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ALEV GECİKTİRİCİ (FLAME RETARDANT)

Flame Retardant (alev geciktirici)

ID NUMBER: 80-6114-6841-6
UPC: 00051128591826

Synonyms: Flame Retardant; Flame RETARDANT; FLAME RETARDANT; FLAMERETARDANT; alev geciktirici; ALEV GECİKTİRİCİ; Alev Geciktirici; alevgeciktirici; flameretardant; flame retardant; Flme retabdet; flame retardant; Restor flame retardant; premium flame retardant; proprietary formula; OSHA, 29 CFR 1910.1200.; 3MTM ScotchcastTM Flame-Retardant Compound 2131; 28-7666-2, 28-7650-6; 28-7666-2; HOMOPOLYMER; Bis(pentabromo Phenyl)ethane; DIUNDECYL PHTHALATE, BRANCHED AND LINEAR; ALUMINUM POTASSIUM SODIUM SILICATE; ANTIMONY PENTAOXIDE ; CASTOR OIL; DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL; N,N-DI(2-HYDROXYPROPYL)ANILINE; POLYPROPYLENE ETHER DIOL; CARBON BLACK; HYDROCINNAMIC ACID, 3,5-DI-TERT-BUTYL-4-HYDROXY-, OCTADECYL ESTER; Silanamine, 1,1,1-trimethyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-, hydrolysis products with silica; TRIETHYLENEDIAMINE; 69102-90-5; 84852-53-9 ; 85507-79-5; 12736-96-8; 1314-60-9; 8001-79-4; 25265-71-8 ; 3077-13-2; 25322-69-4 ; 1333-86-4; 2082-79-3 ; 68909-20-6; 280-57-9; Carbon monoxide; Carbon dioxide; Oxides of Nitrogen; Oxides of Antimony; CARBON BLACK 1333-86-4; POLYPROPYLENE ETHER DIOL; POLYPROPYLENE ETHER DIOL; N,N-DI(2-HYDROXYPROPYL)ANILINE; CASTOR OIL; DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL; Silanamine, 1,1,1-trimethyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-, hydroly is products with silica; TRIETHYLENEDIAMINE; HYDROCINNAMIC ACID, 3,5-DI-TERT-BUTYL-4-HYDROXY-,OCTADECYL ESTER; CASTOR OIL; DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL; OCTADECYL ESTER; ANTIMONY PENTAOXIDE (ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS); 3MTM ScotchcastTM Flame-Retardant Compound 2131; POLYETHER-HYDROCARBON-URETHANE; POLYMER; P,P'-METHYLENEBIS(PHENYL ISOCYANATE); BENZENE, 1,1'-METHYLENEBIS[ISOCYANATO-,HOMOPOLYMER; DIUNDECYL PHTHALATE; DIUNDECYL PHTHALATE, BRANCHED AND LINEAR; 1,1'-METHYLENEBIS(ISOCYANATOBENZENE); 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXENE; concrete; asbestos; fire-resistant; incombustible; noncandescent; noncombustible; nonflammable; noninflammable; waterproof; asbestos; concrete; fire-resistant; incombustible; noncandescent; noncombustible; nonflammable; noninflammable; fire-resisting; fireproof; FİRE-RETARDANT; noninflammabe; fire-resistive; fire resistance; flameproof; nonflammable; flame-retardant; incombustible; noncombustible; ovenware; resistance to fire; bonfire; flame retardancy; refractory; asbestos; concrete; noncandescent; uninflammable; flame; refractoriness; fire integrity; het-resistant; firestop; firewalls; firebreak; baking; Restor alev geciktirici; prim alev geciktirici; tescilli formül; OSHA, 29 CFR 1910.1200 .; 3M TM Scotchcast TM Alev Geciktirici Bileşik 2131; 28-7666-2, 28-7650-6; 28-7666-2; homopolimer; Bis (pentabromo Fenil) etan; DIUNDECYL FTHALATE, ŞUBE VE DOĞRUSAL; ALÜMİNYUM POTASYUM SODYUM SİLİKATESİ; ANTIMONY PENTAOXIDE; HİNTYAĞI; DİPROPİLEN GLİKOL; N, N-di (2-hidroksipropil) anilin; POLİPROPİLEN ETHER DIOL; KARBON SİYAHI; HİDROSİNAMİK ASİT, 3,5-DI-TERT-BUTİL-4-HİDROKSİ-, EKİMCİL ESTER; Silanamin, 1,1,1-trimetil-N- (trimetilsilil) -, silisli hidroliz ürünleri; trietilendiaminin; 69102-90-5; 84852-53-9; 85507-79-5; 12736-96-8; 1314-60-9; 8001-79-4; 25265-71-8; 3077-13-2; 25322-69-4; 1333-86-4; 2082-79-3; 68909-20-6; 280-57-9; Karbonmonoksit; Karbon dioksit; Azot Oksitleri; Antimon Oksitleri; KARBON SİYAH 1333-86-4; POLİPROPİLEN ETHER DIOL; POLİPROPİLEN ETHER DIOL; N, N-di (2-hidroksipropil) anilin; HİNTYAĞI; DİPROPİLEN GLİKOL; Silanamin, 1,1,1-trimetil-N- (trimetilsilil) -, hidrol; silisli ürünlerdir; trietilendiaminin; HİDROSİNAMİK ASİT, 3,5-DI-TERT-BUTİL-4-HİDROKSİ-, EKİMCİL ESTER; HİNTYAĞI; DİPROPİLEN GLİKOL; EKADECİL ESTER; ANTIMONY PENTAOXIDE (ANTIMONY BİLEŞİKLERİ); 3M TM Scotchcast TM Alev Geciktirici Bileşik 2131; POLİETER-hidrokarbon ÜRETAN; POLİMER; P, P'-METİLENBİS (PHENYL ISOCYANATE); BENZENE, 1,1'-METİLENENBİS [ISOCYANATO-, HOMOPOLYMER; DIUNDECYL PHTHALATE; DİUNDECYL FİTAL, ŞUBE VE DOĞRUSAL; 1,1'-metilenbis (izosiyanatobenzen) '; 4-vinilsikloheksen; beton; asbest; yangına dayanıklı; yanmaz; noncandescent; yanıcı olmayan; yanıcı değil; yanmaz; su geçirmez; asbest; beton; yangına dayanıklı; yanmaz; noncandescent; yanıcı olmayan; yanıcı değil; yanmaz; yangına dayanıklı; yanmaz; YANGIN GECİKTİRİCİ; noninflammabe; yangına dayanıklı; yangına dayanıklılık; Aleve dayanıklı; yanıcı değil; alev geciktirici; yanmaz; yanıcı olmayan; fırın kabı; yangına dayanıklılık; şenlik ateşi; Alev Geciktirici; refrakter; asbest; beton; noncandescent; yanmaz; alev; ısıya dayanıklılık; yangın bütünlüğü; het dirençli; Yangın durdurma; duvarları; alev kesici; pişirme; Flame Retardant; Flame RETARDANT; FLAME RETARDANT; FLAMERETARDANT; alev geciktirici; ALEV GECİKTİRİCİ; Alev Geciktirici; alevgeciktirici; flameretardant; flame retardant; Flme retabdet; flame retardant; Restor flame retardant; premium flame retardant; proprietary formula; OSHA, 29 CFR 1910.1200.; 3MTM ScotchcastTM Flame-Retardant Compound 2131; 28-7666-2, 28-7650-6; 28-7666-2; HOMOPOLYMER; Bis(pentabromo Phenyl)ethane; DIUNDECYL PHTHALATE, BRANCHED AND LINEAR; ALUMINUM POTASSIUM SODIUM SILICATE; ANTIMONY PENTAOXIDE ; CASTOR OIL; DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL; N,N-DI(2-HYDROXYPROPYL)ANILINE; POLYPROPYLENE ETHER DIOL; CARBON BLACK; HYDROCINNAMIC ACID, 3,5-DI-TERT-BUTYL-4-HYDROXY-, OCTADECYL ESTER; Silanamine, 1,1,1-trimethyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-, hydrolysis products with silica; TRIETHYLENEDIAMINE; 69102-90-5; 84852-53-9 ; 85507-79-5; 12736-96-8; 1314-60-9; 8001-79-4; 25265-71-8 ; 3077-13-2; 25322-69-4 ; 1333-86-4; 2082-79-3 ; 68909-20-6; 280-57-9; Carbon monoxide; Carbon dioxide; Oxides of Nitrogen; Oxides of Antimony; CARBON BLACK 1333-86-4; POLYPROPYLENE ETHER DIOL; POLYPROPYLENE ETHER DIOL; N,N-DI(2-HYDROXYPROPYL)ANILINE; CASTOR OIL; DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL; Silanamine, 1,1,1-trimethyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-, hydroly is products with silica; TRIETHYLENEDIAMINE; HYDROCINNAMIC ACID, 3,5-DI-TERT-BUTYL-4-HYDROXY-,OCTADECYL ESTER; CASTOR OIL; DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL; OCTADECYL ESTER; ANTIMONY PENTAOXIDE (ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS); 3MTM ScotchcastTM Flame-Retardant Compound 2131; POLYETHER-HYDROCARBON-URETHANE; POLYMER; P,P'-METHYLENEBIS(PHENYL ISOCYANATE); BENZENE, 1,1'-METHYLENEBIS[ISOCYANATO-,HOMOPOLYMER; DIUNDECYL PHTHALATE; DIUNDECYL PHTHALATE, BRANCHED AND LINEAR; 1,1'-METHYLENEBIS(ISOCYANATOBENZENE); 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXENE; concrete; asbestos; fire-resistant; incombustible; noncandescent; noncombustible; nonflammable; noninflammable; waterproof; asbestos; concrete; fire-resistant; incombustible; noncandescent; noncombustible; nonflammable; noninflammable; fire-resisting; fireproof; FİRE-RETARDANT; noninflammabe; fire-resistive; fire resistance; flameproof; nonflammable; flame-retardant; incombustible; noncombustible; ovenware; resistance to fire; bonfire; flame retardancy; refractory; asbestos; concrete; noncandescent; uninflammable; flame; refractoriness; fire integrity; het-resistant; firestop; firewalls; firebreak; baking; Restor alev geciktirici; prim alev geciktirici; tescilli formül; OSHA, 29 CFR 1910.1200 .; 3M TM Scotchcast TM Alev Geciktirici Bileşik 2131; 28-7666-2, 28-7650-6; 28-7666-2; homopolimer; Bis (pentabromo Fenil) etan; DIUNDECYL FTHALATE, ŞUBE VE DOĞRUSAL; ALÜMİNYUM POTASYUM SODYUM SİLİKATESİ; ANTIMONY PENTAOXIDE; HİNTYAĞI; DİPROPİLEN GLİKOL; N, N-di (2-hidroksipropil) anilin; POLİPROPİLEN ETHER DIOL; KARBON SİYAHI; HİDROSİNAMİK ASİT, 3,5-DI-TERT-BUTİL-4-HİDROKSİ-, EKİMCİL ESTER; Silanamin, 1,1,1-trimetil-N- (trimetilsilil) -, silisli hidroliz ürünleri; trietilendiaminin; 69102-90-5; 84852-53-9; 85507-79-5; 12736-96-8; 1314-60-9; 8001-79-4; 25265-71-8; 3077-13-2; 25322-69-4; 1333-86-4; 2082-79-3; 68909-20-6; 280-57-9; Karbonmonoksit; Karbon dioksit; Azot Oksitleri; Antimon Oksitleri; KARBON SİYAH 1333-86-4; POLİPROPİLEN ETHER DIOL; POLİPROPİLEN ETHER DIOL; N, N-di (2-hidroksipropil) anilin; HİNTYAĞI; DİPROPİLEN GLİKOL; Silanamin, 1,1,1-trimetil-N- (trimetilsilil) -, hidrol; silisli ürünlerdir; trietilendiaminin; HİDROSİNAMİK ASİT, 3,5-DI-TERT-BUTİL-4-HİDROKSİ-, EKİMCİL ESTER; HİNTYAĞI; DİPROPİLEN GLİKOL; EKADECİL ESTER; ANTIMONY PENTAOXIDE (ANTIMONY BİLEŞİKLERİ); 3M TM Scotchcast TM Alev Geciktirici Bileşik 2131; POLİETER-hidrokarbon ÜRETAN; POLİMER; P, P'-METİLENBİS (PHENYL ISOCYANATE); BENZENE, 1,1'-METİLENENBİS [ISOCYANATO-, HOMOPOLYMER; DIUNDECYL PHTHALATE; DİUNDECYL FİTAL, ŞUBE VE DOĞRUSAL; 1,1'-metilenbis (izosiyanatobenzen) '; 4-vinilsikloheksen; beton; asbest; yangına dayanıklı; yanmaz; noncandescent; yanıcı olmayan; yanıcı değil; yanmaz; su geçirmez; asbest; beton; yangına dayanıklı; yanmaz; noncandescent; yanıcı olmayan; yanıcı değil; yanmaz; yangına dayanıklı; yanmaz; YANGIN GECİKTİRİCİ; noninflammabe; yangına dayanıklı; yangına dayanıklılık; Aleve dayanıklı; yanıcı değil; alev geciktirici; yanmaz; yanıcı olmayan; fırın kabı; yangına dayanıklılık; şenlik ateşi; Alev Geciktirici; refrakter; asbest; beton; noncandescent; yanmaz; alev; ısıya dayanıklılık; yangın bütünlüğü; het dirençli; Yangın durdurma; duvarları; alev kesici; pişirme; Flame Retardant; Flame RETARDANT; FLAME RETARDANT; FLAMERETARDANT; alev geciktirici; ALEV GECİKTİRİCİ; Alev Geciktirici; alevgeciktirici; flameretardant; flame retardant; Flme retabdet; flame retardant; Restor flame retardant; premium flame retardant; proprietary formula; OSHA, 29 CFR 1910.1200.; 3MTM ScotchcastTM Flame-Retardant Compound 2131; 28-7666-2, 28-7650-6; 28-7666-2; HOMOPOLYMER; Bis(pentabromo Phenyl)ethane; DIUNDECYL PHTHALATE, BRANCHED AND LINEAR; ALUMINUM POTASSIUM SODIUM SILICATE; ANTIMONY PENTAOXIDE ; CASTOR OIL; DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL; N,N-DI(2-HYDROXYPROPYL)ANILINE; POLYPROPYLENE ETHER DIOL; CARBON BLACK; HYDROCINNAMIC ACID, 3,5-DI-TERT-BUTYL-4-HYDROXY-, OCTADECYL ESTER; Silanamine, 1,1,1-trimethyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-, hydrolysis products with silica; TRIETHYLENEDIAMINE; 69102-90-5; 84852-53-9 ; 85507-79-5; 12736-96-8; 1314-60-9; 8001-79-4; 25265-71-8 ; 3077-13-2; 25322-69-4 ; 1333-86-4; 2082-79-3 ; 68909-20-6; 280-57-9; Carbon monoxide; Carbon dioxide; Oxides of Nitrogen; Oxides of Antimony; CARBON BLACK 1333-86-4; POLYPROPYLENE ETHER DIOL; POLYPROPYLENE ETHER DIOL; N,N-DI(2-HYDROXYPROPYL)ANILINE; CASTOR OIL; DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL; Silanamine, 1,1,1-trimethyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-, hydroly is products with silica; TRIETHYLENEDIAMINE; HYDROCINNAMIC ACID, 3,5-DI-TERT-BUTYL-4-HYDROXY-,OCTADECYL ESTER; CASTOR OIL; DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL; OCTADECYL ESTER; ANTIMONY PENTAOXIDE (ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS); 3MTM ScotchcastTM Flame-Retardant Compound 2131; POLYETHER-HYDROCARBON-URETHANE; POLYMER; P,P'-METHYLENEBIS(PHENYL ISOCYANATE); BENZENE, 1,1'-METHYLENEBIS[ISOCYANATO-,HOMOPOLYMER; DIUNDECYL PHTHALATE; DIUNDECYL PHTHALATE, BRANCHED AND LINEAR; 1,1'-METHYLENEBIS(ISOCYANATOBENZENE); 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXENE; concrete; asbestos; fire-resistant; incombustible; noncandescent; noncombustible; nonflammable; noninflammable; waterproof; asbestos; concrete; fire-resistant; incombustible; noncandescent; noncombustible; nonflammable; noninflammable; fire-resisting; fireproof; FİRE-RETARDANT; noninflammabe; fire-resistive; fire resistance; flameproof; nonflammable; flame-retardant; incombustible; noncombustible; ovenware; resistance to fire; bonfire; flame retardancy; refractory; asbestos; concrete; noncandescent; uninflammable; flame; refractoriness; fire integrity; het-resistant; firestop; firewalls; firebreak; baking; Restor alev geciktirici; prim alev geciktirici; tescilli formül; OSHA, 29 CFR 1910.1200 .; 3M TM Scotchcast TM Alev Geciktirici Bileşik 2131; 28-7666-2, 28-7650-6; 28-7666-2; homopolimer; Bis (pentabromo Fenil) etan; DIUNDECYL FTHALATE, ŞUBE VE DOĞRUSAL; ALÜMİNYUM POTASYUM SODYUM SİLİKATESİ; ANTIMONY PENTAOXIDE; HİNTYAĞI; DİPROPİLEN GLİKOL; N, N-di (2-hidroksipropil) anilin; POLİPROPİLEN ETHER DIOL; KARBON SİYAHI; HİDROSİNAMİK ASİT, 3,5-DI-TERT-BUTİL-4-HİDROKSİ-, EKİMCİL ESTER; Silanamin, 1,1,1-trimetil-N- (trimetilsilil) -, silisli hidroliz ürünleri; trietilendiaminin; 69102-90-5; 84852-53-9; 85507-79-5; 12736-96-8; 1314-60-9; 8001-79-4; 25265-71-8; 3077-13-2; 25322-69-4; 1333-86-4; 2082-79-3; 68909-20-6; 280-57-9; Karbonmonoksit; Karbon dioksit; Azot Oksitleri; Antimon Oksitleri; KARBON SİYAH 1333-86-4; POLİPROPİLEN ETHER DIOL; POLİPROPİLEN ETHER DIOL; N, N-di (2-hidroksipropil) anilin; HİNTYAĞI; DİPROPİLEN GLİKOL; Silanamin, 1,1,1-trimetil-N- (trimetilsilil) -, hidrol; silisli ürünlerdir; trietilendiaminin; HİDROSİNAMİK ASİT, 3,5-DI-TERT-BUTİL-4-HİDROKSİ-, EKİMCİL ESTER; HİNTYAĞI; DİPROPİLEN GLİKOL; EKADECİL ESTER; ANTIMONY PENTAOXIDE (ANTIMONY BİLEŞİKLERİ); 3M TM Scotchcast TM Alev Geciktirici Bileşik 2131; POLİETER-hidrokarbon ÜRETAN; POLİMER; P, P'-METİLENBİS (PHENYL ISOCYANATE); BENZENE, 1,1'-METİLENENBİS [ISOCYANATO-, HOMOPOLYMER; DIUNDECYL PHTHALATE; DİUNDECYL FİTAL, ŞUBE VE DOĞRUSAL; 1,1'-metilenbis (izosiyanatobenzen) '; 4-vinilsikloheksen; beton; asbest; yangına dayanıklı; yanmaz; noncandescent; yanıcı olmayan; yanıcı değil; yanmaz; su geçirmez; asbest; beton; yangına dayanıklı; yanmaz; noncandescent; yanıcı olmayan; yanıcı değil; yanmaz; yangına dayanıklı; yanmaz; YANGIN GECİKTİRİCİ; noninflammabe; yangına dayanıklı; yangına dayanıklılık; Aleve dayanıklı; yanıcı değil; alev geciktirici; yanmaz; yanıcı olmayan; fırın kabı; yangına dayanıklılık; şenlik ateşi; Alev Geciktirici; refrakter; asbest; beton; noncandescent; yanmaz; alev; ısıya dayanıklılık; yangın bütünlüğü; het dirençli; Yangın durdurma; duvarları; alev kesici; pişirme;

Sağlık Tehlikeleri (Akut ve Kronik):
Yutma: Yutma, gastrointestinal rahatsızlıklara neden olabilir. Göz Teması: Tahrişe neden olabilir.
Soluma: Sis veya sprey, mukoza zarını tahriş eder.
Cilt: Önceden var olan cilt hastalıklarında tahrişe neden olabilir.

Acil ve İlk Yardım İşlemleri:
Yutma: Derhal tıbbi yardım alın.
Gözle Temas: Gözleri bol suyla yıkayın, üst ve alt göz kapaklarını kaldırın. Tahriş devam ederse, tıbbi yardım isteyin.
Soluma: Temiz havaya çıkarın. Tahriş devam ederse, tıbbi yardım isteyin.

Söndürme Ortamı: Köpük, su, sis, kuru kimyasal veya CO2.
Özel Yangınla Mücadele Prosedürleri: Kimyasal içeren yangınlarla mücadelede bağımsız bir solunum aparatı ve koruyucu elbise giyilmelidir. Su buharlaşırsa, tortu 320º F'da ayrışarak toksik gazlar çıkarır.

Çevresel Önlemler: Bertaraf işlemi tüm Federal, Eyalet ve Yerel yönetmeliklere uygun olarak yapılmalıdır.
Malzeme Miktarının Serbest Bırakılması veya Dökülmesi Durumunda Uygulanacak Adımlar: Koruyucu gözlük, gözlük ve lastik eldiven takın. Emici malzeme ile dökülen madde içerir. Kalıntıyı suyla temizleyin. Büyük dökülmeler için, alanı kazın ve emin ya da pompalayın.

Taşıma ve Depolamada Alınacak Önlemler: Göz ve cilt ile temasından sakının. Uyumsuzluklardan uzak, serin, kuru ve iyi havalandırılan bir alanda saklayın. kullanılmadığında sıkıca kapatın. Malzemelerin kullanımından sonra iyice yıkayın, koşullar değişeceğinden, müşteri uygulamalarına bağlı olarak, kullanım amaçları, koşulları ve donanımları konusunda bilgili kişilerce özel işleme prosedürleri geliştirilmelidir.
Diğer Önlemler: Sadece profesyonel kullanım içindir. Çocukların erişemeyeceği yerlerde saklayın.

Görünüm renksiz sıvı
mülayim Koku
Koku Eşiği ND
Su-Yağ Dağılımı Katsayısı ND
Kaynama Noktası 212˚F (100˚C)
Özgül Ağırlık 1.145
Buhar Basıncı (mm Hg) 17,5 @ 68ºF (20ºC)
Erime Noktası NA
Buhar Yoğunluğu (Hava = 1) <1,0
Buharlaşma (nBuOAc = 1) <1.0
Suda Çözünürlük Tamamlandı
pH (orijinal haliyle) 7.0
VOC (gm / l) 0

Health Hazards (Acute and Chronic):
Ingestion: Swallowing may cause gastrointestinal disorders. Eye Contact: May cause irritation.
Inhalation: Mist or spray will irritate mucous membrane.
Skin: May cause irritation on pre-existing skin disorders.

Emergency and First Aid Procedures:
Ingestion: Obtain immediate medical attention.
Eye Contact: Flush eyes with large amounts of water, lifting upper and lower eyelids. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention.
Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention.
Extinguishing Media: Foam, water, fog, dry chemical or CO2.
Special Fire Fighting Procedures: A self-contained breathing apparatus and protective clothing should be worn in fighting fires involving chemicals. If water evaporates, residue decomposes at 320º F, producing toxic gases.
Environmental Precautions: Disposal is to be performed in compliance with all Federal, State and Local regulations.
Steps To Be Taken in Case Quantities of Material are Released or Spilled: Put on safety glasses, or goggles and rubber gloves. Contain spill with absorbent material. Clean up residue with water. For large spills, dike area and absorb or pump up.

Precautions To Be Taken in Handling and Storing: Avoid eye and skin contact. Store in a cool, dry, well ventilated area away from incompatibles. Keep container tightly closed when not in use. Wash thoroughly after handling materials, as conditions will vary, depending upon customer applications, specific handling procedures should be developed by persons knowledgeable of their intended use, conditions, and equipment.
Other Precautions: For professional use only. Keep out of reach of children.
Appearance colorless liquid
Odor bland
Odor Threshold ND
Coefficient of Water-Oil Distribution ND
Boiling Point 212˚F (100˚C)
Specific Gravity 1.145
Vapor Pressure (mm Hg) 17.5 @ 68ºF (20ºC)
Melting Point NA
Vapor Density (Air = 1) <1.0
Evaporation (nBuOAc = 1) <1.0
Water Solubility complete
pH (in original form) 7.0
VOC (gm/l) 0
Material safety always comes first!
Few things are as ambiguous as a fire. On the one hand a fire can be a fascinating, almost hypnotizing spectacle, on the other hand it can be a cruel, surprisingly fast-acting threat. And sometimes a fire that starts out as the first can suddenly
turn into the latter. The use of flame retardants helps to prevent fires from extending and offers value escape time in case a fire has already started. With our water-based flame-retardants technology, Stahl provides technology that makes your materials safer.
Industries where employers work with flammable substances, outdoor events with festive fireworks or bonfires, a metropolitan hotel packed with guests and staff, a concert venue that is completely sold-out, the official attire of policemen, soldiers, medical personnel and of course firefighters... all are in dire need of the best flame-retardant possibilities. Here, the risks of a fire starting and spreading with the speed of light, are a daily concern. A risk that has horrible consequences. With buildings ruined, businesses crumbled, non-hazardous substances escaping into the air and lives lost. Nightmare scenarios that unfortunately sometimes turn into harsh realities.
Ideal safety net in high-risk places
At Stahl we believe that if it can be imagined, it can be created. We imagine a world where fires are few and far between. And where, in case a fire does start, it can be disarmed before causing harm. To help achieve this, Stahl acquired the Eagle Performance Products Business. Thanks to this acquisition we now offer top-notch water-based performance coatings, binders and additives that meet rigorous flame retardant standards. These solutions form an ideal safety net in places and circumstances where fire risks are high and legislation is accordingly stringent.
As we develop water-based performance coatings, additives and polymer dispersions that ensure flame retardant environments and settings, the possibilities of our flame retardants are endless. From tailor-made solutions for airplanes to workplace interior and event tent material: we always have a fitting solution. The full life cycle of our flame-retardant products have been evaluated from initial production through recycling when the product it is used on has reached the end of its lifeline. The outcome of this thorough evaluation is that Stahl's flame retardants are safe for continued use and comply with international fire standards of various industries.
The best protection, always and everywhere
As a leader in the industry, Stahl is not only fully committed to obtain the highest possible level of safety; we also have a great sense of responsibility towards the world we all live in. Because we believe that all industries, all areas, and all people deserve the best protection: immediate protection against fire and long-term protection against pollution. We also firmly believe a transparent and cooperative supply chain is a first requirement to achieve the highest level of sustainability. That is why we continuously test our technologies at our Application Lab in Calhoun, United States. Through these thorough, ongoing tests, we can guarantee that our water-based flame-retardants technology meets the highest standards in performance, aesthetics and sustainability. As all our technologies do, because at Stahl we stand for quality products with unparalleled characteristics.
Partner up for a safe, sustainable future
In the field of flame retardancy, Stahl offers a complete range of building blocks with polymer dispersions and additives. You simply select the building blocks needed to produce coatings that match your performance requirements. And of course, Stahl is glad to partner with you when you require assistance selecting the solutions that suits your individual needs best. Because when it involves the well being of our world and everything and everyone in it, you never can be safe enough. Together with you, we like to open up all endless possibilities in order to protect our world and everyone and everything in it.

Flame Retardants
Flame retardants refer to a variety of substances that are added to combustible materials to prevent fires from starting or to slow the spread of fire and provide additional escape time.
The term "flame retardant" refers to a function, not a family of chemicals. A variety of different chemistries, with different properties and molecular structures, act as flame retardants and these chemicals are often combined for effectiveness.

Uses & Benefits
When added to different materials, flame retardants can help prevent fires from starting or limit their spread.
According to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), in 2012, more than 1.3 million fires were reported in the United States, causing 2,855 civilian fire deaths, 16,500 civilian injuries and $12.4 billion in property damage. The use of flame retardants is especially important today, as the large volume of electrical and electronic equipment in today's buildings, coupled with a larger volume of combustible materials, can increase the potential for fire hazards.
Flame retardants provide consumers with a critical layer of fire protection and are vital to reducing the risks associated with fire. Today, flame retardants are used in four major areas:
Electronics and Electrical Devices
Flame retardants can enable modern electronic equipment, like television, and computers, to meet fire safety standards and are vital to the safety of hundreds of these products.
Building and Construction Materials
Flame retardants used in a variety of building and construction materials in homes, offices and public buildings, including schools and hospitals, can provide increased fire safety protection.
Furnishings
The addition of flame retardants to the material fillings and fibers used in furnishings helps provide individuals with an extra layer of fire protection and increases critical escape time in case of a fire.
Transportation
From airplanes to cars to trains, flame retardants play a key role in protecting travelers from the devastation of fire. After the July 2013 Asiana Airline crash in San Francisco, for example, experts credited flame retardant materials with helping passengers survive the crash. As former FAA Director Steven Wallace told the New York Times, "Flame retardant materials inside the plane, including foil wrapping under the seats, most likely helped protect many passengers."
•Uses & Benefits
•Safety Information
•Answering Questions
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Safety Information
There are many different types of flame retardants with distinct properties. Chemistry is rooted in innovation, and the next generation of fire-safety products is in various stages of development. Like all chemicals, flame retardants currently in use and new fire-safety chemicals are tested by the manufacturers and are subject to review by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and regulators around the globe.
EPA has authority to limit or even prohibit a chemical's use if the agency concludes that the chemical presents or will present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment. EPA recently indicated that approximately 50 flame retardants that it had reviewed were unlikely to pose a risk to human health.
•The European Union conducted a thorough evaluation of Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), a flame retardant used in electronics. The evaluation did not identify any health effects, and consumer exposure was deemed insignificant. A 2013 Review of TBBPA by the Canadian government concluded that "The Government of Canada has also concluded that TBBPA, TBBPA bis (2-hydroxyethyl ether) and TBBPA bis (allyl ether) are not harmful to human health at current levels of exposure."

Flame retardant
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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This article is about chemical flame retardants used in textiles, plastics and resins. For chemicals used to fight structure fires and wildfires, see fire retardant.
The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings. Flame retardants are activated by the presence of an ignition source and are intended to prevent or slow the further development of ignition by a variety of different physical and chemical methods. They may be added as a copolymer during the polymerisation of a polymer, mixed with polymer at an moulding or extrusion process or, in particular for textiles, applied as a topical finish.[1] Mineral flame retardants are typically additive while organohalogen and organophosphorus compounds can be either reactive or additive.

Contents
1.Classes
2.Retardation mechanisms
2.1Endothermic degradation
2.2Thermal shielding (solid phase)
2.3Dilution of gas phase
2.4Gas phase radical quenching
3.Use and effectiveness
3.1Fire safety standards
3.2Effectiveness
4.Environmental and health issues
4.1Health concerns
4.2Mechanisms of toxicity
4.2.1Direct exposure
4.2.2Degradation products
4.3Routes of exposure
4.3.1Exposure in the general population
4.3.2Occupational exposure
4.3.3Environmental exposure
4.4Disposal
4.5Regulatory Opposition
4.6National Bureau of Standards testing
5.Global demand
6See also
6.1Literature
7.References
8.External links
Classes
Both Reactive and Additive Flame retardants types, can be further separated into several different classes:
•Minerals such as aluminium hydroxide (ATH), magnesium hydroxide (MDH), huntite and hydromagnesite,[2][3][4][5][6] various hydrates, red phosphorus, and boron compounds, mostly borates.
•Organohalogen compounds. This class includes organochlorines such as chlorendic acid derivatives and chlorinated paraffins; organobromines such as decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (a replacement for decaBDE), polymeric brominated compounds such as brominated polystyrenes, brominated carbonate oligomers (BCOs), brominated epoxy oligomers (BEOs), tetrabromophthalic anyhydride, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Most but not all halogenated flame retardants are used in conjunction with a synergist to enhance their efficiency. Antimony trioxide is widely used but other forms of antimony such as the pentoxide and sodium antimonate are also used.
•Organophosphorus compounds. This class includes organophosphates such as triphenyl phosphate (TPP), resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (RDP), bisphenol A diphenyl phosphate (BADP), and tricresyl phosphate (TCP); phosphonates such as dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP); and phosphinates such as aluminium diethyl phosphinate.[7][8] In one important class of flame retardants, compounds contain both phosphorus and a halogen. Such compounds include tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (brominated tris) and chlorinated organophosphates such as tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (chlorinated tris or TDCPP) and tetrakis(2-chlorethyl)dichloroisopentyldiphosphate (V6).[7]
•Organic compounds such as carboxylic acid[9] and dicarboxylic acid
The mineral flame retardants mainly act as additive flame retardants and do not become chemically attached to the surrounding system. Most of the organohalogen and organophosphate compounds also do not react permanently to attach themselves into their surroundings but further work is now underway to graft further chemical groups onto these materials to enable them to become integrated without losing their retardant efficiency. This also will make these materials non emissive into the environment. Certain new non halogenated products, with these reactive and non emissive characteristics have been coming onto the market since 2010, because of the public debate about flame retardant emissions. Some of these new Reactive materials have even received US-EPA approval for their low environmental impacts.
Retardation mechanisms
The basic mechanisms of flame retardancy vary depending on the specific flame retardant and the substrate. Additive and reactive flame-retardant chemicals can both function in the vapor (gaseous) or condensed (solid) phase.

Endothermic degradation
Some compounds break down endothermically when subjected to high temperatures. Magnesium and aluminium hydroxides are an example, together with various carbonates and hydrates such as mixtures of huntite and hydromagnesite.[2][5][6] The reaction removes heat from the substrate, thereby cooling the material. The use of hydroxides and hydrates is limited by their relatively low decomposition temperature, which limits the maximum processing temperature of the polymers (typically used in polyolefins for wire and cable applications).
Thermal shielding (solid phase)
A way to stop spreading of the flame over the material is to create a thermal insulation barrier between the burning and unburned parts. Intumescent additives are often employed; their role is to turn the polymer surface into a char, which separates the flame from the material and slows the heat transfer to the unburned fuel. Non-halogenated inorganic and organic phosphate flame retardants typically act through this mechanism by generating a polymeric layer of charred phosphoric acid.[7]

Dilution of gas phase
Inert gases (most often carbon dioxide and water) produced by thermal degradation of some materials act as diluents of the combustible gases, lowering their partial pressures and the partial pressure of oxygen, and slowing the reaction rate.[4][6]
Gas phase radical quenching
Chlorinated and brominated materials undergo thermal degradation and release hydrogen chloride and hydrogen bromide or, if used in the presence of a synergist like antimony trioxide, antimony halides. These react with the highly reactive H· and OH· radicals in the flame, resulting in an inactive molecule and a Cl· or Br· radical. The halogen radical is much less reactive compared to H· or OH·, and therefore has much lower potential to propagate the radical oxidation reactions of combustion.
Use and effectiveness
Fire safety standards
Flame retardants are typically added to industrial and consumer products to meet flammability standards for furniture, textiles, electronics, and building products like insulation.[10]
In 1975, California began implementing Technical Bulletin 117 (TB 117), which requires that materials such as polyurethane foam used to fill furniture be able to withstand a small open flame, equivalent to a candle, for at least 12 seconds.[10][11] In polyurethane foam, furniture manufacturers typically meet TB 117 with additive halogenated organic flame retardants. Although no other U.S. states have a similar standard, because California has such a large market many manufacturers meet TB 117 in products that they distribute across the United States. The proliferation of flame retardants, and especially halogenated organic flame retardants, in furniture across the United States is strongly linked to TB 117.
In response to concerns about the health impacts of flame retardants in upholstered furniture, in February 2013 California proposed modifying TB 117 to require that fabric covering upholstered furniture meet a smolder test and to eliminate the foam flammability standards.[12] Gov. Jerry Brown signed the modified TB117-2013 in November and it became effective in 2014.[13] The modified regulation does not mandate a reduction in flame retardants.
However, these questions of eliminating emissions into the environment from flame retardants can be solved by using a new classification of highly efficient flame retardants, which do not contain halogen compounds, and which can also be keyed permanently into the chemical structure of the foams used in the furniture and bedding industries. The resulting foams have been certified to produce no flame retardant emissions. This new technology is based on entirely newly developed "Green Chemistry" with the final foam containing about one third by weight of natural oils. Use of this technology in the production of California TB 117 foams, would allow continued protection for the consumer against open flame ignition whilst providing the newly recognized and newly needed protection, against chemical emissions into home and office environments.[14][unreliable source?] More recent work during 2014 with this "Green Chemistry" has shown that foams containing about fifty percent of natural oils can be made which produce far less smoke when involved in fire situations. The ability of these low emission foams to reduce smoke emissions by up to 80% is an interesting property which will aid escape from fire situations and also lessen the risks for first responders i.e. emergency services in general and fire department personnel in particular.[15]
In Europe, flame retardant standards for furnishings vary, and are their most stringent in the UK and Ireland.[16] Generally the ranking of the various common flame retardant tests worldwide for furniture and soft furnishings would indicate that the California test Cal TB117 - 2013 test is the most straightforward to pass, there is increasing difficulty in passing Cal TB117 -1975 followed by the British test BS 5852 and followed by Cal TB133. One of the most demanding flammability tests worldwide is probably the US Federal Aviation Authority test for aircraft seating which involves the use of a kerosene burner which blasts flame at the test piece. The 2009 Greenstreet Berman study, carried out by the UK government, showed that in the period between 2002 and 2007 the UK Furniture and Furnishings Fire Safety Regulations accounted for 54 fewer deaths per year, 780 fewer non-fatal casualties per year and 1065 fewer fires each year following the introduction of the UK furniture safety regulations in 1988.[17]

Effectiveness
The effectiveness of flame retardant chemicals at reducing the flammability of consumer products in house fires is disputed. Advocates for the flame retardant industry, such as the American Chemistry Council's North American Flame Retardant Alliance, cite a study from the National Bureau of Standards indicating that a room filled with flame-retarded products (a polyurethane foam-padded chair and several other objects, including cabinetry and electronics) offered a 15-fold greater time window for occupants to escape the room than a similar room free of flame retardants.[18][19] However, critics of this position, including the lead study author, argue that the levels of flame retardant used in the 1988 study, while found commercially, are much higher than the levels required by TB 117 and used broadly in the United States in upholstered furniture.[10]
Another study concluded flame retardants are an effective tool to reduce fire risks without creating toxic emissions.[20]
Several studies in the 1980s tested ignition in whole pieces of furniture with different upholstery and filling types, including different flame retardant formulations. In particular, they looked at maximum heat release and time to maximum heat release, two key indicators of fire danger. These studies found that the type of fabric covering had a large influence on ease of ignition, that cotton fillings were much less flammable than polyurethane foam fillings, and that an interliner material substantially reduced the ease of ignition.[21][22] They also found that although some flame retardant formulations decreased the ease of ignition, the most basic formulation that met TB 117 had very little effect.[22] In one of the studies, foam fillings that met TB 117 had equivalent ignition times as the same foam fillings without flame retardants.[21] A report from the Proceedings of the Polyurethane Foam Association also showed no benefit in open-flame and cigarette tests with foam cushions treated with flame retardants to meet TB 117.[23] However, other scientists support this open-flame test.[24]
Environmental and health issues
The environmental behaviour of flame retardants has been studied since the 1990s. Mainly brominated flame retardants were found in many environmental compartments and organisms including humans, and some individual substances were found to have toxic properties. Therefore, alternatives have been demanded by authorities, NGOs and equipment manufacturers. The EU-funded collaborative research project ENFIRO (EU research project FP7: 226563, concluded in 2012) started out from the assumption that not enough environmental and health data were known of alternatives to the established brominated flame retardants. In order to make the evaluation fully comprehensive, it was decided to compare also material and fire performance as well as attempt a life cycle assessment of a reference product containing halogen free versus brominated flame retardants. About a dozen halogen free flame retardants were studied representing a large variety of applications, from engineering plastics, printed circuit boards, encapsulants to textile and intumescent coatings. A large group of the studied flame retardants were found to have a good environmental and health profile: ammonium polyphosphate (APP), Aluminium diethyl phosphinate (Alpi), aluminium hydroxide (ATH), magnesium hydroxide (MDH), melamine polyphosphate (MPP), dihydrooxaphosphaphenanthrene (DOPO), zinc stannate (ZS) and zinc hydroxstannate (ZHS). Overall, they were found to have a much lower tendency to bioaccumulate in fatty tissue than the studied brominated flame retardants.
The tests on the fire behaviour of materials with different flame retardants revealed that halogen free flame retardants produce less smoke and toxic fire emissions, with the exception of the aryl phosphates RDP and BDP in styrenic polymers. The leaching experiments showed that the nature of the polymer is a dominating factor and that the leaching behaviour of halogen free and brominated flame retardants is comparable. The more porous or "hydrophilic" a polymers is the more flame retardants can be released. However, moulded plates which represent real world plastic products showed much lower leaching levels than extruded polymer granules. The impact assessment studies reconfirmed that the improper waste and recycling treatment of electronic products with brominated flame retardants can produce dioxins which is not the case with halogen free alternatives. Furthermore, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) has been carrying out a series of projects related to the environmental assessment of alternative flame retardants, the "design for environment" projects on flame retardants for printed wiring boards and alternatives to decabromo diphenylethers and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD).
In 2009, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released a report on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and found that, in contrast to earlier reports, they were found throughout the U.S. coastal zone.[25] This nationwide survey found that New York's Hudson Raritan Estuary had the highest overall concentrations of PBDEs, both in sediments and shellfish. Individual sites with the highest PBDE measurements were found in shellfish taken from Anaheim Bay, California, and four sites in the Hudson Raritan Estuary. Watersheds that include the Southern California Bight, Puget Sound, the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Tampa and St. Petersburg, in Florida, and the waters of Lake Michigan near Chicago and Gary, Indiana, also were found to have high PBDE concentrations.

Health concerns
The earliest flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were banned in the U.S. in 1977 when it was discovered that they were toxic.[26] Industries used brominated flame retardants instead, but these are now receiving closer scrutiny. In 2004 and 2008 the EU banned several types of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).[27] Negotiations between the EPA and the two U.S. producers of DecaBDE (a flame retardant that has been used in electronics, wire and cable insulation, textiles, automobiles and airplanes, and other applications), Albemarle Corporation and Chemtura Corporation, and the largest U.S. importer, ICL Industrial Products, Inc., resulted in commitments by these companies to phase out decaBDE for most uses in the United States by December 31, 2012, and to end all uses by the end of 2013.[28] The state of California has listed the flame retardant chemical chlorinated Tris (tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate or TDCPP) as a chemical known to cause cancer.[29] In December 2012, the California nonprofit Center for Environmental Health filed notices of intent to sue several leading retailers and producers of baby products[30] for violating California law for failing to label products containing this cancer-causing flame retardant. While the demand for brominated and chlorinated flame retardants in North America and Western Europe is declining, it is rising in all other regions.[31]
There is a potential association between the exposure to the Phosphorus Flame Retardants (PFR) in residential indoor dust and the development of allergies, asthma and dermatitis. A study was conducted in 2014 by Araki, A. et al. in Japan to assess this relationship.They found a significant association between the Tris (2-chloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and atopic dermatitis with an odds ratio of 2.43. They also found that the Tributyl phosphate was associated with the development of allergic rhinitis and asthma with an odds ratio of 2.55 & 2.85 respectively.[32]
Nearly all Americans tested have trace levels of flame retardants in their body. Recent research links some of this exposure to dust on television sets, which may have been generated from the heating of the flame retardants in the TV. Careless disposal of TVs and other appliances such as microwaves or old computers may greatly increase the amount of environmental contamination.[33] A recent study conducted by Harley et al. 2010[34] on pregnant women, living in a low-income, predominantly Mexican-immigrant community in California showed a significant decrease in fecundity associated with PBDE exposure in women.
Another study conducted by Chevrier et al. 2010[35] measured the concentration of 10 PBDE congeners, free thyroxine (T4), total T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in 270 pregnant women around the 27th week of gestation. Associations between PBDEs and free and total T4 were found to be statistically insignificant. However, authors did find a significant association amongst exposure to PBDEs and lower TSH during pregnancy, which may have implications for maternal health and fetal development.
A prospective, longitudinal cohort study initiated after 11 September 2001, including 329 mothers who delivered in one of three hospitals in lower Manhattan, New York, was conducted by Herbstman et al.2010.[36] Authors of this study analyzed 210 cord blood specimens for selected PBDE congeners and assessed neurodevelopmental effects in the children at 12-48 and 72 months of age. Results showed that children who had higher cord blood concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) scored lower on tests of mental and motor development at 1-4 and 6 years of age. This was the first study to report any such associations in humans.
A similar study was conducted by Roze et al. 2009[37] in The Netherlands on 62 mothers and children to estimate associations between 12 Organohalogen compounds (OHCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, measured in maternal serum during the 35th week of pregnancy and motor performance (coordination, fine motor skills), cognition (intelligence, visual perception, visuomotor integration, inhibitory control, verbal memory, and attention), and behavior scores at 5-6 years of age. Authors demonstrated for the first time that transplacental transfer of polybrominated flame retardants was associated with the development of children at school age.
Another study was conducted by Rose et al. in 2010[38] to measure circulating PBDE levels in 100 children between 2 and 5 years of age from California. The PBDE levels according to this study, in 2- to 5-year-old California children was 10 to 1,000 fold higher than European children, 5 times higher than other U.S. children and 2 to 10 times higher than U.S. adults. They also found that diet, indoor environment, and social factors influenced children's body burden levels. Eating poultry and pork contributed to elevated body burdens for nearly all types of flame retardants. Study also found that lower maternal education was independently and significantly associated with higher levels of most flame retardant congeners in the children.
San Antonio Statement on Brominated and Chlorinated Flame Retardants 2010:[39] A group of 145 prominent scientists from 22 countries signed the first-ever consensus statement documenting health hazards from flame retardant chemicals found at high levels in home furniture, electronics, insulation, and other products. This statement documents that, with limited fire safety benefit, these flame retardants can cause serious health issues, and, as types of flame retardants are banned, the alternatives should be proven safe before being used. The group also wants to change widespread policies that require use of flame retardants.
A number of recent studies suggest that dietary intake is one of the main routes to human exposure to PBDEs. In recent years, PBDEs have become widespread environmental pollutants, while body burden in the general population has been increasing. The results do show notable coincidences between the China, Europe, Japan, and United States such as dairy products, fish, and seafood being a cause of human exposure to PBDEs due to the environmental pollutant.
A February 2012 study genetically engineered female mice to have mutations in the x-chromosome MECP2 gene, linked to Rett syndrome, a disorder in humans similar to autism. After exposure to BDE-47 (a PDBE) their offspring, who were also exposed, had lower birth weights and survivability and showed sociability and learning deficits.[40]
A January 2013 study of mice showed brain damage from BDP-49, via inhibiting of the mitochondrial ATP production process necessary for brain cells to get energy. Toxicity was at very low levels. The study offers a possible pathway by which PDBEs lead to autism.[41]
Mechanisms of toxicity

Direct exposure
Many halogenated flame retardants with aromatic rings, including most brominated flame retardants, are likely thyroid hormone disruptors.[10] The thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) carry iodine atoms, another halogen, and are structurally similar to many aromatic halogenated flame retardants, including PCBs, TBBPA, and PBDEs. Such flame retardants therefore appear to compete for binding sites in the thyroid system, interfering with normal function of thyroid transport proteins (such as transthyretin) in vitro[42] and thyroid hormone receptors. A 2009 in vivo animal study conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) demonstrated that deiodination, active transport, sulfation, and glucuronidation may be involved in disruption of thyroid homeostasis after perinatal exposure to PBDEs during critical developmental time points in utero and shortly after birth.[43] Disruption of deiodinase as reported in the Szabo et al., 2009 in vivo study was supported in a follow-up in vitro study.[44]The adverse effects on hepatic mechanism of thyroid hormone disruption during development have been shown to persist into adulthood. The EPA noted that PBDEs are particularly toxic to the developing brains of animals. Peer-reviewed studies have shown that even a single dose administered to mice during development of the brain can cause permanent changes in behavior, including hyperactivity.
Based on in vitro laboratory studies, several flame retardants, including PBDEs, TBBPA, and BADP, likely also mimic other hormones, including estrogens, progesterone, and androgens.[10][45] Bisphenol A compounds with lower degrees of bromination seem to exhibit greater estrogenicity.[46] Some halogenated flame retardants, including the less-brominated PBDEs, can be direct neurotoxicants in in vitro cell culture studies: By altering calcium homeostasis and signalling in neurons, as well as neurotransmitter release and uptake at synapses, they interfere with normal neurotransmission.[45] Mitochondria may be particularly vulnerable to PBDE toxicity due to their influence on oxidative stress and calcium activity in mitochondria.[45] Exposure to PBDEs can also alter neural cell differentiation and migration during development.[45]
Degradation products
Many flame retardants degrade into compounds that are also toxic, and in some cases the degradation products may be the primary toxic agent:
•Halogenated compounds with aromatic rings can degrade into dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, particularly when heated, such as during production, a fire, recycling, or exposure to sun.[10] Chlorinated dioxins are among the highly toxic compounds listed by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.
•Polybrominated diphenyl ethers with higher numbers of bromine atoms, such as decaBDE, are less toxic than PBDEs with lower numbers of bromine atoms, such as pentaBDE.[47] However, as the higher-order PBDEs degrade biotically or abiotically, bromine atoms are removed, resulting in more toxic PBDE congeners.[48][49]
•When some halogenated flame retardants such as PBDEs are metabolized, they form hydroxylated metabolites that can be more toxic than the parent compound.[42][46] These hydroxylated metabolites, for example, may compete more strongly to bind with transthyretin or other components of the thyroid system, can be more potent estrogen mimics than the parent compound, and can more strongly affect neurotransmitter receptor activity.[42][45][46]
•Bisphenol-A diphenyl phosphate (BADP) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) likely degrade to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor of concern.[50][51]

Routes of exposure
People can be exposed to flame retardants through several routes, including diet; consumer products in the home, vehicle, or workplace; occupation; or environmental contamination near their home or workplace.[52][53][54] Residents in North America tend to have substantially higher body levels of flame retardants than people who live in many other developed areas, and around the world human body levels of flame retardants have increased over the last 30 years.[55]
Exposure to PBDEs has been studied the most widely.[10] As PBDEs have been phased out of use due to health concerns, organophosphorus flame retardants, including halogenated organophosphate flame retardants, have frequently been used to replace them. In some studies, indoor air concentrations of phosphorus flame retardants has been found to be greater than indoor air concentrations of PBDEs.[7]The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) issued in 2011 scientific opinions on the exposure to HBCD and TBBPA and its derivates in food and concluded that current dietary exposure in the European Union does not raise a health concern[56]
Exposure in the general population
The body burden of PBDEs in Americans correlates well with the level of PBDEs measured in swabs of their hands, likely picked up from dust.[55][56] Dust exposure may occur in the home, car, or workplace. Levels of PBDEs can be as much as 20 times higher in vehicle dust as in household dust, and heating of the vehicle interior on hot summer days can break down flame retardants into more toxic degradation products.[57] However, blood serum levels of PBDEs appear to correlate most highly with levels found in dust in the home.[56] 60-80% of exposures are due to dust inhalation or ingestion.[50][51]. In addition to this, 20% to 40% of adult U.S. exposure to PBDEs is through food intake as PBDEs bioaccumulate in the food chain. High concentration can be found in meat, dairy and fish[57] with the remaining exposure largely due to dust inhalation or ingestion[50][51]. Individuals can also be exposed through electronic and electrical devices.[58] Young children in the United States tend to carry higher levels of flame retardants per unit body weight than do adults.[59][60] Infants and toddlers are particularly exposed to halogenated flame retardants found in breast milk and dust. Because many halogenated flame retardants are fat-soluble, they accumulate in fatty areas such as breast tissue and are mobilized into breast milk, delivering high levels of flame retardants to breast-feeding infants.[51] PBDEs also cross the placenta, meaning infants are exposed in utero.[59] Mothers thyroid hormone (T4) level can be disrupted[60] and exposure in utero in rat studies has been demonstrated to alter motor control, delay sensory development and puberty.[61]
Another reason for high levels of exposure in young children are due to aging consumer products age, small particles of material become dust particles in the air and land on surfaces around the home, including the floor. Young children crawling and playing on the floor frequently bring their hands to their mouths, ingesting about twice as much house dust as adults per day in the United States.[58] Children also have a higher food intake per kilogram of bodyweight compared to adults. Young children are also exposed to flame retardants through their clothing, car seats and toys. The introduction of these chemicals came about after the tragic death of children wearing brushed rayon fabric that would ignite easily. The U.S enacted the Flammable Fabrics Act passed in 1953 after which, flame retardants were mandated to be added to many children's items, including pajamas. While flame retardants are shown to decrease the risk of burn injuries in children, the risks of thyroid disruption as well as physical and cognitive developmental delays, are not outweighed.
A study was conducted by Carignan in 2013, C. et al. found that gymnasts are exposed to some flame-retardant products such as PentaBDE and TBB more than the general population in the United States. After testing hand-wipe samples before and after the exercise, they found that the BDE-153 concentration was four to over six times greater among gymnasts than the United States population. Also, the PentaBDE concentration was higher up to three times after exercise compared to the level before; indicating a higher level of the flame-retardants on the training equipment. Moreover, they also found several flame-retardant products with different concentrations in the air and dust that were higher in the gym than residencies.[62] However, the study was performed on a small sample size; and further studies are recommended to assess the association.

Occupational exposure
Some occupations expose workers to higher levels of halogenated flame retardants and their degradation products. A small study of U.S. foam recyclers and carpet installers, who handle padding often made from recycled polyurethane foam, showed elevated levels of flame retardants in their tissues.[54] Workers in electronics recycling plants around the world also have elevated body levels of flame retardants relative to the general population.[63][64] Environmental controls can substantially reduce this exposure,[65] whereas workers in areas with little oversight can take in very high levels of flame retardants. Electronics recyclers in Guiyu, China, have some of the highest human body levels of PBDEs in the world.[63] A study conducted in Finland determined the occupational exposure of workers to brominated flame retardants and chlorinated flame retardants (TBBPA, PBDEs, DBDPE, HBCD, Hexabromobenzene and Dechlorane plus). In 4 recycling sites of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the study concluded that control measures implemented on site significantly reduced the exposure.[66] Workers making products that contain flame retardants (such as vehicles, electronics, and baby products) may be similarly exposed.[67] U.S. firefighters can have elevated levels of PBDEs and high levels of brominated furans, toxic degradation products of brominated flame retardants.[68]
Environmental exposure
Flame retardants manufactured for use in consumer products have been released into environments around the world. The flame retardant industry has developed a voluntary initiative to reduce emissions to the environment (VECAP)[69] by promoting best practices during the manufacturing process. Communities near electronics factories and disposal facilities, especially areas with little environmental oversight or control, develop high levels of flame retardants in air, soil, water, vegetation, and people.[67][70]
Organophosphorus flame retardants have been detected in wastewater in Spain and Sweden, and some compounds do not appear to be removed thoroughly during water treatment.[71][72]Organophosphorus flame-retardants were also found in tap and bottled drinking water in China.[73] Likewise in the Elbe river in Germany.[74]

Disposal
When products with flame retardants reach the end of their usable life, they are typically recycled, incinerated, or landfilled.[10]
Recycling can contaminate workers and communities near recycling plants, as well as new materials, with halogenated flame retardants and their breakdown products. Electronic waste, vehicles, and other products are often melted to recycle their metal components, and such heating can generate toxic dioxins and furans.[10] When wearing Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) and when a ventilation system is installed, exposure of workers to dust can be significantly reduced, as shown in the work conducted by the recycling plant Stena-Technoworld AB in Sweden.[75] Brominated flame retardants may also change the physical properties of plastics, resulting in inferior performance in recycled products and in "downcycling" of the materials. It appears that plastics with brominated flame retardants are mingling with flame-retardant-free plastics in the recycling stream and such downcycling is taking place.[10]
Poor-quality incineration similarly generates and releases high quantities of toxic degradation products. Controlled incineration of materials with halogenated flame retardants, while costly, substantially reduces release of toxic byproducts.[10]
Many products containing halogenated flame retardants are sent to landfills.[10] Additive, as opposed to reactive, flame retardants are not chemically bonded to the base material and leach out more easily. Brominated flame retardants, including PBDEs, have been observed leaching out of landfills in industrial countries, including Canada and South Africa. Some landfill designs allow for leachate capture, which would need to be treated. These designs also degrade with time.[10]
Regulatory Opposition
Shortly after California amended TB117 in 2013 to require only flame-resistant furniture coverings (without restriction on the interior components), furniture manufacturers across the US heard increased demands for flame-retardant-free furniture. Of note, smolder-resistant fabrics used in flame-resistant coverings do not contain PBDEs, organophosphates, or other chemicals historically associated with adverse effects on human health. A number of decision-makers in the health sector - which accounts for nearly 18% of the US GDP [74] - are committed to purchasing such materials and furniture. Early adopters of this policy included Kaiser Permanente, Advocate Health Care, Hackensack University Hospital, and University Hospitals. All together, furniture purchasing power of these hospitals totalled $50 million.[76] All of these hospitals and hospital systems ascribe to the Healthier Hospitals Initiative, which has over 1300 member hospitals, and promotes environmental sustainability and community health within the healthcare industry.

Further legislation in California has served to educate the public about flame retardants in their homes, in effect reducing consumer demand for products containing these chemicals. According to a law (Senate Bill, 1019) signed by Governor Jerry Brown in 2014, all furniture manufactured after January 1, 2015 must contain a consumer warning label stating whether it does or does not contain flame retardant chemicals [76]
As of September 2017, the topic reached federal regulatory attention in the Consumer Product Safety Commission, which voted to put together a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel focused on describing certain risks of various consumer products, specifically baby and childcare products (including bedding and toys), upholstered home furniture, mattresses and mattresses and mattress pads, and plastic casings surrounding electronics. This advisory panel is charged specifically to address the risks of additive, non-polymeric organohalogen flame retardants (OFRs). Although these chemicals have not been banned, this ruling sets in motion an in-depth consumer safety investigation which could eventually lead to complete removal of these substances from consumer manufacturing.[77]
Pursuant with the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976, the Environmental Protection Agency is also actively evaluating the safety of various flame retardants, including chlorinated phosphate esters, tetrabromobisphenol A, cyclic aliphatic bromides, and brominated phthalates.[78] Further regulations depend on EPA findings from this analysis, though any regulatory processes could take several years.
National Bureau of Standards testing
In a 1988 test program, conducted by the former National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), to quantify the effects of fire retardant chemicals on total fire hazard. Five different types of products, each made from a different type of plastic were used. The products were made up in analogous fire-retardant (FR) and non-retarded variants (NFR).[79]
The impact of FR (flame retardant) materials on the survivability of the building occupants was assessed in two ways:
First, comparing the time until a domestic space is not fit for occupation in the burning room, known as "untenability"; this is applicable to the occupants of the burning room. Second, comparing the total production of heat, toxic gases, and smoke from the fire; this is applicable to occupants of the building remote from the room of fire origin.[79]
The time to untenability is judged by the time that is available to the occupants before either (a) room flashover occurs, or (b) untenability due to toxic gas production occurs. For the FR tests, the average available escape time was more than 15-fold greater than for the occupants of the room without fire retardants.
Hence, with regard to the production of combustion products,[79]
•The amount of material consumed in the fire for the fire retardant (FR) tests was less than half the amount lost in the non-fire retardant (NFR) tests.
•The FR tests indicated an amount of heat released from the fire which was 1/4 that released by the NFR tests.
•The total quantities of toxic gases produced in the room fire tests, expressed in "CO equivalents," were 1/3 for the FR products, compared to the NFR ones.
•The production of smoke was not significantly different between the room fire tests using NFR products and those with FR products.
Thus, in these tests, the fire retardant additives decreased the overall fire hazard.[79]
Global demand
In 2013, the world consumption of flame retardants was more than 2 million tonnes. The commercially most import application area is the construction sector. It needs flame retardants for instance for pipes and cables made of plastics.[31] In 2008 the United States, Europe and Asia consumed 1.8 million tonnes, worth US$4.20-4.25 billion. According to Ceresana, the market for flame retardants is increasing due to rising safety standards worldwide and the increased use of flame retardants. It is expected that the global flame retardant market will generate US$5.8 billion. In 2010, Asia-Pacific was the largest market for flame retardants, accounting for approximately 41% of global demand, followed by North America, and Western Europe.[80]
See also
•Flammability
•Brominated flame retardant
•Fire retardant
•Fire Glass

Literature
•The Dangers of Brominated Fire Retardants, by Nick Gromicko, International Association of Certified Home Inspectors, Inc, viewed Jan 2018.
•Fire Resistant and Fire Retardant Cables, by Steven McFadyen, myElectrical Engineering, July 4, 2013.
•Alissa Cordner, Margaret Mulcahy, Phil Brown (2013). "Chemical Regulation on Fire: Rapid Policy Advances on Flame Retardants". Environmental Science & Technology. 47 (13): 7067-7076. doi:10.1021/es3036237. PMID 23713659.

Are flame retardants dangerous to people's health?
Flame retardants are a critical element of fire safety. Flame retardants are subject to review by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other governmental agencies. Flame retardant manufacturers strive to innovate and make better performing and more sustainable flame retardants. All new flame retardant chemicals must be reviewed by EPA. During its review of data on flame retardant chemicals, EPA identified approximately 50 flame retardant chemicals that are unlikely to pose a risk to human health.
The European Union conducted a thorough evaluation Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) , a flame retardant used in electronics. The evaluation did not identify any health effects, and consumer exposure was deemed insignificant. A 2013 Review of TBBPA by the Canadian government concluded that "The Government of Canada has also concluded that TBBPA, TBBPA bis (2-hydroxyethyl ether) and TBBPA bis (allyl ether) are not harmful to human health at current levels of exposure."
Do flame retardants actually stop the spread of fires?
To answer that question, let's use flame retardant furniture as an example. The number of upholstered furniture fires in the home environment dropped by 84 percent from 1980, the first year that data were available, to 2009, according to NFPA. While several factors have contributed to that sharp decline, the timeframe coincides with the use of flame retardants to meet flammability standards imposed in California in 1976. In the absence of a national requirement, the California standards were broadly followed by the US furniture industry over the following 20 years. Similar findings have been reported in the United Kingdom where flammability standards also are in place for furniture.
Despite this substantial progress, upholstered furniture remains a significant contributor to home fire deaths, according to NFPA. During the period from 2005 to 2009, while upholstered furniture was the item first ignited in 2 percent of reported home fires, these fires resulted in 19 percent of the home fire deaths.
Are candles, lighters and matches still a significant source of fires?
Looking at U.S. home fires that originated with upholstered furniture between 2005 and 2009, the NFPA reports, "Together, candles, matches and lighters were involved in 21 percent of the fires and 12 percent of the deaths." By preventing or slowing the spread of these small flames, flame retardants can provide valuable escape time during a home fire.

Flame Retardants
Health & Education
Environmental Health Topics
Environmental Agents
Acrylamide
Air Pollution
Allergens & Irritants
Aloe Vera
Arsenic
Bisphenol A (BPA)
Cell Phone Radio Frequency Radiation
Climate Change
Cosmetics and Personal Care Products
Dioxins
Electric & Magnetic Fields
Endocrine Disruptors
Essential Oils
Flame Retardants
Formaldehyde
Ginkgo
Harmful Algal Blooms
Hair Dye
Hazardous Material/Waste
Hexavalent Chromium
Hydraulic Fracturing & Health
Lead
Mercury
Mold
Nanomaterials
Ozone
PFAS - Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances
Pesticides
Radon
Soy Infant Formula
Styrene
Water Pollution
Weather Extremes

Table of Contents
Introduction
What are flame retardants?

Flame retardants are chemicals that are added or applied to materials in order to slow or prevent the start/growth of fire. They have been used in many consumer and industrial products since the 1970s, to decrease the ability of materials to ignite.
Flame retardants are often added or applied to the following products.
•Furnishings, such as foam, upholstery, mattresses, carpets, curtains, and fabric blinds.
•Electronics and electrical devices, such as computers, laptops, phones, televisions, and household appliances, plus wires and cables.
•Building and construction materials, including electrical wires and cables, and insulation materials, such as polystyrene and polyurethane insulation foams.
•Transportation products, such as seats, seat covers and fillings, bumpers, overhead compartments, and other parts of automobiles, airplanes, and trains.
Many flame retardants have been removed from the market or are no longer produced. However, because they do not easily break down, they can remain persistent in the environment for years. They can also bioaccumulate, or build up in people and animals over time.
How are people exposed to flame retardants?
What can be done to reduce exposure to flame retardants?
•Keep dust levels down, by wet mopping and vacuuming with a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to help remove contaminants from your home.
•Wash your hands and those of your children often. Hand-to-mouth contact exposes people to flame retardants.
•When purchasing new products, try to purchase baby products and furniture filled with cotton, polyester, or wool, instead of polyurethane foam.
•Reduce dust by having a good ventilation system in your home.
People can be exposed to flame retardants through a variety of ways, including diet; consumer products in the home, car, airplane, and workplace; and house dust.1
•These chemicals can get into the air, water, and soil during manufacture.
•Chemicals can leak from products into dust and into the air.
•Dust can get on hands and food and then into the mouth when food is eaten.
•Through e-waste or the uncontrolled burning and dismantling of electronic and electric waste.
What are some of the potential health effects associated with flame retardants?
Although flame retardants can offer benefits when they are added to some products, a growing body of evidence shows that many of these chemicals are associated with adverse health effects in animals and humans. These include:
•Endocrine and thyroid disruption
•Impacts to the immune system
•Reproductive toxicity
•Cancer
•Adverse effects on fetal and child development
•Neurologic function
Who is most vulnerable?
Children may be particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of these chemicals, because their brain and other organs are still developing. Hand-to-mouth behavior and proximity to the floor increases the potential of children to be exposed to flame retardants. Researchers have found that children have higher concentrations of flame retardants in their bodies than adults.
Are there different types of flame retardants?
There are hundreds of different flame retardants. They are often broken into categories based on chemical structure and properties. In general, flame retardants are grouped based on whether they contain bromine, chlorine, phosphorus, nitrogen, metals, or boron.
Brominated flame retardants - Contain bromine and are the most abundantly used flame retardants. Used in many consumer goods, including electronics, furniture, building materials, etc. and have been linked to endocrine disruption among other effects.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE's) -PBDEs do not chemically bind with the products to which they are added (furniture, electronics, etc.) so they easily release from these products and enter air and dust. PBDEs can lower birth weight/length of children, and impair neurological development.
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) - Widely used to make computer circuit boards and electronics. Also used in some textiles and paper, or as an additive in other flame retardants.
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) - An additive primarily used in polystyrene foam building materials. The primary risk to humans is from leaching out of products and getting into indoor dust. Low levels of HBCD have also been found in some food products.
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) - With the phasing out of PBDEs, some OPFRs have been identified as replacements.
NIEHS-supported researchers are also looking at the health effects of newer flame retardant alternatives that are being brought to market.
Why are NIEHS and NTP studying these chemicals?

Flame retardants are being studied because of their abundance in the environment and concerns about their impact on human health, especially to children who can be easily exposed to them through hand-to-mouth contact.
The National Toxicology Program (NTP), an interagency testing program headquartered at NIEHS, has received many nominations to study flame retardants, because of the lack of information about their toxicity.
One way in which NIEHS seeks to advance research in this field is to better understand how people dispose of products that contain flame retardants. For example, at sites where discarded consumer products containing flame retardants are dismantled, recycled, or burned, there is potential for release of these products into the air, soil, and water. These chemicals can then be absorbed by surrounding vegetation, animals, or people.
NIEHS is also interested in conducting research and sharing new findings that will help companies develop safer alternatives to current flame retardants.
Fact Sheets
Flame Retardants


Further Reading
Stories from the Environmental Factor (NIEHS Newsletter)
•NTP Panel Agrees Flame Retardant Mixture Exhibits Carcinogenic Activity (August 2015)
•tox21 Tools Promoted at UC Davis Meeting (July 2015)
•Birnbaum Weighs in on Flame Retardants in Retroreport (June 2015)
Additional Resources
•Consumer Fact Sheet on Flame Retardants from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
•Flame Retardants - Technical reports from the Consumer Product Safety Commission
•NIH News in Health: Making a Healthier Home: Cast Toxins from Your Living Space (69KB) Becoming aware of potentially harmful substances and clearing them out can help keep you and your family healthy.
•Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) - A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) fact sheet
Related Health Topics
•Cancer
•Endocrine Disruptors
•Toxicology

iplikler kullanıldıkları tekstil ürünlerine kalıcı güç tutuşurluk özelliği kazandırırlar. Normal polyester ve diğer liflerle yapılan kumaşların aksine bu iplikler ile yapılan kumaşlar, herhangi bir yangın anında güç tutuşma özelliği göstererir.
Güç tutuşurluk özelliği sağlayan komononer polyester, polimerin reaksiyonu esnasında moleküler yapıya dahil edildiğinden, iplikler yıkama ve aşınma ile güç tutuşurluk özelliğini kaybetmez. Kumaşların ayrı bir güç tutuşurluk fonksiyonel işlemine tabi tutulması gerekmez. Apreleme yöntemiyle güç tutuşurluk özelliği kazandırılan kumaşlarla kıyaslandığında FLAME RETARDANT ipliklerle yapılan kumaşlar daha uzun süreli koruma sağlar. Yıkama ya da aşınma ile özelliğini kaybetmediği için daha güvenlidir.

Koruyucu ve fonksiyonel ürünlere tekstil pazarında artan talepler ve güvenlik için tekstillere yönelik çıkan yasalar sonucu yangın koruma önemli bir etken olmaktadır. İstikrarlı olarak artan özel konutlarda kullanımlara yönelik taleplerin yanı sıra, güç tutuşurluk özelliği kamusal alanlarda kullanılan tekstil ürünlerinde yoğun bir şekilde talep edilmektedir.


FLAME RETARDANT iplikler, kullanım alanlarına göre performans testlerine tabi tutulmaktadır. Güç tutuşurluk fonksiyonellik testleri kumaşlara uygulanmakta olup, kumaş sıklığı, örgü yapısı gibi kumaş konstrüksiyonu ve boyama ile bitim işlemlerinden direk etkilenir. Bu nedenle müşterilerimizin de tedarik ettikleri FLAME RETARDANT ipliklerden oluşturduğu kumaşları fonksiyonellik testlerine tabi tutmaları önem arz etmektedir.
Ar-Ge Merkezi bünyesinde FLAME RETARDANT ipliklerin fonksiyonelliğini göstermek amacıyla test edilmiş ürünler; %100 FLAME RETARDANT ekru ipliklerden üretilmiş, kumaş boyama ve bitim işlemleri tamamlanmış saten ve vual kalitelerinde dokuma kumaşlardır.

Üretilen bu kumaşlardan yapılan testlerin sonuçları aşağıdaki güç tutuşurluk test standartlarını karşılamaktadır:
ABD,
•NFPA 701 : Tutuşma dirençli tekstiller ve filmler için yangın testi standardı
İngiltere,
•BS 5867 Part 2 (1993) Type B Performans : Perdeler için tutuşurluk standardı
•BS 5852 : 1979 Part 1 : Döşemelik kumaşlar için güç tutuşurluk kibrit ve sigara testi standardı
Fransa,
•M1 sertifikasyonu için NF P 92-503, NF P 92-504, NF P 92-505 testleri

FLAME RETARDANT ipliklerin fonksiyonelliklerinin boyama ve bitim işlemlerinde azalmaması için uygulanması gereken tekstil proseslerindeki kullanım klavuzu aşağıda ekte verilmiştir.

What are flame retardants?
About this website
Flame retardants are chemicals which are added to many materials to increase their fire safety. For example, many plastics are highly flammable and therefore their fire resistance is increased by adding flame retardants in order to reduce the risk of fire.
On this website you find information about the different kinds of flame retardants, which role flame retardants have in fire safety and which advantages and disadvantage their use has.
maintains this website (see impressum).


alev geciktirici, alevlenme geciktirici,
ateş geciktirici,
ateş yavaşlatıcı
flame retardant teriminin İngilizce Türkçe sözlükte anlamı
alev geciktirici
alevlenme geciktirici
alev geciktirici
İlgili Terimler
flame retardants
alevlenmeyi geciktiriciler

flame retardant teriminin İngilizce İngilizce sözlükte anlamı
A chemical used to impart flame resistance
A substance, which is added to a polymer formulation to reduce or retard the tendency to burn
a substance which is added to a polymer formulation to reduce or retard its tendency to burn
an additive which renders a polymer fire-resistant
A substance (additive) which is added to a polymer formulation to reduce or retard its tendency to burn
Chemical applied to fabric to reduce its ignitability when exposed to fire In some places regular or periodic flame retardant of stage drapes and sets is law
A chemical applied to a fabric, or incorporated into the fiber at the time of production, which significantly reduces a fabric's flammability
Ability of a material to prevent the spread of combustion by a low rate of travel so the flame will not be conveyed
Having the ability to resist combustion (A flame retardant plastic is considered to be one that will not continue to burn or glow after the source of ignition has been removed )
A substance used to impede a material's tendency to burn or ignite
An added substance which inhibits the initiation and/or spread of flame
The property of a material that extinguishes a flame once the source of heat has been removed
A substance used to make an object flameproof
The flame-retardant used on the child's pajamas would keep them from bursting into flame, but it caused a rash.
Used to describe something that is hard to ignite; that does not support or convey flame
resistant to catching fire
Flame-retardant is the same as fire-retardant

Al(OH)3(ATH) flame retardants having 25 µm particle size and 98% whiteness. have also been making research to develop ATH flame retardants having 1 µm or less particle size.

Flame Retardants
What is a Flame Retardant?
There are two elements of a burning reaction:
Reducing agent
Oxidizing agent
The oxidizing agent is generally oxygen in air. Burning process starts when the polymeric material reaches to a heat at which the polymeric bonds starts to break down. When the polymeric bonds break down the flammable gases in the material rise to the air and forms the environment having the burning potential. When this gas mixture finds enough energy to activate the burning will start.

The Flame Retardance Mechanisms
Flame retardants either prevent or stop the burning process. This can be accomplished with two different mechanisms:
•Physical
•Chemical
Physical Prevention
In this mechanism the flame reatardant material spends the heat occurring at the burning potential area. Flame retardants use the heat occurring in te enviroment and therefore decreases the heat of enviroment. In this category aluminium trihydroxide and magnesium hydroxide are the choices. These materials reveal water vapour at temperatures of 200°C to 300 °C, the reaction that produces water vapour is endothermic therefore uses the heat energy that occurs in the burning enviroment.
2Al(OH)3 → Al2O3 + 3H2O

The revealed water vapour decreases the concentration of the fuel in the burning zone and hinders the propagation of the flame.
Chemical Prevention
This type of flame retardants change the chemistry of the burning process. The flame retardants expose Cl and Br type radicals in gas form and these gaseous products react with H and OH and renders them inaffective for burning. Also the additives such as clay results to ash formation which hinders the propagation of the flame.
The Applications where Flame Retardants are used
•Automotive
•Electronics
•Transportation

Automotive Field
Electrical hardware: PP, PE, PBT, PA, PVC
Seats: PU, PP, PVC, ABS, PA, Polyether, Polyester
Car bumper: PP, ABC, PC/PBT
Lamps: PC, PBT, ABS, PMMA, UP
Door handles: ABS, PA, PBT, POM, ASA, PP
Liquid reservoirs : PP, PA, PE

Electronic Field
Cables and wires: PVC, XLPE, PP
Box: HIPS, ABS, HIPS/PPE, PC/ABS
Circuits: Epoxy resin
Jack inputs: PBT, PET, PA6, PA66,HTN

Transportation (Bus)
Electrical hardware: PP, PE, PBT, PA, PVC
Accessories: ABS, PA, PBT, POM, ASA, PP
Lamps: PC, PBT, ABS, PMMA, UP
Seats: PU, PP, PVC, ABS, PA, Polyether, Polyester
Bumpers : PP, ABC, PC/PBT
Liquid reservoirs: PP, PA, PE

Transportation (Airplane)
Electrical hardware: PP, PE, PBT, PA, PVC
Seats ve top panels: PU, PP, PVC, ABS, PA, Polyether, Polyester
Plastic Component Plastic Type
Bumper PP, ABS, PC/PBT
Cable and Wire PVC, XLPE, PP
Oil system HDPE, POM, PA, PP, PBT
Body PP, PPE, UP
Electrical Hardware PP, PE, PBT, POM, ASA, PP
Lightening PC, PBT, ABS, PMMA, UP
Liquid Reservoirs PP, PE, PA
Seats PU, PP, PVC, ABS, PA, Poliether, Poliyester
Decorative Parts (inside the car) PP, ABS, PET, POM, PVC
Decorative Parts (outside the car) ABS, PA, PBT, POM, ASA, PP


5 Major Categories of Flame Retardants
Polymer Solutions News Team August 23, 2016 0
From mattresses to televisions, children's toys to carpet padding, we are surrounded by products that contain flame retardants. These chemicals are added to materials or products to prevent or slow the spread of fire. They are broken down into the following 5 major categories:
1. Halogen: Within this class of flame retardants includes chlorine-based systems but perhaps the most well-known are Bromine Flame Retardants (BRFs). BFRs are commonly used by those within the electronics industry and also within textiles, construction products, and coatings. Bromine is used because it releases active bromine atoms into the gas phase before the material reaches its ignition temperature, which quenches the chemical reactions occurring within the flame. This can prevent the burning process from occurring or can slow it such that other measures can be taken to extinguish the fire. This is an example of the vapor phase inhibition approach. One major issue with this type of flame retardant is they are becoming increasingly banned within products due to safety concerns. The RoHS directive, for example, specifically limits the amount of polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that can be found within appliances, IT equipment, lighting equipment, medical devices, toys, and semiconductors, amongst other product categories.
2. Inorganic Flame Retardants: Many inorganic compounds are used as flame retardants or a catalyst within a flame retardant system. When it comes to flame retardants these materials often have to be used in large concentrations to achieve desired results. Alternatively, they must be used in conjunction with other types of flame retardants to be effective. For example, antimony oxides do not have flame retardant properties in and of themselves but when combined with bromine or chlorine based flame retardants they serve as a synergist. This means the antimony oxides act as a catalyst causing the bromine or chlorine to break down even faster, thus releasing active bromine atoms into the gas phase at a more rapid rate. The antimony oxides also react with the bromine or chlorine compounds to produce volatile antimony halogen compounds. While antimony oxides do not have flame retardant properties the volatile antimony halogen compounds do because they remove the high energy radicals that feed the gas phase of the fire.
Inorganic flame retardants that can be used independently include aluminum and magnesium hydroxides. These compounds interfere with the burning process through the release of inert gasses (like water vapor), creating a protective char layer, or energy apsorption (meaning the amount of energy available for the fire the spread is reduced).
3. Nitrogen Flame Retardants: Malamine-based products are the most commonly used type of nitrogen flame retardants. When melamine is in the condensed phase the molecular structures transform into cross-linked structures. This transformation promotes the formation of char, which inhibits oxygen supply. This is an example of a solid phase char flame retardant.
4. Intumescent Coatings: The aim of systems incorporating intumescent coatings is to protect materials from fire by preventing burning. They are applied to products like a layer of paint, which makes them well suited for construction materials like steel beams or wood. When exposed to heat these coatings expand to create a fire-resistant and insulating layer on the material. That layer protects the material from high temperatures, which can prevent or slow structural damage. Common components of intumescnet coatings include spumific compounds (chemicals that decompose when heated and produce large amounts of gas), a binder, an acid source and a carbon compound.
5. Phosphorous: These compounds are both chemically bound to materials and are also physically incorporated as an additive. Char is formed when the phosphorous compound is heated, thereby inhibiting the formation of combustible gas and inhibiting the pyrolysis process. What is particularly interesting about the formation of char is it hinders the release of combustible gasses while also forming a protective layer that shields the polymer from the heat of the flame.
Many products combine the various types of flame retardants within the system. This approach provides the benefits of the different prevention or mitigation modes. One such combination is phosphorus and chlorine. Phosphorus provides the solid phase char layer and chlorine provides a vapor layer inhibition approach.
We welcome your questions about flame retardant identification and quantitation and invite you to contact us to discuss your analytical needs.
Flame retardants (FR) are chemical compounds added to or otherwise incorporated into plastic compounds to provide varying degrees of flammability protection.
From: Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook, 2011

Learn more about Flame Retardant
Flame Retardants
Ann Innes, Jim Innes, in Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook, 2011
Publisher Summary
Flame retardants (FR) are chemical compounds added to or otherwise incorporated into plastic compounds to provide varying degrees of flammability protection. This chapter focuses on flame retardants for thermoplastic and thermoset polymers as used in a wide variety of applications to meet an equally wide array of flammability standards. Fire statistics are reported by a multitude of organizations in countries across the globe. There are a variety of applications where FR additives and FR technology are used. Electrical and electronic (E & E) applications include injection-molded wire nuts that can be found behind the electrical sockets on the walls in most dwellings and offices. Other E & E applications include components and parts used in ovens, microwaves, dishwashers, refrigerators, and dryers. Generally, whenever a plastic product or plastic product component is near or in contact with an electrical current a flammability standard is usually required to be met by that product or component. FR has grown into a global industry comprising many companies and organizations which employ many dedicated researchers, technologists, and professionals from many fields all striving to develop FR products that if used properly and in a sufficient quantity of applications will buy the victims of fire more time to escape.
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Flame Retardants
Ann Innes, Jim Innes, in Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials (Second Edition), 2012
Fire is one of the most destructive forces on the planet. Fires are hard to fight and often impossible to control, and the loss of human life, injury, and damage to property are staggering. Many industries have been working for a long time to develop products, methods, and processes to limit the hazards and threats from fire, e.g., sprinkler systems, fire extinction systems, and smoke and fire detection devices. Flame retardants (FRs) are chemical compounds added to or otherwise incorporated into plastic compounds to provide varying degrees of flammability protection. FRs for thermoplastic and thermoset polymers are used in a wide variety of applications to meet an equally wide array of flammability standards. By delaying ignition, retarding the burning process once it starts, and/or suppressing the development of smoke, FRs give the victims of fire more time to escape, limit the loss of life and injury, and protect property.
He walked slowly following the hoses toward the rig, inhaling with every labored breath the all too familiar smells of fiery destruction. His lungs ached from the heavy exertion. His throat felt swollen and burned with each dry swallow. He removed his helmet to wipe his face and head soaked with sooty sweat as he turned to look back toward the still smoldering, smoking remains. They had been home for a small family-young father with two little children. They didn't make it out. He fought back the feeling of guilt rising over the small gratitude he felt that night. One of his buddies upon entering first had been the one this night to find the bodies. As they stood momentarily together trying to regain themselves, his buddy remarked "if they only had about 15 more seconds, they might have made it..." How many times had they both been plagued by this same frustrating and futile thought? In this battle's aftermath, with time, his thoughts, moving in slow motion and chills assaulting his spine, he simply shrugged in response.
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Environmentally friendly flame-retardant textiles
S. Nazaré, in Sustainable Textiles, 2009
Abstract:
Flame-retardant textile products go through many processing steps that contribute to their overall chemical footprints and sometimes the final chemical residues remaining in the finished product. This chapter first discusses ecotoxicological issues of flame retardants and the particular risk of flame-retardant textiles to human health. Legislative and regulatory drivers for minimising environmental as well as human health implications are also discussed. Strategies for the development of sustainable environmentally friendly flame retardants are also reviewed briefly. Finally, important governmental and non-governmental organisations that are directly associated with sustainability, renewability and recyclability of flame-retardant chemicals are listed.
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Developments in phosphorus flame retardants
S.V. Levchik, E.D. Weil, in Advances in Fire Retardant Materials, 2008
3.1 Introduction
Flame retardants based on halogen, particularly bromine, have been important in flame retardancy and continue to be important. However, environmental concerns and scrap disposal issues have stimulated strong interest in halogen-free alternatives. There is a growing patent and non-patent literature on non-halogen flame retardants and particularly on phosphorus-based flame retardants.
Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been known and commercially produced for a long time. However, as of today, the application of phosphorus-based flame retardants has been limited to specific polymers or specific classes of polymers. This can be explained by the mechanism of action of phosphorus flame retardants, which is mostly related to char formation. In order to promote charring of the polymer, the flame retardant should be able to react with the polymer during decomposition. Although phosphorus possesses also a gas phase mode of action, the benefits of this mechanism are not used to the full extent in commercial flame retardant systems. Some recent developments in phosphorus flame retardants are focused on designed formulations to make use of synergism between gas phase and condensed phase action. New phosphorus-based thermally and hydrolytically stable molecules are also in active development. Special interest is directed to co-monomer type flame retardants which effectively incorporate into the polymer network. Our review covers recent phosphorus flame retardant developments for several classes of plastics and foams.
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Flame retardant functional textiles
S. Gaan, ... H. Schmid, in Functional Textiles for Improved Performance, Protection and Health, 2011
Additives for wet spun fibers
Flame retardant viscose fibers such as manufactured by Lenzing, Austria (Viscose FR®) and Sateri International Group (Visil®) are the only inherently flame retardant fibers developed from cellulose. Both these fibers use different technology to achieve flame retardantproperty. Viscose FR® is made by incorporating ~ 30% organophosphorus-based pigment additive whereas Visil® fiber contains up to 35% SiO2. as a flame retardant additive. The development of flame retardants for viscose is very challenging as the flame retardant has to withstand severe alkaline and acidic conditions during the fiber manufacturing process. Studies on several kinds of phosphorus-based flame retardants have shown that 1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinane, 2,2′-oxybis 5,5-dimethyl-, 2,2′-disulfide (Fig. 5.4) is the most suitable flame retardant additive for viscose fiber (Wolf, 1981). This compound is a white pigment, practically insoluble in water and very stable to acid and alkaline hydrolysis. It is currently manufactured by Clariant and sold under the trade name Exolit 5060. Visil fibers are manufactured by adding sodium silicate in the alkaline spinning solution and regenerating it as polysilicic acid in the coagulating bath.

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5.4. Phosphorous-containing flame-retardant additive for viscose manufacturing.
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Functional pretreatments of natural raw materials
F. Fu, ... E. Xu, in Advanced High Strength Natural Fibre Composites in Construction, 2017
4.2.4 Flame retardant treatment of wood
Wood flame retardant treatment is a kind of technology, which can convert combustible wood into flame retardant materials. The main method of this kind of transformation is adding chemical substances to wood. The flame retardant wood not only has the fire retardant performance, but also retains the original excellent properties of wood. The ideal wood flame retardant should have the following characteristics: high potency, nontoxic, no environmental effect during use, durable, without heat and light decomposition, not easy to hydrolysis and breach, good dimensional stability of wood after fire retardant treatment, not affected by wood physical and mechanical properties, low cost, rich source and easy to use. The flame retardants can be divided into two types of nonbulgy and intumescent, including, specifically, phosphorus, borate, phenolic, halogenated, nitrogen, halogen-phenolic and FRW flame retardant.
The efficacy of fire retardant treatment depends not only on the flame retardant performance and usage, but is also related to the distribution of flame retardant in wood. Therefore it is important to select a suitable processing technology, which can improve the flame retardant performance and does not damage the physical and mechanical properties of wood.
Flame retardant treatment used to coat a wood surface or penetrate it into the wood to achieve specific properties mainly include dipping, coating, spray, cover, hot pressing, ultrasonic wave assistance and a high energy injection method. The most common treatment is infusion that injects flame retardant solution into wood at atmospheric pressure, vacuum pressure or the combination of several pressure conditions. The pressure impregnation has a good effect; first the wood is placed in a high pressure tank and is vacuumed to pull out the gas inside the wood, then flame retardantliquid is released under the vacuum and pressurized into the wood interior.
Treating wood with flame retardant solution is a complex process, which is due to the complicated structure of the wood, especially the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the structure. The efficacy of the treatment depends on the absorption of the reagent, depth of injection and distribution of the flame retardant in the wood. For a particular flame retardant, usually the more uniform distribution of flame retardant, the better the treatment effect. The depth of the flame retardant into the wood depends on the actual situation of requirements; the general penetration depth of 5∼7 mm can meet the requirements of the flame retardant performance in most cases. The key is to solve the problem of how to make flame retardantuniformly and get a certain depth distributed in the wood-based material.
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Applications of halogen flame retardants
Pierre Georlette, in Fire Retardant Materials, 2001
8.1 Introduction
Flame-retardants, by far the largest group of plastics additives, are playing a major role in the plastics industry by improving life safety. In 1997, some $US 2.2 billion of flame retardants were consumed accounting for 27% of the plastics additives market (Fig. 8.1).

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Fig. 8.1. Worldwide plastic additives. Market distribution ($8.5 bn 1997)
The rapid development of plastics applications in the electronic, building and automotive industries is very demanding with regard to properties and cost. Between 150 and 200 flame retardants have been designed to cover most of the requirements of the market. They are mainly based on halogen (bromine and chlorine), phosphorus, inorganics and melamine compounds. Among them brominated flame retardants are known for their very efficient role in saving lives and goods due to their optimal combination of properties. They are the main players in the market with around 39% of its share (Fig. 8.2).

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Fig. 8.2. Major families of FRs (Value $2.2 bn 1997)
Chemical names, structures, physical properties and major applications of the most important halogenated fire retardants are given in Table 8.1.
Table 8.1. Part I: properties and main applications of halogenated flame retardants
Chemical name Chemical structure Tradename Halogen content % Melting/soft. range °C TGAa5% weight loss °C Main applications
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) FR-1206 (DSBG) CD-75P (GLCC) HBCD (Albemarle) 74.7 (Br) 175-197 230 EPS-XPSb& textiles
Tribromophenol allyl ether PHE-65 (GLCC) 64.2 (Br) 74-76 154 EPS-XPS
Tetrabromobisphenol A bis (allyl ether) BE-51 (GLCC) 51.2 (Br) 115-120 238 XPS
Part II
Brominated indan (Br indan) FR-1808 (DSBG) 73 (Br) 240-255 325 HIPS, ABS, PE, polyamide
Brominatedepoxy oligomers (BEOs) F-2016 (DSBG) 49-51 (Br) 105-115 340 ABS & PC/ABS alloys
Modified brominated epoxy oligomers (MBEOs) F-3000 series (DSBG) 56 (Br) 113-127 360 HIPS, ABS & phenolic laminates
Part III
Decabromodiphenyl oxide (DECA) FR-1210 (DSBG) DE-83 (GLCC) Saytex 102 (Albemarle) 83 (Br) 305 min. 362 HIPS, PE, PP, PBT, polyamide 6 epoxy & textiles
Proprietary Saytex 8010 (Albemarle) 82 (Br) 380 nab HIPS, ABS, PE, PBT & polyamides
Octabromodiphenyl oxide (OCTA) FR-1208 (DSBG) DE-79 (GLCC) 79 (Br) 70-150 304 HIPS & ABS
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA) FR-1524 (DSBG) BA-59P (GLCC) RB-100 (Albemarle) 58.5 (Br) 181 305 Epoxy laminates, ABS & FR intermediates
Part IV
Ethylenebistetrabromophthalimide BT-93 (Albemarle) 67.2 (Br) 450-455 442 HIPS, PE, PBT
Bis (tribromophenoxy) ethane FF-680 (GLCC) 70 (Br) 223-228 290 ABS
Tris(tribromophenyl) cyanurate SR-245 (DKS) & FR-245 (DSBG) 67 (Br) 230 385 HIPS & ABS
Chlorinated paraffin Chlorez 760 et al 74 (Cl) 160 nab PVC, PE & HIPS
Part V
Brominated polystyrene Pyrocheck 68 PB (Ferro) HP-7010 (Albemarle) 67 (Br) 240-260 360 PBT & polyamides
Phenoxy-terminated carbonate oligomer of TBBA BC-52 & 58 (GLCC) FG 7/8000 series (Teijin) 51 & 58 resp. (Br) 210-230 & 230-260 resp. 430 PBT & PC
Poly (pentabromobenzyl acrylate) FR-1025 (DSBG) 70 (Br) 190-220 345 PBT, polyamides & HIPS
Part VI
High MW Brominated epoxy F-2000 series (DSBG) 51-54 (Br) 130-155 344 PBT, polyamides & PC alloys
Dodecachloropentacyclo octadeca-7,15 diene Dechlorane plus (Oxy) 65 (Cl) 350 320 Polyamides & polyolefins
Poly-(dibromostyrene) PDBS-80 (GLCC) 59 (Br) 210-230 381 Polyamides & PBT/PET
Part VII
Poly-dibromophenylene oxide PO-64P (GLCC) 62 (Br) 210-240 400 Polyamides
Bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) of TBBA PE-68 (GLCC) FG-3100 (Teijin) SR-720 (DKS) FR-720 (DSBG) HP-800 (Albemarle) 68 (Br) 90-105 310 PP & HIPS
Tris(tribromoneopentyl) phosphate CR-900 (Daihachi) FR-370 (DSBG) 70 (Br)
3 (P) 181 309 PP & HIPS
Part VIII
Tris-2,3-dibromopropyl-iso cyanurate TAIC-6B (Asahi Glass) 65 (Br) 107 316 PP
Ethylene bis-dibromonorbornane dicarboximide BN-451 (Albemarle) 45 (Br) 294 307 PP
Stabilised hexabromocyclododecane FR-1206 HT(DSBG) SP-75 (GLCC) 56-72 (Br) 150-197 > 250 PP & × PS HIPS
Part IX
Dibromoneopentyl glycol FR-522 (DSBG) 61 (Br) 109.5 225 Unsaturated polyester & PUR
Tribromoneopentyl alcohol FR-513 (DSBG) 73.8 (Br) 65 180 PUR & FR intermediate
Tetrabromophthalic anhydride PHT4 (GLCC) RB-49 (Albemarle) 68.2 (Br) 270-276 250 Unsaturated polyester & FR intermediate
Part X
Tetrabromophthalate diol PHT4-DIOL (GLCC) RB-79 (Albemarle) 46 (Br) Liquid 188 PUR
Pentabromodiphenyl oxide DE-71 (GLCC) 70.8 (Br) Liquid 243 PUR, phenolic laminates & rubbers
Chlorendic anhydride HET Acid (Oxy) 54.7 (Cl) 208-210 nab Unsaturated polyester
Halogenated polyetherpolyol Proprietary Ixol (Solvay) 32 (Br) 6.5 (Cl) 1.1 (P) Liquid nab PUR
Ammonium bromide NH4Br FR-11 (DSBG) 81.6 (Br) 452 (Sublimes) nab Wood treatment
a
Thermogravimetric analysis under air, 10 °C per minute.
b
Expanded and extruded polystyrene foams.
b
Non available.
b
Not available.
Since the early nineteen nineties,‘Green' parties in some European countries have been investing considerable effort to limit as much as possible the uses of halogenated flame retardants, particularly those based on diphenyl oxide (DPO) claiming that they may be a source of toxic fumes under fire conditions or during incineration. Consequently some producers of electronic goods have started to offer products with non-halogen flame retardants or even without flame-retardant which still satisfy the lower standards of flame retardancy presently applied in Europe. Since then in some European countries an increase in the number of fires has been observed.1
Conscious of the danger of such a trend, fire experts, fire brigades and the major producers of halogenated flame retardants have started to inform the relevant authorities and the consumers more systematically about the safety of using commercial halogenated flame retardants offered in the market. Though not as well-known, improvement of fire safety by use of halogenated flame retardants is also an important factor in protecting the environment as it reduces the production of considerable quantities of toxic smoke.2
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Halogen-free flame retardants
Y.-Z. Wang, in Advances in Fire Retardant Materials, 2008
4.2.1 Lower flame-retardant efficiency
The efficiency of flame retardants varies with different polymers and some bromine-containing compounds especially are very efficient flame retardants for the most flammable polymers such as the polyolefins in which only about 10 wt% of flame retardant can impart high levels in polyethylene or polypropylene, e.g. UL-94 V-0 ratings and LOI values of 30 or more. However, the same flame-retardant level can only be achieved by adding much more than 10 wt% of halogen-free flame retardants, and typically, 30-50 wt% of flame retardants have to be added, especially for inorganic flame retardants. Improved flame-retardant efficiency in polyolefins is provided by use of intumescent flame-retardant (IFR) additives.1-4A typical example is from the work by Wang et al.:5 a flame retardant(ER) based on the esterification of melamine phosphate (MP) and pentaerythritol (PER) can impart good flame retardancy and non-dripping to polyethylene (PE) by combining with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) via a reactive extrusion technology.
Another example is the flame retardation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) in which an acceptable flame-retardant effect can be achieved by adding 60 wt% of alumina trihydrate (ATH) although only 20 wt% or less of halogen-containing flame retardantscan obtain the same flame retardant results6 and it is very evident that different flame-retardant mechanisms occur in this system.
The generally low flame-retardant efficiencies of replacements will give rise to increases of cost and to the deterioration of mechanical properties of flame-retardant polymer materials as greater concentrations of flame retardants have to be added in order to obtain an acceptable flame-retardant effect.
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Flame-retardant finishes
W.D. Schindler, P.J. Hauser, in Chemical Finishing of Textiles, 2004
8.1 Introduction
Flame-retardant finishes provide textiles with an important performance characteristic. Protection of consumers from unsafe apparel is only one area where flame retardancy is needed. Firefighters and emergency personnel require protection from flames as they go about their duties. Floor coverings, upholstery and drapery also need protection, especially when used in public buildings. The military and the airline industry have multiple needs for flame-retardant textiles.
The requirements for a commercially successful flame-retardant textile product have been given1 as meeting flammability requirements: having little or no adverse effect on the textile's physical properties; retaining the textile's aesthetics and physiological properties; being produced by a simple process with conventional equipment and inexpensive chemicals; and being durable to repeated home launderings, tumble dryings and dry cleaning. It has been possible to meet these requirements for many textile products since before 19831 and our society enjoys a safer environment as a result. Progress is continuing in this field and recent reviews have highlighted advances in the understanding and chemistry of flame retardants,2,3 but progress has been relatively slow and the advances quite minor and specialised. Two excellent reviews have appeared1,4 and should be required reading for those wishing to have a comprehensive understanding of treatment with flame-retardant finishes. This chapter will cover the same ground in a much more general way.
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Emerging and Persistent Environmental Compound Analysis
Frank L. Dorman, Eric J. Reiner, in Gas Chromatography, 2012
28.5 Halogenated Flame Retardants
Flame retardants have been used for thousands of years [32]. Halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) have been used since the 1960s mainly because they are significantly more compatible with the many polymeric materials we use today and are much better at causing charring and reducing smoke which allows more time for escape [33,34]. Hundreds of different brominated and chlorinated flame retardants have been developed and are being detected in the environment. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are the most commonly known and widely used HFRs and along with the hexabromobiphenyls are the only HFRs currently on the Stockholm Convention list. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenyl-A (TBBPA) are also high-production-volume brominated flame retardants (BFRs) used in numerous applications. There are also a number of chlorinated flame retardants including dechlorane plus (DP) and other dechloranes developed for specific polymer uses such as electrical cabling. A number of the more common halogenated flame retardants and their applications are shown in Table 28.8.
The properties that make halogenated flame retardants very good at retarding flames also make them a real challenge to analyze. Most HFRs readily decompose during the analytical process as they have been designed to easily release a radical halogen that combines with the radicals formed in the pre-ignition stage of combustion. Analytical methods must therefore be designed to minimize the exposure to elevated temperatures, which can be a real problem for GC analysis. Surprisingly enough, most HFRs have a significant vapor pressure and can be analyzed using lower temperatures (<300 °C) and shorter GC columns. Most HFRs are also light sensitive and care must be taken to reduce exposure to light during the analytical process to minimize dehalogenation. In addition, many of the HFRs are present in building materials, furniture, and electronic equipment present in the laboratory. Great care must be taken to minimize exposure to dust, as levels of HFRs in dust can be high and a significant source of contamination.
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Halogen free flame retardants
Applications
Flame retardants are substances or compounds that are added to other materials, such as plastics, coatings and textiles to prevent or delat the the spread of fire. The first applications of flame retardants predate the Gregorian calendar. Egyptians soaked wood in alum (potassium aluminium sulphate) around 450 B.C. and timbers were painted with vinegar arounsd 360 B.C. to increase their resistance to fire. Since then, many other materials have been used as flame retardants including clay, hair and gypsum. In 1735, Obadiah Wilde received British patent 551 for his mixture of alum, borax (sodium borate) and ferrous sulphate, which he used to improve the flame retardancy of paper and textile. His invention was first applied to improve safety of canvas used in theatres and public buildings.
Today, global demand for flame retardants has exceeded 2 million tons per year. A major part of this demand comes from the global plastic industries. Since all carbon-based materials are combustible, and the use of plastics is so widespread, there is a need to decrease the risk of fire related accidents. If it is not possible to select a polymer that is inherently flame retardant (e.g. polyamide), adding a flame retardant is a solution. The flame retardant can be mixed with the base material or chemically bonded to it. Broadly speaking, flame retardants can be devided in three groups, (1) inorganic or mineral flame retardants and (2) halogenated compounds. While the performance of halogenated flame retardance is excellent, many of these chemicals are associated with health and environmental problems. As a result, several brominated and chlorinated flame retardants have been banned in the past. Examples of banned compounds include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and Decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE).
Companies looking for less toxic products, often try to make changes to the articles materials and design or to select safer (inorganic) chemicals. Examples of such chemicals include aluminium trihydroxide (ATH), a mixture of huntitite and hydromagnesite and magnesium (di)hydroxide (MDH). These mineral flame retardants are non-toxic and work by decomposing endothermically. This means that at a certain temperature, the compounds fall apart thereby adsorbing heat and releasing water vapor. The oxides that are formed results in a protective layer that provides a smoke suppressing effect. Despite the obvious advantages of mineral flame retardants, it is not always possible to replace halogenated flame retadants. To reach flammability standards in demanding applications, mineral flame retardants need to be added in very high dosage levels (up to 80 w/w%).
If the use of mineral flame retardants is feasible, the most suitable compound is often selected based on its decomposition temperature. Aluminum Trioxide is generally cheaper than Magnesium Hydroxide, but starts to decompose at 180 oC making it unsuitable for thermoplastics like polypropylene which are molded at 200 oC. For these materials, magnesium hydroxide is often selected based on its stability up to 340 oC.
Flame retardants do appear to present a threat to health, and may potentially do more harm than good in a fire. A British study presented at the March 2012 national meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS) showed that flame retardants increase the danger of invisible toxic gases, the leading cause of death in fires. The study found that today's most widely used products contain the hazardous chemical element bromine, and that they actually increase amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide released
As for effects on human health even when there is no fire, a 2014 study conducted by the nonprofit, Washington D.C.-based Environmental Working Group and researchers at Duke University found evidence of exposure to TDCIPP, a cancer-causing flame retardant, in the bodies of all 22 mothers and 26 children tested. In the children, the average concentration of a chemical biomarker remaining after the breakdown of TDCIPP was nearly five times more than the average concentration in the mothers.
Young children are particularly susceptible to the toxicity of flame retardant chemicals. They can ingest significantly more of these chemicals than adults because they crawl around on floors, then put their hands and other objects into their mouths.
What's more, flame retardants known collectively as "Tris" are used in baby products, furniture, automotive foam cushioning, strollers, nursing pillows, televisions, computers, adhesives, upholstery, carpet backing, rubber, plastics, paints, and varnishes. They have been linked to cancer and can harm the liver, kidney, brain, and testes. The U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission has classified one of the chemicals in this group, TDCP - Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl phosphate) - as a probable human carcinogen; another, TCEP - Tris (2-chloroethyl phosphate) - has been shown to cause neurological and reproductive harm in laboratory animals as well as cancer. TDCP and TCEP have been found in drinking water and in water samples from streams throughout the U.S.
Here are some other recent findings:
•Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley found that each 10-fold increase in levels of various brominated flame retardants in an expectant mother's blood was associated with a 4.1 ounce drop in her baby's birth weight.
•BVO (brominated vegetable oil) is a flame retardant that is also used in sodas to help dissolve its colors and flavors, and to prolong shelf life. The compound is banned in food and drinks throughout Europe and in Japan but has been used for years in citrus-flavored sodas in the U.S. In response to consumer pressure, both Coca-Cola and Pepsico have announced that they are removing BVO from all their drinks. The FDA had limited amounts to 15 parts per million, but the compound accumulates in the heart, liver and fat tissue and has been linked to memory loss and skin and nerve problems in people who have consumed excessive amounts (more than two liters a day).
•Fire retardant chemicals called polybrominated diphenyl ethers, or PBDEs are being phased out because they persist and accumulate in the environment, have been found to be toxic to humans, and are associated with neurodevelopmental problems in children and altered thyroid function in pregnant women. According to the EWG-Duke study, PBDE replacements, TDCIPP and Firemaster® 550, have been linked with hormone level changes and decreased semen quality in men that might affect fertility.
The study authors called for a federal government ban on use of fire retardant chemicals in products intended for babies and children, a requirement that furniture manufacturers label their products and disclose which specific fire retardant chemicals are present, and reform of federal policies requiring toxicity testing before chemicals are sold in the U.S.
I support these efforts and encourage consumers to make their concerns known.
flame retardant
Flame retardants (FRs) are chemical compounds added to or otherwise incorporated into plastic compounds to provide varying degrees of flammability protection.
From: Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials (Second Edition), 2012

Related terms:
•Smoke
•Temperature
•Additives
•Polyesters
•resin
•Textiles
•Flame Retardancy
•Polymer
•Homopolymer
•Property Value

The Fight Against Flame Retardants
Thanks to a long-overdue regulatory update and a new labeling law, shoppers can finally find safer furniture.
January 18, 2016 Alexandra Zissu
Updated October 2, 2018
Shopping for a new couch? Until 2013, it was surprisingly difficult to find sofas that weren't filled with toxic chemicals. Wait a second, you're probably wondering. Does that mean my current couch, the one my family lounges all over, is filled with toxic chemicals? If it was purchased before 2013 and isn't a total antique, there's a good chance that yes, it is.
These chemicals are known as flame retardants, and theoretically they're there to protect you. The whole truth, though, is much more convoluted. The fight against these chemicals has centered on changing an outdated and ineffective rule in California-a state so big that its standards dictate the market. (After all, companies don't make different couches for different states.) Here's the whole story about how upholstered furniture is slowly but steadily becoming safer, and what you should know before shopping today.
The truth about flame retardants
In 1975, California passed a regulation called Technical Bulletin 117, or TB 117, which effectively required all upholstered furniture sold within the state to contain flame-retardant chemicals. Oddly, the law required that foam inside upholstered items to withstand a flame for 12 seconds (odd because items generally catch fire on the outside first-and 12 seconds does not provide much protection). And, according to tests by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission and other groups, the chemicals weren't even that effective against fires when added to furniture.
Along with having dubious merit, these chemicals have been linked to cancer, reduced IQ, and hyperactivity. During manufacture, use, and disposal, they also contaminate our air and water. Because of these concerns, a coalition of California-based groups-including NRDC-spent years pushing for new standards that would allow manufacturers to maintain fire safety without toxic chemicals.
For a long while, the coalition's various legislative efforts were defeated, largely due to heavy lobbying from the chemical industry. But at the end of 2013, after working with the Brown administration to rework the fire-safety regulation, TB 117 was finally updated. (New name: TB 117-2013.) The revised standard addresses the fire resistance of materials covering the outside of upholstered furniture-and this can be accomplished using blends of nontoxic, naturally smolder-proof materials like wool and leather or by manufacturing techniques that rely on specific weights, weaves, and blends of fibers like cotton and synthetics rather than flame-retardant chemicals.
As for that interior foam? Flame retardant-free versions are now legal in California, so manufacturers are now increasingly making and selling furniture that meets the updated flame-resistant standards without the use of toxic flame-retardant chemicals.
What You Need to Know about Flame Retardants
Children with a genetic predisposition might be vulnerable to the effects of chemicals found in furniture and electronics
Expectant parents have a lot on their mind these days. If the nightly news is to be trusted, dangerous pollutants lurk in our food, water and furniture, just waiting to invade a pregnant mom's body and harm the developing fetus. The early stages of brain development are indeed uniquely vulnerable to interference from foreign substances-prenatal exposure to many of these chemicals has been linked with lower IQ, behavior problems and mental disorders in kids. Yet the actual risk to a given individual varies widely and is often much lower than the headlines might lead you to believe. Scientific American Mind examined the research to date, as scientific understanding of the effects of environmental pollutants continues to grow.
Flame retardants are a scary business: they have been tied to lower IQs, slowed cognitive development and undescended testes in young boys. Now research has linked prenatal exposure to a certain type of flame retardant to Rett syndrome, a disorder on the autistic spectrum-but scientists suspect that the chemicals may be most harmful to children who have other factors working against them.
Over the past 25 years, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in a wide range of consumer goods you probably already have in your home: textiles, mattresses, carpets, furniture and electronics. Once they're in your home, they tend to shed into house dust, which then gets picked up on your hands and clothes and breathed in through your lungs. Although we are still figuring out just what PBDEs do to the human body-and at what doses-there are some things we already know. For example, we know that they disrupt the body's use and regulation of thyroid hormones. These hormones are critical for brain development in the womb and early childhood. PBDEs also have an unfortunate knack for sticking around in the environment, our food supply and in our body-particularly fatty tissue, including the brain, which is 60 percent lipids. For that reason, the Environmental Protection Agency now classifies PBDEs as persistent organic pollutants.
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A wide array of research during the past few years has shown that PBDEs and their metabolites-what is left over when they break down in the body-are generally bad news. For example, as scientists in Seattle and Beijing discovered in 2013, PBDE-47 interferes with new neuron growth in adults-a process important for learning and memory. Developmental effects, however, are even more significant. Environmental health scientist Julie Herbstman of Columbia University found that children of mothers with higher concentrations of PBDEs in their umbilical cord blood scored lower on mental development tests in early childhood.
But perhaps the most damning evidence against PBDEs is their possible role in autism. For the past few years Janine LaSalle, a microbiologist at the MIND Institute at the University of California, Davis, has been investigating how persistent organic pollutants, including PBDEs, may influence fetal neurodevelopment at the molecular level. When she and her team looked at brain slices from adults, some of whom had autism, they found that persistent organic pollutants, including PBDEs, were present in brain tissue in every sample. They were especially concentrated in the brains of people who had certain types of autism-types known to have significant genetic factors.
LaSalle also tested the effects of PBDEs on pregnant rats specially bred with the genetic mutation associated with Rett syndrome, which involves a lack of verbal ability, repetitive compulsive movements, and physical deformities such as small hands and head. In rats that received daily doses of PBDEs comparable with common human exposure, the female pups had social and behavioral deficits we usually associate with human autism. The gender outcome makes sense: unlike most autistic spectrum patients, where males outnumber females four to one, the vast majority of children with Rett syndrome are girls.
LaSalle thinks the mechanism involved is DNA methylation. Layered over every strand of DNA in all our cells, chemicals called methyl groups influence how our genes are expressed-for instance, turning on genes that build neurons in the brain and turning off those genes elsewhere in the developing body. LaSalle's evidence shows that the brains of people with autism are significantly undermethylated, as were the brains of the rat pups whose mothers had been exposed to levels of PBDEs similar to average human exposure.
If PBDEs are messing with neuronal DNA methylation, that is very worrying. But here is the good news: LaSalle thinks methylation in fetal development works as a kind of "sink"-only if you have enough factors going wrong will the sink overflow and normal brain development be affected [see box below]. For instance, if a pregnant woman happens to be vulnerable to Rett because she carries a rare genetic mutation, and she has significant exposure to PBDEs, and perhaps she does not have enough folic acid or some other detrimental factor, she might end up with a child who has Rett syndrome.

But most of us do not carry the rare mutation in question. Thus, as LaSalle warned an audience at the 2013 annual conference of the Organization for the Study of Sexual Differences, we should not think of PBDEs as a "smoking gun" for autism. They are one possible environmental influence, played out in a complex relation between genetics and environment at a critical stage of fetal development. Happily, the vast majority of our kids are probably going to be just fine. But to be on the safe side, it is probably worth following these tips to reduce PBDE exposure: dust your shelves more regularly with a wet cloth, clean your floors with a wet mop, and wash your hands before you cook and eat. Keep your body fat in check because persistent organic pollutants tend to accumulate in lipids, and take a walk outside when you can-getting out to exercise does double duty because there is no house dust in the park.
One last thing for expecting mothers: a recent paper from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Duke University indicates that biting your nails and licking your fingers is also correlated with more PBDEs in your blood serum, perhaps because of house dust on your hands. So don't nervously bite your nails, even if you might want to-you know, because of the PBDEs.

TCPP,
çinko borat
poliüretan
PVC
yanmazlık
duman bastırıcı
zinc borate
polyurethane
PVC
flame retardant
smoke suppressant
Son yıllarda plastiklerde yanmazlık sağlayıcı maddelerdeki tercih halojensiz ve antimuansız alev geciktiricilere doğru oldu. Bütün bilinen geleneksel yanmazlık sağlayıcı maddeler içinde çinko borat en iyi aday olarak gösterilebilir. Çinko boratın alev geciktirici olarak çalışma sistemi çok iyi bilinemese de, en iyi sonuçların ATH ve çinko boratın sinerjisinden doğduğu söylenebilir. Bu da bize çinko boratın ilerleyen yıllarda yanmazlıkla ilgili konularda çok daha ön planda olacağının bir göstergesidir. Bu çalışmada flexible PVC için yanmazlık çalışmaları çinko borat, ATH ve hidro talsit gibi madde lelerle gerçekleştirildi. Yanmazlık değerleriyle ilgili en iyi sonuçlar çinko boratın karışımda ağırlıkça %18 ve ATH'nin de ağırlıkça %18 oranında kullanılmasıyla elde edildi. Aynı şekilde rijit Poliüretanın yanmazlığı için de çinko borat, modifiye çinko borat, ATH, TCPP ve sentetik boratlar kullanıldı. Yanmazlık etkisi ancak yüksek miktarlarda alev geciktiricilerin kullanılmasıyla elde edildi. En iyi sonuç çinko boratın ağırlıkça %10, ATH'nin ağırlıkça %40 ve TKP'nin ağırlıkça %8 kullanılmasıyla sağlandı.
In recent years, trend for fire retardancy of plastics is towards non-halogen and non-antimuan compounds due to their hazardous effect. Among all-known traditional fire retardants, the best candidate for fire retardancy is zinc borate. Though the fire retardance mechanism of zinc borate is not very well-known, the synergy of zinc borate and ATH mixture gives the best results thus it can be seen that this fire retardant will be an important player in future's flame retardants world. In this thesis a mixture of zinc borate, and other fire retardants such as Aluminium trihydrate, hidro talcide were used for fire retardant material in flexible PVC. And fire retardance effect was obtained using zinc borate at 8% and ATH 18% by weight. Similarly in rigid Polyurethane, fire retardance effect of zinc borate and modified zinc borate, in the presence of aluminium trihydrate, TCPP, synthetic borates was studied. Fire retardant effect of them could only be achieved at high percentage addition. Best result was obtained when using zinc borate 10%, ATH 40% and TCP 8%.


Yangın emniyeti aktif veya pasif yangın koruma yöntemleriyle sağlanabilir. Pasif yangın koruması yüksek yangın performansı gösteren malzemeler kullanmayı içerir, bu suretle ya tutuşma olasılığı azaltılır veya eğer tutuşma meydana gelirse yangın sonucunda oluşan hasarın derecesi en aza indirilmiş olur. Alev geciktiriciler de pasif yangın koruması sağlamanın bir başka yöntemidir.
Yangın güvenliğinin önemli olduğu bir yerde uygulamalarda yanıcı bir madde (genellikle polimer) kullanıldığında malzemeden kaynaklanan esas yangın güvenliği eksikliği pasif yangın korumasına bağlanmalıdır. Bu konuda dört yaklaşım vardır ve bunlardan ikisi alev geciktiricileri içerir.
•Alev tutucu ilave edilmesi (yani alev geciktirici katkı maddesi ilave edilmesi),
•Malzemenin faklı türlerinin senteziyle daha iyi yangın performansı olan ürünler elde edilmesi (yani, reaktif alev geciktirici kullanılarak),
•Malzemeyi yangın performansı daha iyi olan başka malzemelerle harman yaparak yada birleştirerek,
•Malzemeyi bir koruma içine alarak veya ayırarak olası ısıdan kaynaklanan hasarlara maruz kalmasını önlemek (örneğin, araya bariyer koymak)
Yangın güvenliğinin kritik olduğu tipik uygulamalar içinde kullanıcı ürünleri (kaplı mobilya veya örtüler), elektrik ve elektronik cihazlar (kablo, tel, elektrik panoları, bilgisayar veya cihaz kabinleri) ve inşaat ürünleri (iç son kat boya, izolasyon veya çatı malzemeleri) yer alır.
Bu uygulamaların hepsi için yanmaz malzemeler seçmek mümkündür. Ancak böyle bir seçim söz konusu ürünün normal olarak ya estetiği ya da konforunu etkileyecektir. Örneğin, yanıcı köpükler tipik olarak mobilyalarda konfor ve elastikiyet sağladığı için kumaş kaplama altında yastık olarak kullanılmaktadır. Köpükler çelik veya betonla değiştirilebilir, ancak elde edilecek konfor son derece düşük olacaktır. İç son kat kaplama malzemesi (örneğin, duvar kaplamaları) ağaç veya dekoratif duvar kâğıdı olabilir veya bunlar yerine alçıpan veya beton kullanılabilir ancak bu ikinci seçeneklerin görüntülerinin hoş olmayacağı aşikârdır.
Alev geciktirici malzemeler yanıcı maddelerin içlerine yangın performanslarını iyileştirmek veya yangın testi şartlarını sağlamaları için katılırlar. Birçok çalışma alev geciktiricilerin tutuşabilirliği artırdığını ve/veya alevin yayılmasını azalttığını göstermiştir. Herhangi bir tutuşturma olmazsa yangının olmayacağı aşikârdır; dolayısıyla tutuşmada bir gecikme olması yangın güvenliğini artıracaktır. Buna rağmen, yangın tehlikesi tutuşmanın meydana geldiğini kabul eder ve araştırmalar alev geciktiricilerin faydalı etkisinin ısı çıkışını azaltması olduğunu göstermiştir. Bu ise yangının en önemli özelliklerinden biridir.
Alev Geciktiriciler Nedir?
Alev geciktiriciler yeni bir buluş değildir. 18. Yüzyıldan beri, bazı özel kimyasalların ilave edilmesinin, yangının özelliklerinden bir veya birkaçının gelişmesine yardımcı olduğu bilinmektedir. En eski basılmış örnek de, "alüminyum sülfat, metal sülfat veya sülfürik asit ve boraks" kullanarak tekstil ve kâğıdın yanabilirliğini iyileştirmesini gösteren 1735 Wyld patentidir. Ayni yüzyılda alev geciktirici kaplama Fransa'da Montgolfier kardeşler tarafından bulunan "havadan hafif balonların" kaplamasında kullanıldı. Çok daha öncesinde eski Mısırlılar ve Yunanlılar alum ismi verilen alüminyum esaslı tuz solüsyonlarını savaş zamanlarında ağaçları alev geciktirici olarak kaplamada kullandılar.
Katkı maddesi veya reaktif alev geciktirici yedi kimyasal element polimerlerle birleştirilmiş malzemelerin içinde bulunduklarında, malzemenin yangın performansının artmasına en büyük etkiyi yaparlar. Bunlar, bromür, klor, azot, alüminyum, antimon ve bordur. Alev geciktirici kimyasallar (daha geniş deyimiyle alev geciktiriciler) genellikle bu kimyasal elementlerin bir veya daha fazlasını içerir ve bunların etkinliği de esas olarak alev geciktiricide bulunan aktif elemanın fonksiyonudur.
Sinerji (bir başka ifadeyle etkinlikte ayrı ayrı elemanların ilave etkilerinden beklenenin daha ötesinde bir artma, birleşik etki) sıklıkla bu kimyasal elementlerden, birinden fazlasını içeren katkı maddelerinin birleştirilmesiyle meydana gelir. Örneğin, yukarıda belirtilen elementlerden biri olan antimon içeren malzemeler genellikle, alev geciktirme bakımından klor veya brom veya her ikisini de içeren malzemelerle birleştirilmedikçe, hemen hemen hiç etki yapmaz.
Brom ile birleşmiş alev geciktiriciler belki de en etkili olanlardır. Küçük bir parça brom katkısı veya alt malzeme olarak kullanılan polimeri brom ile birleştiren bir reaksiyon sıklıkla yangın performansı üzerine çok belirgin bir etki yapacaktır. Brom ile birleşmiş alev geciktiricilerin en yaygın işlev mekanizması gaz fazda reaksiyona giren ve zincirleme reaksiyonu engellemeyen ısıl sürüklenmedir ve bu sayede yanmayı yayan yanıcı madde ürünlerinin bozulmaları sağlanır. Mekanizma oldukça reaktif serbest radikallerin çok daha az reaktif hale dönüşmelerine neden olur.
Klor ile birleştirilmiş alev geciktiriciler de oldukça etkilidir ve brom ilave edilen alev geciktiriciler gibi çalışırlar. Tipik olarak, gaz fazında yukarıda belirtilen etkiyi yaparak hidrojen klorür bırakacak şekilde malzemeyi bozar. Ancak, klor ilave edilen alev geciktiriciler aynı zamanda yoğun veya katı fazda da bozulma mekanizmasını ve yanma oranını değiştirir.
Klor içeriğinin yangın performansı üzerine faydalı etkisinin en belirgin göstergelerinden biri de temel formüllerinde klor içeren polimerlerin aynı yapıda ancak klor içermeyen polimerlerden daha iyi performans sergilemeleri gerçeğidir. Bunun tipik örneği PVC'dir [polivinil klorit], bu malzeme polietilene [PE] nazaran çok daha az ısı yayar ve çok daha iyi tutuşabilir. PE ve PVC'nin kimyasal yapıları arasındaki temel fark PVC'nin klor içermesidir.
Fosfor içeren alev geciktiriciler, kullanılan malzeme ve polimer alt maddeye bağlı olarak, farklı bir çalışma şekli gösterirler. Yoğun fazda, gaz fazında veya her ikisinde de işlem yaparlar. Fosfor içeren alev geciktiricilerde, yoğun fazda meydana gelen reaksiyonun tipik sonucu kömürleşme oluşumunun artmasıdır, bazı durumlarda şişme diye adlandırılan bir mekanizmayla işlev yapar.
Bu maddelerin alev geciktirici olarak faydaları genellikle halojen (klor veya brom) içeren maddelerle artırılır. Bu bazen, yapısı içinde elemanlardan birden fazla içeren malzeme geliştirilerek veya bir sistem olarak bir seri katkı kullanarak yapılır.
Saf fosfor, kırmızı fosfor, belki de saf element olarak kullanılan tek alev geciktiricidir. Çalışması esas olarak gaz fazındadır ve sinerjiyle güçlü bir şekilde etkisi artırılır.
Kaplama boyasının şişme olayı için, aynı elemanın birden fazla rolü olabilse de, üç eleman gerekir, "carbonific-karbonlaştırıcı" etmen (madde içinde kömürleşme için gerekli karbon hammaddesini sağlar), "spumific_köpük yapıcı" etmen (şişirici gazı sağlar) ve katalizör etmen (genelde amonyum fosfat olan süreci hızlandırır). Başlangıçta malzemenin içinde olan veya sonradan bir organik polimer üzerine kaplanan belli bileşenler, koruyucu bir bariyer oluşturmak için ya parçalara ayrılır ya da yoğun fazda yüksek sıcaklıkta diğer malzemelerle reaksiyona girerler ve burada polimerin parçalara ayrılmasıyla ortaya çıkan gaz nitelikli ürünler oluştuğu gibi tutulur. Yangın ile karşılaştığında şişme yapan kaplama polimer yüzeyde oluştuğu söylenir. Bu yanmayan koruyucu kaplama polimerin yüzeyini kaplar, yanabilen polimeri ısıdan korur ve yanabilen polimerin ısı kaynağından izole edilmesine yardımcı olur ve bu suretle yanabilen bozulma ürünlerinin oluşmasına mani olur (en azından gaz fazına geçmelerine mani olur). Aynı zamanda gaz haldeki oksit yapıcı maddeyi de (normal olarak hava veya oksijen) polimerin yüzeyinden izole eder. Alternatif bir işlem olarak da polimerin yüzeyine doğrudan yanmayan tabaka uygulanması bu kez kabarma yapmayan kaplama oluşturur.
Azot içeren malzemeler alev geciktirici olarak kendi başlarına nadiren kullanılırlar ancak azot içeren bazı polimerler (aromatik polimerler, yün veya ipek gibi doğal malzemeler) yapılarında doğal olarak gelişmiş alev performansı sergilerler. Azot içeren malzemelerin en yaygın kombinasyonları genellikle aynı molekül içinde fosfor veya sülfür içeren maddelerledir. Bu maddelerin yangın geciktirici olarak çalışmasının bir mekanizması azot içeren gazlar yaymalarıdır. Bu gazlar buhar fazını seyreltir veya soğutur, bu şekilde yanma reaksiyonlarını yavaşlatır. Azot içeren alev geciktirme sistemleri aynı zamanda şişme yapan kaplama malzemelerinin bir parçası da olabilirler.
Alümina (Alüminyum Oksit Al2O3) en yaygın olarak kullanılan alev geciktiricidir, tipik olarak su ile karıştırılmış malzemedir (veya alüminyum hidroksit). Isıl işlem ile su atacak şekilde bozulmaya uğrar daha sonra soğur ve buhar fazını seyreltir ve yanmayı çok zor hale getirir. Aynı zamanda dolgu malzemesi olarak da çalışarak yanıcı malzemelerin miktarını azaltır. Çalışması esas olarak fizikseldir ve genellikle etkini olması için çok büyük miktarda kullanılması gerekir. Sulandırılmış alüminayla benzer faaliyet magnezyum hidroksitle sağlanır ancak bu malzemede bozulma (parçalara ayrılma) sulandırılmış alüminadan daha yüksek sıcaklıklarda meydana gelir.
Antimon esas olarak antimon oksit olarak kullanılır ve halojen malzemelerle (klor veya brom) birlikte kullanıldığında oldukça etkilidir. Aktivitesi esas olarak gaz fazında meydana gelir ve halojen katkı maddelerince meydana getirilen serbest radikallerin süpürülme işlemini artırır.
Brom esas olarak ya antimon oksit (çinko borat) yerine, tekstil gibi selülozik malzemelerle veya gevşek dolgu izolasyonunda (boraks veya boraks/borik asit karışımı) kullanılır. Çalışma mekanizması genellikle yoğun fazın üzerinde donuk kalıntılar oluşumu kombinasyonu, kömürleşmenin artması ve gaz fazında ise su buharı salma şeklinde olur. Brom 19. yüzyıldan beri kullanılmaktadır.
Yangın performansının artırılması için, sınırlı sayıda, birçok maddeler ilave edilebilir. Tipik örnekler, magnezyum, sülfür (özellikle amonyum tuzları) ve teneke (hidroksi stanat veya çinko hidroksi stanat).
Ancak her alev geciktirme sistemi (ve modern sistemler birçok eleman içerebilir) belli bir polimer sistemi ve özel bir uygulama için faydalı olacaktır. Bu nedenle eğer bir alev geciktirme sistemi belli bir kullanım için olan polimer üzerinde çok etkiliyse aynı polimerin başka bir maksat için kullanılması veya aynı amaç için başka bir polimerin kullanılması halinde o kadar etkin olmayabilir. Alev geciktirme sistemleri, malzemeye, son kullanıcının kullanma amacına ve yangın emniyeti gereksinimlerine göre düzenlenmelidir.
Alev Geciktiriciler Ne Yapar?
Alev geciktiriciler anahtar konumdaki tutuşabilirlik, alev yayılması ve yanarak tükenme gibi her yangın özelliği üzerine olumlu etki yapar. Bu etkilerin hepsinin her olayda aynı anda gerçekleşmesi söz konusu değildir. Uygun alev geciktirme sisteminin gerçek kullanım alanında çok iyi bilinen ürünlerle beraber görülen bazı örnekleri son derece iyi sergilenmektedir ve hatta yönetmelik ve uygulama kuralları içine dâhil edilmişlerdir. Belli bir alev geciktiriciyi belli bir uygulamaya tahsis etmek imkânsızdır zira çeşitli uygulamalarda birçok farklı alev geciktiriciler veya tersi olarak çeşitli alev geciktiriciler birçok farklı uygulamada kullanılabilir.
Ahşap, yangın geciktirici olarak işlenmiş ağaç (YGOİA) elde etmek için, alev geciktiricilerle işleme alındığında çok farklı davranış gösterebilir. Standart ahşap paneller 7 ila 200 arasında alev yayma indeksi (ASTM E84 testinde) olan davranış sergilerler. Buna karşılık Alev Yayma İndeksi 25'in altında olan YGOİA paneller birçok uygulamada standart ahşap panellere nazaran tercih edilmektedir.
Son ısı çıkartma çalışması gerek düşük gerekse orta yoğunluktaki yonga levhaların en üst noktada ısı çıkartma oranlarının [konik kalorimetreyle] alev geciktirildiğinde azaldığını göstermiştir. Benzer sonuçlar karaçamda ve ısıl işlem görmüş çamda da mevcuttur. İncelenen her durumda işlenmiş ahşap malzeme aynı zamanda çok daha az tutuşabilir bulunmuştur.
Selüloz gevşek dolgu, oldukça zayıf bir yangın performansı göstermesine rağmen, çatı altlarının izolasyonu için kullanılır. Yönetmelik ve mevzuat ürünün bir kritik radyant akıyı karşılamasını olasını şart koşmaktadır. Bu yangın performansı sadece selüloz gevşek dolgu malzemesi genellikle brom malzemelerle olmak üzere alev geciktiricilerde işlenirse sağlanabilir.
Tavan aralarına yerleştirilen kabloların Ulusal Elektrik Yönergesi (National Electrical CodeNEC) gereğince yanmaz kablo kanalları içinde olması gerekmektedir. 1970'lerde yangın tehlikesi değerlendirmeleri kabloların, uygulama için tasarlanan özel yangın testinde alev yayılması ve duman çıkartma şartlarını karşılaması halinde, tavan aralarında herhangi bir kanal kullanmadan emniyetli olabileceğini göstermekteydi.
Bu şart NEC'nin içine dahil edildikten sonra tavan arası kablo izolasyonları ve ceket kılıf malzemeleri için uygun yangın performansının alev geciktirici ile işlenmiş malzemeyle (genellikle birden fazla katkı sistemleriyle) sağlanabileceği anlaşılmıştır. Bu kablolardaki malzemelerde ve kabloların kendileri üzerinde küçük ölçekli ve orta ölçekli ısı çıkartma testleri yapılmıştır. Testler alev geciktirici maddelerle işlenmiş olanlarda işlem görmemiş olanlara nazaran alev yayılması ve ısı çıkartmada belirgin olarak düşme göstermiştir. Bunlar tipik olarak tavan aralarındaki kabloların NEC şartlarını sağlamalarında kullanılan maddelerdir.
İngiltere'de kaplanmış mobilyalarda ve şiltelerde, yataklarda yangın testinin şartlarını sağlamaları için 1980'lerden beri poliüretan köpük kullanılmaktadır. Test, (standart bir kumaşla kaplandığında) köpüğün test minderinin uçlarına alevi sıçratmamasını gerektirmektedir. Poliüretan köpük kullanan mobilya ve şiltelerin büyük bir kısmı İngiltere'de köpük içine alev geciktirici katarak yapılmaktadır.
Konik kalorimetre ile yapılan ısı çıkartma testleri BS 5852 çocuk yatağı 5 şartlarını sağlayan kumaş ve alev geciktirici ile işlenmiş köpüğü olan sistemlerin alev geciktiricili olmayan sistemlere nazaran çok daha düşük ısı çıkartma oranı sergilediklerini göstermiştir. İlave olarak bu sistemlerde tutuşma olmamaktadır, çocuk yatağındaki alev söndüğü anda, yangının durmaktadır.
BS 5852 çocuk yatağı 5 köpüğü içeren gerçek bir kanepeyi (İngiltere'de alınan) alev geciktirici ile işlenmemiş bir kanepeyle (ABD de alınmış) karşılaştıran tam skalalı testler benzer etkiler göstermektedir: İngiltere'den alınan kanepe tutuşmamış, buna karşılık ABD'den alınan kanepe aynı ateşleme kaynağı kullanıldığında tutuşmuş ve söz konusu kanepe içinde bulunduğu kompartımanın (başka bir cisim yoktur) aniden alevlenmesine neden olacak kadar ısı çıkartmıştır.

Bu bağlantıda kaplanmış mobilya parçalarının yanabilirliklerini değerlendirmek için California'da kullanılan, TB 117. isimli test metodundan bahsetmekte yarar vardır. Test 1975'ten beri yürürlüktedir, çıplak köpüğün hafif açık alevle test edilmesidir, poliüretan köpüğün bu testi geçmesi için alev geciktiricilerle işlenmesi gereklidir.
Test birbirine eşit iki kanepe üzerinde yapıldı (kanepelerden biri alev geciktirici içermeyen köpük diğerinde ise CA TB 117 alev geciktiriciyle işlenmiş köpük kullanılmıştı). Test TB 117 köpük kullanılan kanepenin alev geciktiricili köpük kullanılmayan kanepeyi kolaylıkla tutuşturan ateşleme kaynağıyla tutuşmadığını gösterdi. Köpük kullanılan kanepenin tutuşması için çok daha büyük bir ateşleme kaynağına ihtiyaç duyuldu ve tutuşma öncesi epey zaman geçti.
Tutuşma meydana geldikten sonra her iki kanepe de içinde bulundukları kompartımanın aniden alevlenmesine neden oldu. Son çalışma ciddi bir ateşleme kaynağına maruz kalan (her TB 133 için 80 s süreyle 19 kW) üzeri kaplanmış iki mobilya test örneği karşılaştırıldığında, alev geciktirici içeren kumaş ve TB 117 köpük kullanılan koltuğun ateşleme kaynağı kaldırıldığında yanmasının söndüğünü, buna karşılık alev geciktiricili malzeme içermeyen eşdeğer koltuğun tamamen yandığını gösterdi. Aynı zamanda CA TB 117 köpüğün alev geciktirici içermeyen köpüğe nazaran daha az ısı çıkardığı da görüldü.
Sistemin yangın güvenliği için kesin kanıtı ise, ısı çıkışı, ortamın dayanılma durumu veya kaçmak için zaman olup olmadığı gibi parametreler değerlendirilerek, yangın riskinin azaltılıp azaltılmadığıdır. 1988 yılında yapılan bir çalışma alev geciktiricilerin yangın riskini azalttığını göstermiştir.
Bu çalışmada içlerinde alev geciktirici olan ve olmayan ancak bunların dışında birbirleriyle tamamen aynı beş ürün yapılmıştır. Alev geciktirici olarak geliştirilen ürünler yapıldıkları tarihte ticari olarak piyasada bulunan ve yaygın olarak kullanılan ancak yüksek kalite performansı göstermesi beklenen ürünlerdir.
Ürünlerin tümü için verileri analiz etmek maksadıyla, tüm ürün takımları hazırlandı, bir oda-koridor düzeni içinde sıralandı ve 50kW'lık bir brülörün çıkarttığı ısıya maruz bırakıldı. Yapılarında alev geciktirici olan ürünlerde hiç bir alev yayılması bulgusu olmaması için 120kW'lık yardımcı bir brülör kullanılması gerekmiştir. Çalışma uygun alev geciktiriciler seçilmesi halinde yangın ve can güvenliğinin toplam ısı çıkartılmasının 750 MJ'den 250MJ'ye düşürülmesiyle, toksit gaz çıkışının üç faktör azaltılmasıyla ve kütle kaybının yarıya düşürülmesiyle arttırılacağını ve bunun yanında kaçış için verilen sürenin de 113 s'den 1789 s'ye yükseleceğini göstermiştir.
Özet olarak alev geciktirici ürünler oldukça düşlük bir yangın tehlikesi oluşturmaktadır. Yazarlar alev geciktirici ürünlerin her zaman yangın tehlikesini düşürmede etkili olmadığını belirtmiş ve bunun genellikle seçilen sistemin etkili olmaması ve ürünün yapısına katılan alev geciktiricilerin yetersiz seviyede veya uygun olmayan maddeler olmasına bağlı olduğunu belirtmişlerdir.
Örnek olarak, poliolefinden yapılan elektrik kabloları (nispeten zayıf yangın performansı gösterirler) ve kaplama yapılan mobilyalarda kullanılan poliüretan köpüğün TB 117 standardına uyum için kullanımının planlanan köpükten daha iyi performans göstereceği belirtilmiş ve her iki takımda da aynı kumaş (normal alev geciktiricili naylon) kullanıldığı bildirilmiştir.

Polimer malzemelerin yüksek yanabilirlikleri onların kullanımlarını sınırlayan önemli bir faktördür. PVC de kablo, suni deri, inşaat malzemelerinde kullanılabilirler. Alev geciktirici maddeler yangına karşı güvenli kullanım alanları sağlamalarının yanında malzemelere ayrıca çekme eğme mukavemeti, darbe kırılmalarına karşı direnç, akışkanlık, oksijen veya UV ışınlarına direnim, ateşe dayanıklılık gibi özellikleri açısından iyileştirmeleri sağladıkları için gün geçtikçe önem kazanmaktadır. Alev Geciktiriciler fosforlu, halojen içermeyen ve bromlu alev geciktiriciler olarak sınıflandırılabilirler. Salınımları esnasında çevreye yaydıkları zehirli gazlar, solunum yolunu ciddi derecede etkileyebilmektedir ve kana karışması solunan oksijen miktarını bloke ederek ani bayılmalara sebebiyet verir. Tüm bu sebepler nedeniyle birçok Avrupa ülkesinde kullanımı yasaklanmış bulunmaktadır.
Alev Geciktirici Duman Bastırıcı
Neden Çinko Borat?
Alev geciktirici olarak ; Çinko Borat, alüminyum trihidrat (ATH), magnezyum hidroksit, antimon bileşikleri, bromin, klorür ve fosfat bileşikleri kullanılmaktadır.
Ancak antimon trioksit ve antimon trioksit karışımlarının, yanma esnasında zehirli duman açığa çıkarmaları sebebiyle bazı ülkelerde kullanımları yasaklanmış olup alev geciktiricilerin kombine olarak kullanılması alternatif çözüm olarak sunulmuştur. ALEV GECİKTİRİCİ ve DUMAN BASTIRICI özelliğinden dolayı ÇİNKO BORAT, ATH ile bağlantılı olarak artan şekilde kullanılmaya başlanmıştır.
Çünkü bu iki madde halojen olmayan bir formülasyonda olup yanma koşullarında daha az duman ve zehirli madde çıkmasını sağlamaktadır. Bunun yanında çinko borat, çinko borat-antimon trioksit kombinasyonu ile veya tek başına da kullanılabilmektedir.
ATH (Alüminyum trihidrat) / Alev Geciktirici Dolgu

Polyester reçineler ve jelkotlar için alev geciktirici ve kendi kendine sönme özelliği sağlayan beyaz renkli dolgu malzemesidir. Alev yayılmasını ve duman oluşumunu azaltmak için, yüksek ısılarda bünyesindeki su moleküllerini ortaya çıkarmaktadır. ATH, CTP boru uygulamalarında, akrilik uygulamalarda ve diğer bir çok kompozit uygulmalarında kullanılmaktadır.

Acar Kimya A.Ş. © 2015 Tüm Hakları Saklıdır.