroleum production thereby. It is interesting to observe the change of the index, characterizing one of the "participants" of the combination matrix + ATWS + MSS + oil + water + tamol Unauthenticated 135

 

 

solution - namely: tamol - at the influence, caused by the high-voltage ED. Several tamol solutions were tested. A series of EDs through the solutions of multifunctional water-soluble compositions representing the mixture of anionic and nonionic tamol of different chemical structure and target additions gave the best results.
The following substances form this tamol:
• sulfonate, (Cn H2n+i C2m+i)CHS03 Na, where n+m changes from 11 up to 17 (43 %),
• sulfanol, (Cn H2n+iC6H4S03Na, where ? changes from 12 up to 18 (22 %),
. oxyphos, [CnH2n+i0(C2H40 )m]POOK, where ? changes from 8 up to 10, m =6 (2 %),
• synthanol, C„H2n+10(C2H40)mH, where ? changes from 10 to 13, m=7 (7 %),
• inhibitor of scales, organophosphorous compounds dipolephosphate (1 %),
• ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH (15 %), 
• ethylene glycol CH2OH- CH2OH (10 %). Solutions of this type of tamol after the ED treatment remove the layer of ATWS+MSS sediments from the solid surface almost completely (95%). At the same time, their inhibitory property with respect to the sediments is intensified by more than 20%. The decrease of tamol solutions surface tension with the corresponding increase of its activity is observed. It can be caused by the rebuilding of micelles as a result of the ED influence. The decrease of surface tension at oilwater contact makes it possible to increase the hydrophilicity of grains of rock, and oil globules in the narrow spots of media with interconnected porosity, which slow down the flow, can become deformed more easily and flow through such narrow spots under the influence of pressure gradient. Microstructure investigations of structured oil, which is the coarsely dispersed emulsion of an inverse type, the complex disperse part of which are asphaltenes, resins and paraffin, were carried out. Water globules (their diameter is 10-60mkm) are reliably stabilized by ATWS frame in such an emulsion. The investigations proved that complete destruction of aspatial pattern of this peculiar emulsion happens afterthe ED treatment. Transformations in Hydrocarbon-Mineral Mixture Contacting With Tamol Solution at High-Voltage Electric Discharge It is necessary to note that similar microstructure is characteristic for carbonic sediments of hightemperature zones of internal-combustion engines.
5. CONCLUSION
Owing to the performed experiments with the abovementioned heterogeneous multi-phase objects, the activation effect of a high-voltage ED is cleared up. The gassing in liquid when contacting with high-temperature plasma channel and its foaming at mixing with hydroflow, promotes better tamol adsorption on the solid surface in rock's pores. Repeated reciprocal motion of activated liquid, excited by the ED, creates the effect of "washing", what promotes sediments' (ATWS and MSS) removal from the solid surfaces of matrix with interconnected pores. The adsorption of an activated tamol on solid surfaces, after sediments removal in particular, prevents from the formation of new sediments. The following pressure waves, appearing as a result of an ED, and their propag1ating in a flow medium with small (50 - 70 mkm) bubbles, result in their pulsation about their equilibrium size,stimulating the hydrodynamic effects in a well. 
A method of making a dosage device comprises mixing a suspension concentrate comprising at least one active ingredient which is in solid form at 25° C., and which has an average particle size of less than 10 microns, in a carrier liquid in which the active ingredient is non-soluble or sparingly soluble, and a drying agent for the carrier liquid. The drying agent takes up at least some of the carrier liquid of the suspension concentrate, thereby to dry the active ingredient at least partly and to obtain a mixture comprising the active ingredient and the drying agent. The mixture is compressed into at least one unitary dosage device.
. A method of making a dosage device, which method comprises mixing a suspension concentrate comprising at least one active ingredient which is in solid form at 25° C., and which has an average particle size of less than 10 microns, in a carrier liquid in which the active ingredient is non-soluble or sparingly soluble, and a drying agent for the carrier liquid, such that the drying agent takes up at least some of the carrier liquid of the suspension concentrate, thereby to dry the active-ingredient at least partly and to obtain a mixture comprising the active ingredient and the drying agent; and compressing the mixture into at least one unitary dosage device.

 

2. A method according to claim 1, which includes forming the suspension concentrate by mixing the active ingredient in solid particulate form and having an average particle size greater than 10 microns, and the carrier liquid, and wet milling the suspension concentrate to comminute the active ingredient so that it has an average particle size of less than 10 microns.

3. A method according to claim 2, wherein the carrier liquid is water, and wherein the drying agent is an at least partially anhydrous substance.

4. A method according to claim 3, wherein the at least partially anhydrous substance is an anhydrous salt which takes up the carrier water as water of hydration, and which is selected from the group consisting of anhydrous magnesium sulphate, anhydrous sodium sulphate, anhydrous sodium acetate, and anhydrous calcium chloride.

5. A method according to claim 3, which includes adding at least one of to the suspension concentrate or to the mixture a further substance capable of reaction with some of the water present in the suspension concentrate, thereby also to dry the active ingredient.

6. A method according to claim 5, wherein the further substance is an oxide which is capable of reacting with water to form a hydroxide.

7. A method according to claim 6, wherein the further substance is at least one of magnesium oxide or calcium oxide.

8. A method according to claim 3, which includes adding a dispersing agent for at least one of the active ingredient or an anti-foaming agent or an anti-settling agent to the suspension concentrate at least one of before or after comminution thereof.

9. A method according to claim 3, wherein the active ingredient is a pesticide having a water solubility of less than 1000 mg/l at 25° C., and a melting point which exceeds 70° C.

10. A method according to claim 3, which includes, if necessary, rendering the mixture into compressible form, and which includes adding a disintegrating agent to the mixture before compressing it into the unitary dosage device.

 

11. A method according to claim 10, wherein the mixture comprises
Component % (m/m)
suspension concentrate 25 to 40
filler/surfactant/dispersant about 8
anhydrous substance 30 to 40
disintegrating agent 12 to 37

 

 


12. A method according to claim 10, which includes allowing the mixture to stand for a sufficient period of time until the hydration of the salt has been completed, thereby also to render it compressible, and, if necessary, comminuting the mixture prior to compressing it.

 

13. A dosage device when made in accordance with the method as claimed in claim 1 inclusive.

14. A dosage device which is in compressed unitary form and which comprises an admixture of an active ingredient which is in solid form at 25° C. and which has an average particle size of less than 3 microns, and a substance which is capable of being in anhydrous form, and which is at least partially hydrated in the dosage device.

15. A dosage device according to claim 14, wherein the substance is an anhydrous salt and is selected from the group consisting of anhydrous magnesium sulphate, anhydrous sodium sulphate, anhydrous sodium acetate, and anhydrous calcium chloride.

16. A dosage device according to claim 14 or claim 15, which includes an oxide which is capable of reacting with water to form a hydroxide.

17. A dosage device according to claim 16, wherein the oxide at least one of is magnesium oxide and/or calcium oxide.

18. A dosage device according to claim 14, which includes a dispersing agent for the active ingredient or an anti-foaming agent or an anti-settling agent or a disintegrating agent.

19. A dosage device according to claim 14, wherein the active ingredient is a pesticide having a water solubility of less than 1000 mg/l at 25° C., and a melting point which exceeds 70° C.

20. A method of treating an article or locus, which comprises introducing a dosage device according to claim 14, into a predetermined volume of water, with the volume of water being such that the concentration of the active ingredient in the water is greater than the solubility limit of the active ingredient in the water; allowing the dosage device to disintegrate, thereby to form a suspension of the active ingredient in the water; and applying the suspension to an article or locus to be treated.

21. A pesticide tablet or pellet which disperses in a water carrier to form a suspension of the pesticide, the pesticide tablet or pellet comprising: at least one pesticide which is in solid form at 25° C., having an average particle size of less than 10 microns, and having a water solubility of less than 1000 mg/L at 25° C.; and at least one drying agent which is capable of being in anhydrous form and which is at least partially hydrated, wherein the pesticide tablet or pellet has been formed by forming a suspension of the pesticide in water, adding the drying agent to the suspension such that the drying agent becomes at least partially hydrated by taking up at least a portion of the water, and compressing the resulting mixture to form the pesticide tablet or pellet.

22. A method of treating an article or locus with a pesticide, the method comprising: disintegrating a pesticide tablet or pellet in water to form a suspension of the pesticide in water, the volume of water being such that the concentration of the pesticide in the water is greater than the solubility limit of the pesticide in the water; and applying the suspension to an article or locus, wherein the pesticide tablet or pellet comprising at least one pesticide which is in solid form at 25° C., having an average particle size of less than 10 microns, and having a water solubility of less than 1000 mg/L at 25° C., and at least one drying agent which is capable of being in anhydrous form and which is at least partially hydrated, wherein the pesticide tablet or pellet has been formed by forming a suspension of the pesticide in water, adding the drying agent to the suspension such that the drying agent becomes at least partially hydrated by taking up at least a portion of the water, and compressing the resulting mixture to form the pesticide tablet or pellet.

23. A method of making a dosage device, which method comprises: mixing a suspension concentrate comprising at least one active ingredient, which is in solid form at 25°, having an average particle size of less than 3 microns, in a carrier liquid in which the active ingredient is non-soluble or sparingly soluble, with at least one drying agent for the carrier liquid, such that the drying agent takes up at least a portion of the carrier liquid of the suspension concentrate, thereby to dry the active ingredient at least partially and to obtain a mixture comprising the active ingredient and the drying agent; and compressing the mixture of active ingredient and drying agent into a dosage device.

 

Description:
THIS INVENTION relates to a dosage device. It relates also to a method of forming a dosage device, and to a method of treating an article or locus.
EP 0 777 964 A discloses a method of making a dosage device which comprises admixing at least one active ingredient which is a pesticide which is in solid form at 25° C., is sparingly soluble in water, and which has an average particle size of less than 5 microns, with a disintegrating agent, to provide a compressible mix; and compressing the compressible mix into a unitary dosage device capable of disintegrating in water to form a suspension of said active ingredient in the water. Neither suspension preparation techniques nor drying agents are used.

 

DE 25 12 247 A describes making stabilized tablets containing moisture-sensitive ingredients but in which the particle size is relatively large.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,172,714 A discloses the preparation of a herbicide composition in which the particle size is also relatively large, the herbicide being applied in the form of relatively large pellets so that the herbicide is applied in concentrated form at relatively few loci.

WO 93 13658 A describes pesticide tablets with an internal dessicant.

DE 41 09 921 C1 discloses the preparation of a solid product but without a compaction step and particle sizes of the components are relatively large.

According to a first aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of making a dosage device, which method comprises

mixing a suspension concentrate comprising at least one active ingredient which is in solid form at 25° C., and which has an average particle size of less than 10 microns, in a carrier liquid in which the active ingredient is non-soluble or sparingly soluble, and a drying agent for the carrier liquid, such that the drying agent takes up at least some of the carrier liquid of the suspension concentrate, thereby to dry the active ingredient at least partly and to obtain a mixture comprising the active ingredient and the drying agent; and

compressing the mixture into at least one unitary dosage device.

The method may include forming the suspension concentrate by mixing the active ingredient and the carrier liquid. The method may include communiting the active ingredient in solid form and having an average particle size greater than 10 microns, to have an average particle size of less than 10 microns. The active ingredient may be comminuted sufficiently to have an average particle size less than 5 microns, and even less than 3 microns, e.g. less than 1 micron. The comminution may be effected by wet milling the suspension concentrate, eg in a bead mill, to obtain the desired active ingredient particle size.

While, at least in principle, any carrier liquid in which the active ingredient is insoluble or sparingly soluble, can be used, the carrier liquid is preferably water.

The drying agent or dessicant may be an at least partially anhydrous substance. The at least partially anhydrous substance may be an anhydrous salt which takes up the carrier water as water of hydration. The anhydrous salt may be selected from the group comprising anhydrous magnesium sulphate, anhydrous sodium sulphate, anhydrous sodium acetate, and anhydrous calcium chloride. A molar excess of the anhydrous salt over the carrier water present in the suspension concentrate, may be used. For example, the molar proportion of anhydrous salt to carrier water may be about 2:1 to 2.5:1. However, it is envisaged that in some instances the proportion of anhydrous salt used need not necessarily be a molar excess over the carrier water present. For example, certain anhydrous salts can take up more than an equimolar quantity of water of hydration.

The method may include adding to the suspension concentrate and/or to the mixture a further substance capable of reaction with some of the water present in the suspension concentrate, thereby also to dry the active ingredient The further substance may be an oxide which is capable of reacting with water to form a hydroxide. The further substance may be magnesium oxide and/or calcium oxide. The magnesium oxide and/or calcium oxide may thus replace some of the anhydrous substance which is used. For example, when used, it may typically replace in the order of 25% to 50% by mass of the anhydrous substance which is used.

The method may include adding a dispersing agent for the active ingredient and/or an anti-foaming agent and/or an anti-settling agent to the suspension concentrate before and/or after comminution thereof.

Thus, the suspension concentrate may comprise the active ingredient, the dispersing agent, the anti-foaming agent, the anti-settling agent, and water as carrier for the other components. More preferably, the suspension concentrate may comprise

 

Component % (m/m)
active ingredient about 40 to 50
dispersing agent about 7
anti-foaming agent <1
anti-settling agent <1
water balance
The dispersing agent may be a surfactant such as that conventionally used in a wettable powder or suspension concentrate formulation, for example a lignosulphonate such as sodium lignosulphonate or that available from Borregaard under the trade name Borresperse CA; sodium naphthalene sulphonic acid/formaldehyde condensate; sodium alkyl aryl sulphonate; a nonyl phenol alkylene oxide, such as nonyl phenol ethylene oxide condensate or nonyl phenol ethylene/propylene oxide such as SYNPERONIC NPE 1800 (trade name), available from ICI; alcohol ethylene/propylene oxide condensate; a sodium lauryl sulphate which also acts as wetting agent, such as that available under the trade name EMPICOL LZ from Lankro; a sodium diisopropyl naphthalene sulfonate which also acts as wetting agent, such as that available under the trade name AEROSOL OS from Cyanamid; a sodium salt of naphthalene sulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate, such as that available under the trade name TAMOL NNO or TAMOL DN from BASF; oxyethylated polyarylphenol phosphate, which is a dispersing agent in aqueous media, and an example of which is obtainable under the trade name SOPROPHOR FL from Rhone-Poulenc; or the like.
While the active ingredient can be any suitable active ingredient, such as a therapeutic agent, anthelmintic, a pigment or dye, or the like, the Applicant believes that the method will find particular, but thus not necessarily exclusive, application in making dosage devices in which the active ingredient is a pesticide, eg an insecticide, herbicide, fungicide, acaricide, or the like.
The active ingredient may thus be a pesticide which is sparingly soluble in water, with water hence being the carrier liquid for use in forming the suspension concentrate, as hereinbefore described. The pesticide may have a water solubility of less than 1000 mg/l at 25° C., preferably less than 50 mg/l at 25° C. Preferably, the pesticide should have a melting point exceeding 70° C.
The pesticide may be a herbicide such as atrazine, simazine, cyanazine, terbuthylazine, diuron, chlorsulphuron, metsulfuron, tralkoxydin, or 2-(2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione; an insecticide such as deltamethrin, lindane, carbaryl, endosulfan, or carbofuran; a fungicide such as thiophanate methyl, carbendazim, flutriafol, hexaconazole, chlorothalonil, copper oxychloride, captan or thiram; or an acaricide such as hexythiazox, cyhexatin, amitraz or acrinathrin.
The method may include adding a disintegrating agent to the mixture before compressing it into the unitary dosage device.
The disintegrating agent may be capable of disintegrating by effervescing or swelling on contact with water. When it is capable of swelling on contact with water, it may be a cross-linked polyvinyl pyrrolidone which also acts as a binder. For example, the cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone may then be that available under the trade name POLYPLASDONE XL from GAF Corp., or that available under the trade name KOLLIDON CL from BASF. However, it can instead be any other suitable disintegrating agent capable of swelling on contact with water such as a modified cellulose gum, for example that available under the trade name AC-DI-SOL from FMC Corporation; a sodium starch glycolate such as that available under the trade name EXPLOTAB from Protea Chemical Services; or a microcrystalline cellulose binder such as that available under the trade name Avicel PH101 from FMC Corp. When it is capable of effervescing on contact with water, it may be an acid and base combination such as tartaric acid and an alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate, eg sodium bicarbonate.
The method may also include adding one or more of the following to the mixture or to the suspension concentrate before admixture of the anhydrous salt therewith: a further surfactant, such as that hereinbefore described, to inhibit recompaction of the active ingredient; an absorptive carrier such as a colloidal silica, for example AEROSOL 200 (trade name), diatomaceous earth, or a clay such as attapulgite a binder such as a microfine cellulose, for example that obtainable under the trade name ELCEMA P100 from Degussa, and which also acts as a filler and disintegrating agent; or lactose monohydrate for example that obtainable under the trade name LUDIPRESS from BASF, and which is also a direct tabletting auxiliary; a lubricant such as magnesium stearate; a flow improving agent such as an absorptive silica, for example SIPERNAT 22S (trade name) from Degussa, which is a spray-dried ground silica, and acts as a free flow-anti-caking agent; and a water soluble filler such as soluble starch, urea, or sodium chlori.
The mixture may thus comprise the suspension concentrate, the further surfactant, the anhydrous salt, and the disintegrating agent. More particularly, the mixture may comprise
Component % (m/m)
suspension concentrate 25 to 40
filler/surfactant/dispersant about 8
anhydrous salt 30 to 40
binder/disintegrating agent 12 to 37
The mixture is, if necessary, rendered into compressible form. The mixture may be allowed to stand for a sufficient period of time until the hydration of the salt, ie the water absorption, has been completed, thereby also to render it compressible. The water absorption or hydration period will depend on the anhydrous salt used, but can typically vary from about 12 hours to about 72 hours. If necessary, the mixture can be comminuted, eg milled, prior to compressing it. The method is, however, characterized thereby that drying of the mixture at elevated temperature prior to compressing it, is not required.
The invention also extends to a dosage device when made in accordance with the method of the first aspect of the invention.
According to a second aspect of the invention, there is provided a dosage device which is in compressed unitary form and which comprises an admixture of an active ingredient which is in solid form at 25° C. and which has an average particle size of less than 10 microns, and a substance which is capable of being in anhydrous form, and which is at least partially hydrated in the dosage device. The dosage device may be as hereinbefore described.
According to a third aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of treating an article or locus, which comprises introducing a dosage device according to any one of claims 13 to 19 inclusive, into a predetermined volume of water, with the volume of water being such that the concentration of the active ingredient in the water is greater than the solubility limit of the active ingredient in the water; allowing the dosage device to disintegrate, thereby to form a suspension of the active ingredient in the water; and applying the suspension to an article or locus to be is treated. The invention will now be described by way of the following non-limiting examples.
EXAMPLE 1
A) Preparation of Suspension Concentrate
A suspension concentrate containing 50% (m/m) deltamethrin was made up by admixing, in a Dyno (trademark) mill the following components in the mass proportions indicated. The Dyno mill is a bead mill comprising a static casing within which rotates a rotor such that the rotor has a peripheral speed of 10-15 m/sec. The mill is filled up to a level of about 85% by volume with lmm glass beads.
Component % (m/m)
Deltamethrin tech 98, 5%, 50.76
as active ingredient
Synperonic NPE 1800 (trademark), 6.60
available from ICI,
as dispersing agent
Silcolapse 5000 A (trademark), 0.10
an anti-foaming agent available
from Rhone-Poulenc
Kelzan D (trademark), an anti-
settling agent, available from
Kelco Inc 0.04
Water 42.50
B) Preparation of Tablets in Accordance with the Invention

 

A tablet was formulated, using the procedure set out hereunder, to have the following composition:

 

Component % (m/m)
Deltamethrin 50% (m/m) suspension 40.00
concentrate, obtained in (A)
Tamol DN (trademark), a surfactant 8.00
available from BASF
Anhydrous magnesium sulphate 40.00
Kollidon CL (trademark), 12.00
a disintegrant available from BASF
The Tamol DN was dissolved in the suspension concentrate under stirring in a planetary mixer. Thereafter the anhydrous magnesium sulphate was added as a single addition. The mixture was stirred until it had dried into crumbly granules. The mixer was switched off, covered and left overnight for the hydration reaction of magnesium sulphate to proceed to completion, ie for water absorption to be effected. The water absorption period was thus about 12 hours. Thereafter, the mixture was stirred briefly to loosen the caked dry granules into pieces small enough to be introduced into a mill. The bone dry granules were milled in a hammer-type mill having a 1-2 mm screen. The Kollidon CL was added to the powdered concentrate, and mixed therewith in the mill. The resultant homogeneous mixture was introduced into a tabletting machine, and pressed into 2 g tablets at about 5 MPa pressure.

 

The resultant tablets thus had the following composition:

 

Component % (m/m)
Deltamethrin active 20.00
Impurities 0.30
Synperonic NPE 1800 2.64
Silcolapse 5000 A 0.04
Kelzan D 0.02
Magnesium sulphate anhydrous 40.00
Tamol DN 8.00
Kollidon CL 12.00
Water 17.00
Anhydrous magnesium sulphate can take up water, to form water of hydration thereof, in a molar ratio of up to 7 mols of water for 1 mol of magnesium sulphate. Thus the anhydrous magnesium sulphate used is in a theoretical excess, on a mass basis, of about 2:1. This is to ensure that all water present in the suspension concentrate is taken up by the anhydrous magnesium sulphate. The use of the anhydrous magnesium sulphate thus dries the suspension concentrate sufficiently for compressing thereof into tablets to be feasible without further drying thereof at elevated temperature being required.

 

The tablets, when introduced into water at the rate of one tablet in 5 liters of water, disintegrate within 1 minute. Microscopic examination revealed that most of the particles in the suspension were in the 0.5-2 micron range.

Examples 2, 3 and 4 hereunder were prepared in identical fashion to Example 1, apart therefrom that the constituents differed from those of Example 1, as given in the examples. Additionally, in Examples 2 and 3 the water absorption period was 72 hours.

 

EXAMPLE 2
Component % (m/m)
Deltamethrin 50% (m/m) suspension 40.00
concentrate
Tamol DN 8.00
Anhydrous sodium sulphate 40.00
Kollidon C L 12.00
A 2.5 g tablet was pressed at about 5 MPa pressure. This tablet was much harder than the tablet of Example 1, ie the tablet containing magnesium sulphate. When introduced into water at the rate of one tablet in 5 liters of water, the disintegration time was about 4½ minutes. Microscopic examination revealed that most of the particles in the suspension were in the 0.5-2 micron range.

 

 

EXAMPLE 3
Component % (m/m)
Deltamethrin 50% (m/m) suspension 40.00
concentrate
Tamol DN 8.00
Anhydrous sodium acetate 40.00
Kollidon C L 12.00
A 2.5 g tablet was pressed at about 5 MPa pressure. The tablet was softer than the tablet of Example 2, ie the tablet containing sodium sulphate. When introduced into water at the rate of one tablet in 5 liters of water, the disintegration time was about 2 minutes. Microscopic examination revealed that most of the particles in the suspension were in the 0.5-2 micron range.

 

 

EXAMPLE 4
A 2.0 g tablet was also prepared using a proprietary acaricide product.

 

 

Component % (m/m)
Acrinathrin 40% (m/m) suspension 25.0
concentrate obtainable from Hoechst
Schering AgrEvo SA and containing
50% (m/m) water
Borresperse C A, a lignosulphate 8.0
dispersant obtainable from
Borregaard
Anhydrous magnesium sulphate 30.0
Kollidon C L 5.0
Avicel PH 101, a microcrystalline 32.0
cellulose binder obtainable from
FMC Corp
The resulting tablet has satisfactory properties when diluted or dispersed in water.

 

The Applicant has found that with active pesticides requiring a very low rate of application, typically in the order of a few grams per hectare, very small pesticide particles, typically having an average particle size less than 5 microns, and even less than 1 micron, dispersed in the prescribed carrier liquid, usually water, are highly desirable for effective, accurate and even distribution of the pesticide on application. Furthermore, the smaller the particle size, the greater the surface area thereof, which promotes effective release of the pesticide after application to a locus or substrate. However, it has hitherto been a problem when providing pesticides in tablet form, that if the pesticide particles are too small, unsatisfactory dispersion rates of the tablet in the carrier liquor result. However, it has surprisingly been found that in the method and dosage device of the present invention in which the average pesticide particle size is less than 5 microns, and typically in the order of 1 to 3 microns, or even less than 1 micron, rapid disintegration and dispersion rates are achieved. Moreover, the resulting tablets have adequate hardness which permit handling in the field, and the tablets on dispersion have excellent suspension properties.

The dosage devices of the present invention thus provide a good vehicle for such pesticides, since they are compact and hence easily transported and stored, and are also in a form in which they are handled safely. Furthermore, there is not a problem of having to dispose of large used pesticide containers. They are furthermore easy to disperse and apply effectively and accurately as set out hereinbefore, ie with little wastage.

Furthermore, the Applicant was also surprised to find that the resulting average pesticide particle size of the active ingredient, after the tablets had been dispersed in water, was of the desired order less than 3 microns in spite of the fact that the active ingredient, after having been milled down to less than 5 microns, was then compressed with the disintegrating agent into tablet form during which agglomeration into larger particle sizes would have been expected. However, as stated, it was surprisingly found that the average particle size of the active ingredient, in the resultant suspensions, was still in the range of 0.5-3 microns.

 

The Applicant believes that the method of the invention, which does not require drying of the formulation in a drying oven before forming into tablets, has advantages over tablets formulated using such a drying step, particularly as regards capital and operating costs. Thus, the need to provide an oven is avoided. Operating costs associated with such an oven, such as heating costs and labour costs for loading and unloading the oven, are also avoided.
SLAC: 363 PAPER BAG 25 KG. (90 75 KGS TAMOL DN) NON CLASSIFIE D TAMOL H.S NO 38.24.90 DELIVE RY ADDRESS MANA C.O VERNON DRI VE WAREHOUSE 83 VERNON DRI... 
SLAC: 160 PAPER BAG 25 KG. NO N CLASSIFIED TAMOL (4000 KGS TAMOL DN) H.S NO 38.24.90 DEL IVERY ADDRESS: ALLIGARE INVEN TORY % SCHIRM USA 2801 OAKG ROV...
ADUIT FREIGHT PREPAID CONTAINER 320 PAPER BAG 25 KG. (8000 KGS TAMOL DN) NON CLASSIFIED TAMOL H.S. NO 38.24.90 FOR CHEMICAL EMERGENCY SPILL,LEAK , FIR...
Tamol DN (sodium alkyl naphtalene sulfonate) - 25 kg.

 

Geropon T/36 (poly carboxylic acid Na salt) - 50 kg.

Morwett D-425 (sodium alkyl naphtalene sulfonate) - 35 kg

Zoharpon SLS 2000 (Sodium lauryl sulfate) - 10 kg. Magnesium Silicate (filler) - up to 1000 kg. (about 40 kg)

Surfactant

Geronol 80 (Product based on Fatty acid Contains glycols.) - 15 kg

Procedure

1. Mix all the premix ingredients until a homogenous premix is obtained.

2. Mill the premix using a jet mill to obtain particle size distribution of dl0>0.4 micron and d90< 20 micron.

3. Using a continuous wetting system, wet the premix, with about 20% water.

4. Granulate the wet premix in a basket granulator.

5. Dry the wet granules using a fluidized bed dryer.

6. Treat the dry granules with a surfactant.

Example No. 2: Water-dispersible composition of imidacloprid Composition: Premix imidacloprid tech. as 93% - 750 kg

Tamol DN (sodium alkyl naphtalene sulfonate) - 25 kg.

Geropon T/36 (poly carboxylic acid Na salt) - 50 kg.

Vanisperse (sodium alkyl lignosulfonate) - 35 kg

Zoharpon SLS 2000 (Sodium lauryl sulfate) - 10 kg.

Magnesium Silicate - 25 kg OMYA (calcium carbonate) (filler) - up to 1000 kg. (about 90 kg)

Surfactant

Geronol 80 (Product based on Fatty acid Contains glycols.) - 15 kg

Procedure

1. Mix all the premix ingredients until a homogenous premix is obtained.

2. Mill the premix using a jet mill to obtain particle size distribution of dl0>0.4 micron and d90< 20 micron.

3. Using a continuous wetting system, wet the premix, with about 20% water.

4. Granulate the wet premix in a basket granulator.

5. Dry the wet granules using a fluidized bed dryer. 6. Treat the dry granules with a surfactant.

 

While embodiments of the invention have been described by way of illustration, it will be apparent that the invention may be carried out with many modifications, variations and adaptations, without departing from its spirit or exceeding the scope of-the. claims.
60.5 g of CI Pigment Red 81: 1 (CI 45160: 3, Fanal® Pink D4830, BASF) and 64 g of polyvinylpyrrolidone (K-value 30) was 3.5 cm in diameter in 150 g water in a Dispermat (toothed disc, 5000 rpm), dispersed for 1 h. Subsequently, the toothed disc was replaced with a Teflon disc (9 cm diameter), glass beads (3 mm diameter) were added and then a further 1 h was dispersed at 3000 rpm. After addition of 6 g Tamol DN was polymerized with the aforementioned monomers there analogously to Example. 1
55 g of CI Pigment Blue 15: 3 (CI 74160, Heliogen® Blue K 7090, BASF) and 66 g of polyvinylpyrrolidone (K-value 30) was dissolved in 154 g water in a Dispermat (Teflon disk 9 cm diameter, 275 g of glass beads of 3 mm diameter , 3500 rpm) were dispersed for 3.5 hours. Then, first, 6 g of Tamol DN and 150 g of water and then 13.1 g of methyl methacrylate, 5.6 g of 1,4-butanediol and 0.17 g tert-butyl peroxypivalate was added.
55 g of CI Pigment Yellow 184 (spinel, Sicopal® Yellow L1112, BASF) and 66 g of vinylpyrrolidone / vinyl acetate from 1.5: 1 copolymer (K ??value 25) was 9 cm in diameter in 154 g water in a Dispermat (Teflon disc, 3500 rpm) dispersed for 3 h. Then first 6 g Tamol DN and then 13.1 g of methyl methacrylate, 5.6 g of 1,4-butanediol and 0.17 g tert-butyl peroxypivalate was added.

 

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